Skip to main content
×
Home

Island biogeography of insect conservation in urban green spaces

  • SIMONE FATTORINI (a1) (a2), CRISTINA MANTONI (a3), LIVIA DE SIMONI (a4) and DIANA M.P. GALASSI (a1)
Summary
SUMMARY

Because of their isolation, biotic communities of urban green spaces are expected to be similar to those of oceanic islands. This should be particularly true for insects, which represent an important component of urban faunas. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) allows for the formulation of some hypotheses regarding the influence of the geographical characteristics of green spaces on insect species richness and extinction risk. Based on island biogeography principles, we present eight predictions on how green space characteristics should influence insect species richness and loss. We analysed the current literature in order to determine which predictions were supported and which were not. We found that many studies gave outcomes that support ETIB predictions about the effects of area and isolation of green spaces; we found no strong support for predictions about shape and extent of native habitat in the literature that we reviewed. Most of the available studies dealt with patterns in species richness, whereas insect species loss has been rarely investigated. Future developments in the application of island biogeography principles to urban insect conservation should address temporal trends in species persistence and the analysis of species co-occurrence and nestedness.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Dr Simone Fattorini e-mail: simone.fattorini@univaq.it
References
Hide All
Adler F.R. & Tanner C.J. (2013), Urban Ecosystems, Ecological Principles for the Built Environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Alvarenga R.D., De Castro M.M., Santos-Prezoto H.H. & Prezoto F. (2010) Nesting of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in urban gardens in Southeastern Brazil. Sociobiology 55: 445452.
Angold P.G., Sadler J.P., Hill M.O., Pullin A., Rushton S., Austin K., Small E., Wood B., Wadsworth R., Sanderson R. & Thompson K. (2006) Biodiversity in urban habitat patches. Science of the Total Environment 360: 196204.
Andrén H. (1994) Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71: 355366.
Baz A. & Monserrat V.J. (1999) Distribution of domestic Psocoptera in Madrid apartments. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 13: 259264.
Blair R.B. & Launer A.E. (1997) Butterfly diversity and human land use: species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological Conservation 80: 113125.
Bode R.F. & Maciejewski A. (2014) Herbivore biodiversity varies with patch size in an urban archipelago. International Journal of Insect Science 6: 4955.
Bolger D.T., Suarez A.V., Crooks K.R., Morrison S.A. & Case T.J. (2000) Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age and edge effects. Ecological Applications 10: 12301248.
Bräuniger C., Knapp S., Kuhn I. & Klotz S. (2010) Testing taxonomic and landscape surrogates for biodiversity in an urban setting. Landscape and Urban Planning 97: 283295.
Breuste J., Haase D. & Elmqvist T. (2013) Urban landscapes and ecosystem services. In: Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes, eds. Wratten S., Sandhu H., Cullen R. & Costanza R., pp. 83104. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Burns K.C. & Neufeld C.J. (2009) Plant extinction dynamics in an insular metacommunity. Oikos 118: 191198.
Clarke K.M., Fisher B.L. & LeBuhn G. (2008) The influence of urban park characteristics on ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) communities. Urban Ecosystems 11: 317334.
Clark A.T., Rykken J.J. & Farrell B.D. (2011) The effects of biogeography on ant diversity and activity on the Boston harbor islands, Massachusetts, USA. PLoS One 6: e28045.
Cox C.B. & Moore P.D. (2010) Biogeography. An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. Eighth edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Davis B.N.K. (1979) The ground arthropods of London gardens. London Naturalist 58: 1524.
Davies K.F., Gascon C. & Margules C.R. (2001) Habitat fragmentation: consequences, management, and future research priorities. In: Conservation Biology. Research Priorities for the Next Decade, eds. Soulé M.E. & Orians G.H., pp. 8197. Washington, DC: Society for Conservation Biology, Island Press.
