Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-md2j5 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-11T11:40:02.278Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Use of Simulated Patients in Disaster Medicine Training: A Systematic Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 January 2020

Pier Luigi Ingrassia*
Affiliation:
Universita degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro, SIMNOVA – Centro di Simulazione in Medicina e Professioni Sanitarie, Novara, Italy
Luca Pigozzi
Affiliation:
Rainbow for Africa – R4A, Medical Development at Emergency Department, CTO Hospital, Torino, Italy
Mattia Bono
Affiliation:
Azienda USL della Valle d’Aosta, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit Department, Aosta, Italy
Luca Ragazzoni
Affiliation:
Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Department of Translational Medicine, Novara, Italy
Francesco Della Corte
Affiliation:
CRIMEDIM Research Center in Disaster and Emergency, Medicine, Tranlational Medicine, Novara, Italy
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Didattica Innovativa e di Simulazione in Medicina e Professioni Sanitarie, SIMNOVA, University of Piemonte Orientale, Via Lanino 1, Novara, Italy (e-mail: pierluigi.ingrassia@med.uniupo.it).

Abstract

Simulation is an effective teaching tool in disaster medicine education, and the use of simulated patients (SPs) is a frequently adopted technique. Throughout this article, we critically analyzed the use and the preparation of SPs in the context of simulation in disaster medicine. A systematic review of English, French, and Italian language articles was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies were included if reporting the use of SPs in disaster medicine training. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, theses, articles not dealing with disaster medicine, and articles not using human actors in simulation. Eighteen papers were examined. All the studies were conducted in Western countries. Case reports represent 50% of references. Only in 44.4% of articles, the beneficiaries of simulations were students, while in most of cases were professionals. In 61.1% of studies SPs were moulaged, and in 72.2%, a method to simulate victim symptoms was adopted. Ten papers included a previous training for SPs and their involvement in the participants’ assessment at the end of the simulation. Finally, this systematic review revealed that there is still a lack of uniformity about the use of SPs in the disaster medicine simulations.

Type
Systematic Review
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Murray, V. Disaster risk reduction, health, and the post-2015 United Nations landmark agreements. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2014;8:283-287.Google ScholarPubMed
Archer, F, Seynaeve, G. International guidelines and standards for education and training to reduce the consequences of events that may threaten the health status of a community. A report of an Open International WADEM Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, 29-31 October, 2004. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22:120-130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mould, J, White, H, Gallagher, R. Evaluation of a critical care simulation series for undergraduate nursing students. Contemp Nurse. 2011;38:180-190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallace, J, Rao, R, Haslam, R. Simulated patients and objective structured clinical examinations: review of their use in medical education. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2002;8:342-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberati, A, Altman, DG, Tetzlaff, J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62:e1-e34.Google ScholarPubMed
Wallace, D, Gillet, B, Wright, B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of high fidelity patient simulators compared to actor patients in a pandemic influenza drill scenario. Resuscitation. 2010;81:872-876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triola, M, Fieldman, H, Kalet, AL, et al. A randomized trial of teaching clinical skills using virtual and live standardized patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:424-429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leiba, A, Goldberg, A, Hourvitz, A, et al. Lessons learned from clinical Anthrax drills: evaluation of knowledge and preparedness for a bioterrorist threat in Israeli emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48:194-199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leiba, A, Goldberg, A, Hourvitz, A, et al. Who should worry from the “worry well”? Analysis of mild casualties center drills in non-conventional scenarios. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21:441-444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claudius, I, Kaji, AH, Santillanes, G, et al. Accuracy, efficiency, and inappropriate actions using JumpSTART triage in MCI simulations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30:457-460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shultz, C, Skrzypezak, M, Raith, S, et al. High-fidelity human patient simulators compared with human actors in an unannounced mass-casualty exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29:176-182.Google Scholar
Gillet, B, Pecker, B, Sinert, R, et al. Simulation in a disaster drill: comparison of high-fidelity simulators versus trained actors. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:1144-1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zinan, N, Puia, D, Kinsley, T, et al. Results of a mass casualty incident simulation in an undergraduate nursing program. J Nurs Educ Pract. 2015;12:71-78.Google Scholar
Scott, LA, Swartzentruber, DA, Davis, CA, et al. Competency in chaos: lifesaving performance of care providers utilizing a competency-based, multi-actor emergency preparedness training curriculum. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28:322-333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alfred, D, Chilton, J, Connor, D, et al. Preparing for disasters: education and management strategies explored. Nurse Educ Pract. 2015;15:82-89.Google ScholarPubMed
Ingrassia, PL, Colombo, D, Barra, FL, et al. Impact of training in medical disaster management: a pilot study using a new tool for live simulation. Emergencias. 2013;25:459-466.Google Scholar
Ingrassia, PL, Ragazzoni, L, Carenzo, L, et al. Virtual reality and live simulation: a comparison between two simulation tools for assessing mass casualty triage skills. Eur J Emerg Med. 2015;22:121-127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingrassia, PL, Prato, F, Calligaro, S, et al. Evaluation of medical management during a mass casualty incident exercise: an objective assessment tool to enhance direct observation. J Emerg Med. 2008;39:629-636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andreatta, BP, Maslowski, E, Petty, S, et al. Virtual reality triage training provides a viable solution for disaster-preparedness. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:870-876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andreatta, BP, Klotz, JJ, Madsen, JM, et al. Outcomes from two forms of training for first-responder competency in cholinergic crisis management. Mil Med. 2015;180:468-474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicero, MX, Brown, L, Overly, F, et al. Creation and Delphi-method refinement of pediatric disaster triage simulations. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2014;18:282-289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, CW, McLeod, SL, Van Aarsen, K, et al. First responder accuracy using SALT during mass-casualty incident simulation. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31:150-154.Google ScholarPubMed
Cicero, MX, Whitfill, T, Overly, F, et al. Pediatric disaster triage: multiple simulation curriculum improves prehospital care providers’ assessment skills. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2017;21:201-208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Djalali, A, Ingrassia, PL, Corte, FD, et al. Identifying deficiencies in national and foreign medical team responses through expert opinion surveys: implications for education and training. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;19:1-5.Google Scholar
Churchouse, C, McCafferty, C. Standardized patients versus simulated patients: is there a difference? Clin Simul Nurs. 2012;8:363-365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar