Anderson, LO, Aragão, LEOC, Gloor, M, Arai, E, Adami, M, Saatchi, SS, et al. (2015) Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29: 1739–1753.
Alencar, AA, Brando, PM, Asner, GP, Putz, FE (2015) Landscape fragmentation, severe drought, and the new Amazon forest fire regime. Ecological Applications 25: 1493–1505.
Alvares, CA, Stape, JL, Sentelhas, PC, De Moraes Gonçalves, JL, Sparovek, G (2013) Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 22: 711–728.
Aragão, LEOC, Poulter, B, Barlow, JB, Anderson, LO, Malhi, Y, Saatchi, S, et al. (2014) Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests. Biological Reviews 89: 913–931.
Aragão, LEOC, Anderson, LO, Fonseca, MG, Rosan, TM, Vedovato, LB, Wagner, FH, et al. (2018) 21st century drought-related fires counteract the decline of Amazon deforestation carbon emissions. Nature Communications 9: 536.
Brando, PM, Balch, JK, Nepstad, DC, Morton, DC, Putz, FE, Coe, MT, et al. (2014) Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought-fire interactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111: 6347–6352.
Brienen, RJW, Phillips, OL, Feldpausch, TR, Gloor, E, Baker, TR, Lloyd, J, et al. (2015) Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature 519: 344–348.
Campbell, JE, Berry, JA, Seibt, U, Smith, SJ, Montzka, SA, Launois, T, et al. (2017) Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production. Nature 544: 84–87.
Chave, J, RéjouMéchain, M, Búrquez, A, Chidumayo, E, Colgan, MS, Delitti, WB, et al. (2014) Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Global Change Biology 20: 3177–3190.
Chen, Y, Morton, DC, Jin, Y, Collatz, GJ, Kasibhatla, PS, van der Werf, GR, et al. (2013) Long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires in South America. Carbon Management 4: 617–638.
Chen, Y, Morton, DC, Andela, N, Giglio, L, Randerson, JT (2016) How much global burned area can be forecast on seasonal time scales using sea surface temperatures? Environmental Research Letters 11: 45001.
Da Silva, APG, Mews, HA, Marimon-Junior, BH, de Oliveira, EA, Morandi, PS, Oliveras, I, Marimon, BS (2018) Recurrent wildfires drive rapid taxonomic homogenization of seasonally flooded Neotropical forests. Environmental Conservation 45: 378–386.
Davidson, EA, de Araújo, AC, Artaxo, P, Balch, JK, Brown, IF, Bustamante, MMC, et al. (2012) The Amazon basin in transition. Nature 481: 321–328.
de Almeida, DRA, Nelson, BW, Schietti, J, Gorgens, EB, Resende, AF, Stark, SC,Valbuena, R (2016) Contrasting fire damage and fire susceptibility between seasonally flooded forest and upland forest in the Central Amazon using portable profiling LiDAR. Remote Sensing of Environment 184: 153–160.
de Faria, BL, Brando, PM, Macedo, MN, Panday, PK, Soares-Filho, SB, Coe, MT (2017) Current and future patterns of fire-induced forest degradation in Amazonia. Environmental Research Letters 12: 095005.
de Resende, AF, Nelson, BW, Flores, BM, de Almeida, DR (2014) Fire damage in seasonally flooded and upland forests of the Central Amazon. Biotropica 46: 643–646.
Dionizio, EA, Heil Costa, M, de Almeida Castanho, AD, Ferreira Pires, G, Schwantes Marimon, B, Hur Marimon-Junior, B, et al. (2018) Influence of climate variability, fire and phosphorus limitation on vegetation structure and dynamics of the Amazon–Cerrado border. Biogeosciences 15: 919–936.
Doughty, CE, Metcalfe, DB, Girardin, CAJ, Amézquita, FF, Cabrera, DG, Huasco, WH, et al. (2015) Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia. Nature 519: 78–82.