Davies K.F. & Margules C.R. (1998) Effects of habitat fragmentation on carabid beetles: experimental evidence. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 460471.
Dennis R.L.H. (2010) A Resource-based Habitat View for Conservation. Butterflies in the British Landscape. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Diamond J.M. (1975) The island dilemma: lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves. Biological Conservation 7: 129145.
Dias P.C. (1996) Sources and sinks in population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 326330.
Donnelly R. & Marzluff J.M. (2004) Importance of reserve size and landscape context to urban bird conservation. Conservation Biology 18: 733745.
Faeth S.H. & Kane T.C. (1978) Urban biogeography: city parks as islands for Diptera and Coleoptera. Oecologia 32: 127133.
Fahrig L. (1997) Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 603610.
Fattorini S. (2010) The use of cumulative area curves in biological conservation: a cautionary note. Acta Oecologica 36: 255258.
Fattorini S. (2011a) Insect extinction by urbanization: a long term study in Rome. Biological Conservation 144: 370375.
Fattorini S. (2011b) Insect rarity, extinction and conservation in urban Rome (Italy): a 120-year-long study of tenebrionid beetles. Insect Conservation and Diversity 4: 307315.
Fattorini S. (2013) Species ecological preferences predict extinction risk in urban tenebrionid beetle guilds. Animal Biology 63: 93106.
Fattorini S. (2014a) Island biogeography of urban insects: tenebrionid beetles from Rome tell a different story. Journal of Insect Conservation 18: 729735.
Fattorini S. (2014b) Urban biodiversity hotspots are not related to the structure of green spaces: a case study of tenebrionid beetles from Rome, Italy. Urban Ecosystems 17: 10331045.
Fattorini S. (2016) Insects and the city: what island biogeography tells us about insect conservation in urban areas. Web Ecology 16: 4145.
Fattorini S., Dapporto L., Strona G., & Borges P.A.V. (2015) Calling for a new strategy to measure environmental (habitat) diversity in island biogeography: a case study of Mediterranean tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Fragmenta Entomologica 47: 114.
Fetridge E.D., Ascher J.S. & Langellotto G.A. (2008) The bee fauna of residential gardens in a suburb of New York City (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 10671077.
Fortel L., Henry M., Guilbaud L., Guirao A.L., Kuhlmann M., Mouret H., Rollin O. & Vaissière B. E. (2014) Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an urbanization gradient. PLoS One 9: e104679.
Fujita A., Maetro K., Kagawa Y. & Ito N. (2008) Effects of forest fragmentation on species richness and composition of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Brachinidae) in urban landscapes. Entomological Science 11: 3948.
Gaublomme E., Hendrickx F., Dhuyvetter H. & Desender K. (2008) The effects of forest patch size and matrix type on changes in carabid beetle assemblages in an urbanized landscape. Biological Conservation 141: 25852596.
Gibb H. & Hochuli D.F. (2002) Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. Biological Conservation 106: 91100.
Giuliano W.M., Accamando A.K. & Mcadams E.J. (2004) Lepidoptera–habitat relationships in urban parks. Urban Ecosystems 7: 361370.
Gosselin F. (1996) Extinction in a simple source/sink system: application of new mathematical results. Acta Oecologica 17: 563584.
Hamerlik L. & Brodersen K.P. (2010) Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) from fountains of two European cities: micro-scale island biogeography. Aquatic Insects 32: 6779.
Hardy P.B. & Dennis R.L.H. (1999) The impact of urban development on butterflies within a city region. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 12611279.
Heneghan L., Mulvaney C., Ross K., Umek L., Watkins C., Westphal L.M. & Wise D.H. (2012) Lessons learned from Chicago wilderness – implementing and sustaining conservation management in an urban setting. Diversity 4: 7493.
Hogsden K.L. & Hutchinson T.C. (2004) Butterfly assemblages along a human disturbance gradient in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 739748.
