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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Slicker, Julie Sables-Baus, Sharon Lambert, Linda M. Peterson, Laura E. Woodard, Frances K. and Ocampo, Elena C. 2016. Perioperative Feeding Approaches in Single Ventricle Infants: A Survey of 46 Centers. Congenital Heart Disease,

    Patel, Mehul D. Uzark, Karen Yu, Sunkyung Donohue, Janet Pasquali, Sara K. Schidlow, David Brown, David W. and Gelehrter, Sarah 2015. Site of interstage outpatient care and growth after the Norwood operation. Cardiology in the Young, Vol. 25, Issue. 07, p. 1340.

    Lambert, Linda M. Pike, Nancy A. Medoff-Cooper, Barbara Zak, Victor Pemberton, Victoria L. Young-Borkowski, Lisa Clabby, Martha L. Nelson, Kathryn N. Ohye, Richard G. Trainor, Bethany Uzark, Karen Rudd, Nancy Bannister, Louise Korsin, Rosalind Cooper, David S. Pizarro, Christian Zyblewski, Sinai C. Bartle, Bronwyn H. and Williams, Richard V. 2014. Variation in Feeding Practices following the Norwood Procedure. The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 164, Issue. 2, p. 237.


Interstage feeding and weight gain in infants following the Norwood operation: can we change the outcome?

  • Karen Uzark (a1), Yu Wang (a2), Nancy Rudd (a3), E. Marsha Elixson (a4), Jennifer Strawn (a5), Jo Ann Nieves (a6), Cathy Smith (a7), Sandra Staveski (a8), Patricia O'Brien (a9), Elizabeth Tong (a10) and Richard Ittenbach (a11)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 24 January 2012

Poor weight gain is common in infants after Stage I Norwood operation and can negatively impact outcomes.


The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of feeding strategy on interstage weight gain.


In a multi-centre study, 158 infants discharged following the Norwood operation were enrolled prospectively. Weight and feeding data were obtained at 2-week intervals. Differences between feeding regimens in average daily weight gain and change in weight-for-age z-score between Stage I discharge and Stage II surgery were examined.


Discharge feeding regimens were oral only in 52%, oral with tube supplementation in 33%, and by nasogastric/gastrostomy tube only in 15%. There were significant differences in the average daily interstage weight gain among the feeding groups – oral only 25.0 grams per day, oral/tube 21.4 grams per day, and tube only 22.3 grams per day – p = 0.019. Tube-only-fed infants were significantly older at Stage II (p = 0.004) and had a significantly greater change in weight-for-age z-score (p = 0.007). The overall rate of weight gain was 16–32 grams per day, similar to infant norms. The rate of weight gain declined over time, with earlier decline observed for oral- and oral/tube-fed infants (less than 15 grams per day at 5.4 months) in comparison with tube-only-fed infants (less than 15 grams per day at 8.6 months).


Following Stage I Norwood, infants discharged on oral feeding had better average daily weight gain than infants with tube-assisted feeding. The overall weight gain was within the normal limits in all feeding groups, but the rate of weight gain decreased over time, with an earlier decline in infants fed orally.

Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Dr K. Uzark, PhD, CPNP, University of Michigan Mott Children's Hospital, L1242 Women's, SPC 5204, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5204, United States of America. Tel: +1 734 615 9748; Fax: +1 734 232 3744; E-mail:
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Cardiology in the Young
  • ISSN: 1047-9511
  • EISSN: 1467-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/cardiology-in-the-young
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