Esquivel-Muelbert, A, Baker, TR, Dexter, KG, Lewis, SL, ter Steege, H, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, et al. (2017) Seasonal drought limits tree species across the Neotropics. Ecography 40: 618–629.
Feldpausch, TR, Banin, L, Phillips, OL, Baker, TR, Lewis, SL, Quesada, CA, et al. (2011) Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees. Biogeosciences 8: 1081–1106.
Feldpausch, TR, Lloyd, J, Lewis, SL, Brienen, RJW, Gloor, M, Monteagudo Mendoza, A, et al. (2012) Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates. Biogeosciences 9: 3381–3403.
Feldpausch, TR, Phillips, OL, Brienen, RJW, Gloor, E, Lloyd, J, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, et al. (2016) Amazon forest response to repeated droughts. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30: 964–982.
Flores, BM, Holmgren, M, Xu, C, van Nes, EH, Jakovac, CC, Mesquita, RCG,Scheffer, M (2017) Floodplains as an Achilles’ heel of Amazonian forest resilience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 4442–4446.
Gardner, TA, Barlow, J, Chazdon, R, Ewers, RM, Harvey, CA, Peres, CA, Sodhi, NS (2009) Prospects for tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Ecology Letters 12: 561–582.
Gatti, LV, Gloor, M, Miller, JB, Doughty, CE, Malhi, Y, Domingues, LG, et al. (2014) Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements. Nature 506: 76–80.
Hirota, M, Nobre, C, Oyama, MD, Bustamante, MM (2010) The climatic sensitivity of the forest, savanna and forest–savanna transition in tropical South America. New Phytologist 187: 707–719.
Huntingford, C, Zelazowski, P, Galbraith, D, Mercado, LM, Sitch, S, Fisher, R, et al. (2013) Simulated resilience of tropical rainforests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature Geoscience 6: 268–273.
Jiménez-Muñoz, JC, Mattar, C, Barichivich, J, Santamaría-Artigas, A, Takahashi, K, Malhi, Y, et al. (2016) Record-breaking warming and extreme drought in the Amazon rainforest during the course of El Niño 2015–2016. Scientific Reports 6: 33130.
Johnson, MO, Galbraith, D, Gloor, M, De Deurwaerder, H, Guimberteau, M, Rammig, A, et al. (2016) Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 22: 3996–4013.
Laurance, WF, Laurance, SG, Ferreira, LV, Rankin-deMerona, JM, Gascon, C, Lovejoy, TE (1997) Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments. Science 278: 1117–1118.
Levine, NM, Zhang, K, Longo, M, Baccini, A, Phillips, OL, Lewis, SL, et al. (2016) Ecosystem heterogeneity determines the ecological resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113: 793–797.
Lewis, SL, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Sonké, B, Affum-Baffoe, K, Baker, TR, Ojo, LO, et al. (2009) Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests. Nature 457: 1003–1006.
Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Burkitt, M, Lewis, S, Phillips, O (2012) ForestPlots.net – managing permanent plot information across the tropics. Biodiversity and Ecology 4: 95–103.
Malhi, Y, Wood, D, Baker, TR, Wright, J, Phillips, OL, Cochrane, T, et al. (2006) The regional variation of aboveground live biomass in old-growth Amazonian forests. Global Change Biology 12: 1107–1138.
Maracahipes, L, Marimon, BS, Lenza, E, Marimon-Junior, BH, De Oliveira, EA, Mews, HA, et al. (2014) Post-fire dynamics of woody vegetation in seasonally flooded forests (impucas) in the Cerrado–Amazonian Forest transition zone. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 209: 260–270.
Marimon, BS, Lima EdeS, Duarte, TG, Chieregatto, LC, Ratter, JA (2006) Observations on the vegetation of northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. IV. An analysis of the Cerrado–Amazonian forest ecotone. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 63: 323–341.
Marimon, BS, Marimon-Junior, BH, Feldpausch, TR, Oliveira-Santos, C, Mews, HA, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, et al. (2014) Disequilibrium and hyperdynamic tree turnover at the forest–cerrado transition zone in southern Amazonia. Plant Ecology and Diversity 7: 281–292.