Hunter M.C.R. & Hunter M.D. (2008) Designing for conservation of insects in the built environment. Insect Conservation and Diversity 1: 189196.
Jones E.L. & Leather S.R. (2012) Invertebrates in urban areas: a review. European Journal of Entomology 109: 463478.
Knapp S., Kuhn I., Mosbrugger V. & Klotz S. (2008) Do protected areas in urban and rural landscapes differ in species diversity? Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 15951612.
Koh L.P. & Sodhi N.S. (2004) Importance of reserves, fragments, and parks for butterfly conservation in a tropical urban landscape. Ecological Applications 14: 16751708.
Koivula M.J. & Vermeulen H.J.W. (2005) Highways and forest fragmentation – effects on carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Landscape Ecology 20: 911926.
Kotze D.J., Lehvävirta S., Koivula M., O'Hara R.B. & Spence J.R. (2012) Effects of habitat edges and trampling on the distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests. Journal of Insect Conservation 16: 883897.
Leather S.R. & Helden A.J. (2005) Magic roundabouts? Teaching conservation in schools and universities. Journal of Biological Education 39: 102107.
Lizée M.H., Mane S., Mauffrey J.F., Tatoni T. & Deschamps-Cottin M. (2012) Matrix configuration and patch isolation influences override the species–area relationship for urban butterfly communities. Journal of Landscape Ecology 27: 159169.
Lomolino M.V., Riddle B.R., Whittaker R.J. & Brown J.H. (2010) Biogeography. Fourth Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
MacArthur R.H. & Wilson E.O. (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373387.
MacArthur R.H. & Wilson E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Magura T., Tóthmérész B. & Molnár T. (2001) Forest edge and diversity: carabids along forest–grassland transects. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 287300.
Marzluff J.M. (2005) Island biogeography for an urbanizing world: how extinction and colonization may determine biological diversity in human-dominated landscapes. Urban Ecosystems 8: 157177.
Matteson K.C., Ascher J.S., & Langellotto G.A. (2008) Bee richness and abundance in New York City urban gardens. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 140150.
Matteson K.C. & Langellotto G.A. (2010) Determinates of inner city butterfly and bee species richness. Urban Ecosystems 13: 333347.
McDonald R.I., Marcotullio P.J. & Güneralp B. (2013) Urbanization and global trends in bodiversity and ecosystem services. In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities, eds. Elmqvist T., Fragkias M., Goodness J., Güneralp B., Marcotullio P.J., McDonald R.I., Parnell S., Schewenius M., Sendstad M., Seto K.C., & Wilkinson C., pp. 3152. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
McDonnell M.J. & Hahs A.K. (2013) The future of urban biodiversity research: moving beyond the ‘low-hanging fruit’. Urban Ecosystems 16: 397409.
McFrederick Q.S. & LeBuhn G. (2006) Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biological Conservation 129: 372382.
McIntyre N.E. (2000) Ecology of urban arthropods: a review and a call to action. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 825835.
McKinney M.L. (2008) Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosystems 11: 161176.
Morrison L.W. (2010) Long-term non-equilibrium dynamics of insular floras: a 17-year record. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 663672.
New T. (2015) Insect Conservation and Urban Environments. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Nielsen A.B., van den Bosch M., Maruthaveeran S. & van den Bosch K.C., (2014) Species richness in urban parks and its drivers: a review of empirical evidence. Urban Ecosystems 17: 305327.
Öckinger E., Dannestam A. & Smith H.G. (2009) The importance of fragmentation and habitat quality of urban grasslands for butterfly diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 93: 3137.
Pacheco R. & Vasconcelos H.L. (2007) Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: ants in the Brazilian Cerrado. Landscape and Urban Planning 81: 193199.
Pullin A.S. & Stewart G.B. (2006) Guidelines for systematic review in conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology 20: 16471656.
Rey J.R. (1981) Ecological biogeography of arthropods on Spartina Islands in northwest Florida. Ecological Monographs 51: 237265.
