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  • David Harris (a1), David I. Harvey (a2), Stephen J. Leybourne (a2) and Nikolaos D. Sakkas (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2009

In this note we derive the local asymptotic power function of the standardized averaged Dickey–Fuller panel unit root statistic of Im, Pesaran, and Shin (2003, Journal of Econometrics, 115, 53–74), allowing for heterogeneous deterministic intercept terms. We consider the situation where the deviation of the initial observation from the underlying intercept term in each individual time series may not be asymptotically negligible. We find that power decreases monotonically as the magnitude of the initial conditions increases, in direct contrast to what is usually observed in the univariate case. Finite-sample simulations confirm the relevance of this result for practical applications, demonstrating that the power of the test can be very low for values of T and N typically encountered in practice.

Corresponding author
*Address correspondence to Stephen J. Leybourne, School of Economics, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom; e-mail:
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J. Breitung & M.H. Pesaran (2008) Unit roots and cointegration in panels. In L. Mátyás & P. Sevestre (eds.), The Econometrics of Panel Data, 3rd ed., pp. 279322. Springer.

G.B.A. Evans & N.E. Savin (1981) Testing for unit roots: part 1. Econometrica 49, 753779.

D.I. Harvey & S.J. Leybourne (2005) On testing for unit roots and the initial observation. Econometrics Journal 8, 97111.

K.S. Im , M.H. Pesaran , & Y. Shin (2003) Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. Journal of Econometrics 115, 5374.

H.R. Moon , B. Perron , & P.C.B. Phillips (2007) Incidental trends and the power of panel unit root tests. Journal of Econometrics 141, 416459.

U.K. Müller & G. Elliott (2003) Tests for unit roots and the initial condition. Econometrica 71, 12691286.

P.C.B Phillips . (1987) Towards a unified asymptotic theory for autoregression. Biometrika 74, 535547.

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Econometric Theory
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