Morandi, PS, Marimon, BS, Eisenlohr, PV, Marimon-Junior, BH, Oliveira-Santos, C, Feldpausch, TR, et al. (2016) Patterns of tree species composition at watershed-scale in the Amazon ‘arc of deforestation’: implications for conservation. Environmental Conservation 43: 317–326.
Myers, N, Mittermeier, RA, Mittermeier, CG, da Fonseca, GAB, Kent, J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.
Nepstad, DC, Stickler, CM, Soares-Filho, B, Merry, F, Alencar, A, Nepstad, D, et al. (2008) Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363: 1737–1746.
Nobre, CA, Sampaio, G, Borma, LS, Castilla-Rubio, JC, Silva, JS, Cardoso, M (2016) Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113: 10759–10768.
Pan, Y, Birdsey, RA, Fang, J, Houghton, R, Kauppi, PE, Kurz, WA, et al. (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333: 988–993.
Peel, MC, Finlayson, BL, McMahon, TA (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11: 1633–1644.
Phillips, OL, Hall, P, Gentry, AH, Sawyer, SA, Vasquez, R (1994) Dynamics and species richness of tropical rain forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91: 2805–2809.
Phillips, O, Malhi, Y, Higuchi, N, Laurance, W, Nunez, P, Vasquez, R, et al. (1998) Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science 282: 439–442.
Phillips, OL, Aragao, LEOC, Lewis, SL, Fisher, JB, Lloyd, J, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, et al. (2009) Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323: 1344–1347.
Phillips, OL, Brienen, RJW (2017) Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations’ carbon emissions. Carbon Balance and Management 12: 1.
Qie, L, Lewis, SL, Sullivan, MJ, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Pickavance, GC, Sunderland, T, et al. (2017) Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects. Nature Communications 8: 1966.
R Core Team (2017) R: a language for and environment for statistical computing, version 3.4.0 [www document]. URL http://www.r-project.org
Rappaport, DI, Morton, DC, Longo, M, Keller, M, Dubayah, R, dos-Santos, MN (2018) Quantifying long-term changes in carbon stocks and forest structure from Amazon forest degradation. Environmental Research Letters 13: 065013.
Ratter, JA, Richards, PW, Argent, G, Gifford, DR (1973) Observations on vegetation of northeastern Mato Grosso. 1. Woody vegetation types of Xavantina–Cachimbo Expedition Area. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 266: 449–492.
Schöngart, J, Wittmann, F, Junk, WJ, Teresa, M, Piedade, F (2017) Vulnerability of Amazonian floodplains to wildfires differs according to their typologies impeding generalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 8550–8551.
Silvério, DV, Brando, PM, Balch, JK, Putz, FE, Nepstad, DC, Oliveira-Santos, C, Bustamante, MMC (2013) Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 368: 20120427.
Silvério, DV, Brando, PM, Bustamante, MMC, Putz, FE, Marra, DM, Levick, SR, Trumbore, SE (2019) Fire, fragmentation, and windstorms: a recipe for tropical forest degradation. Journal of Ecology 107: 656–667.
Stephens, BB, Gurney, KR, Tans, PP, Sweeney, C, Peters, W, Bruhwiler, L, et al. (2007) Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2. Science 316: 1732–1735.
Sullivan, MJ, Talbot, J, Lewis, SL, Phillips, OL, Qie, L, Begne, SK, et al. (2017) Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome. Scientific Reports 6: 39102.
Talbot, J, Lewis, SL, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Brienen, RJW, Monteagudo, A, Baker, TR, et al. (2014) Methods to estimate aboveground wood productivity from long-term forest inventory plots. Forest Ecology and Management 320: 30–38.
Tollefson, J (2016) Amazon set for record fire season. Nature 535: 18–19.
Veenendaal, EM, Torello-Raventos, M, Feldpausch, TR, Domingues, TF, Gerard, F, Schrodt, F, et al. (2015) Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents – how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations? Biogeosciences 12: 2927–2951.