Robinson G.R., Yurlina M.E., & Handel S.N. (1994) A century of change in the Staten Island flora: ecological correlates of species losses and invasions. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 121: 119129.
Saarinen K., Valtonen A., Jantunen J. & Saarnio S. (2005) Butterflies and diurnal moths along road verges: does road type affect diversity and abundance? Biological Conservation 123: 403412.
Sadler J.P., Small E.C., Fiszpan H., Telfer M.G. & Niemelä J. (2006) Investigating environmental variation and landscape characteristics of an urban–rural gradient using woodland carabid assemblages. Journal of Biogeography 33: 11261138.
Sattler T., Obristb M.K., Duellib P. & Moretti M. (2011) Urban arthropod communities: added value or just a blend of surrounding biodiversity? Landscape and Urban Planning 103: 347361.
Schiller A. & Horn S.P. (1997) Wildlife conservation in urban greenways of the mid-southeastern United States. Urban Ecosystems 1: 103116.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2012) Cities and Biodiversity Outlook. A Global Assessment of the Links between Action and Policy: Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services. Montreal, QC: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Shwartz A., Muratet A., Simon L. & Julliard R. (2013). Local and management variables outweigh landscape effects in enhancing the diversity of different taxa in a big metropolis. Biological Conservation 157: 285292.
Sisk T.D., Haddad N.M. & Ehrlich P.R. (1997) Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitat. Ecological Applications 7: 11701180.
Smith J., Chapman A. & Eggleton P. (2006) Baseline biodiversity surveys of the soil macrofauna of London's green spaces. Urban Ecosystems 9: 337349.
Soga M., Kanno N., Yamaura Y. & Koike S. (2013) Patch size determines the strength of edge effects on carabid beetle assemblages in urban remnant forests. Journal of Insect Conservation 17: 421428.
Strauss B. & Biedermann R. (2006) Urban brownfields as temporary habitats: driving forces for the diversity of phytophagous insects. Ecography 29: 928940.
Su Z., Li X., Zhou W. & Ouyang Z. (2015) Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China. PLoS One 10: e0119276.
Thomas C.D., Baguette M. & Lewis O.T. (2000) Butterfly movement and conservation in patchy landscapes. In: Behaviour and Conservation. Conservation Biology Series 2, eds. Gosling M.L. & Sutherland W.J., pp. 85104. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Triantis K.A. & Bhagwat S.A. (2011) Applied island biogeography. In: Conservation Biogeography, eds. Ladle R.J. & Whittaker R.J., pp. 190223. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
United Nations (2014) World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 revision [www document]. URL http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/
Valtonen A., Saarinen K. & Jantunen J. (2007) Intersection reservations as habitats for meadow butterflies and diurnal moths: guidelines for planning and management. Landscape and Urban Planning 79: 201209.
Weller B. & Ganzhorn J.U. (2004) Carabid beetle community composition, body size, and fluctuating asymmetry along an urban–rural gradient. Basic and Applied Ecology 5: 193201.
Whittaker R.J., Field R. & Partomihardjo T. (2000) How to go extinct: lessons from the lost plants of Krakatau. Journal of Biogeography 27: 10491064.
Wilson E.O. & Simberloff D.S. (1968) Experimental zoogeography of islands: defaunation and monitoring techniques. Ecology 50: 267278.
Wolf J.M. & Gibbs J.P. (2004) Silphids in urban forests: diversity and function. Urban Ecosystems 7: 371384.
Yamaguchi T. (2004) Influence of urbanization on ant distribution in parks of Tokyo and Chiba City, Japan – I. Analysis of ant species richness. Ecological Research 19: 209216.
Yamaura Y., Kawahara T., Lida S. & Ozaki K. (2008) Relative importance of the area and shape of patches to the diversity of multiple taxa. Conservation Biology 22: 15131522.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 93 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 500 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th March 2017 - 12th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.