Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-xbgml Total loading time: 0.414 Render date: 2022-08-17T02:30:47.754Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

RESEARCH ARTICLE: Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Surface Drinking Water Sources in Pennsylvania

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 December 2012

Jessica M. Wilson*
Affiliation:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Jeanne M. VanBriesen
Affiliation:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
*
Jessica M. Wilson, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213; (phone) 412-268-3819; (fax) 412-268-7813; (e-mail) jwilson3@andrew.cmu.edu
Get access

Abstract

Produced water from oil and gas development requires management to avoid negative public health effects, particularly those associated with dissolved solids and bromide in drinking water. Rapidly expanding drilling in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania has significantly increased the volume of produced water that must be managed. Produced water management may include treatment followed by surface water discharge, such as at publically owned wastewater treatment plants (POTWs) or centralized brine treatment plants (CWTs). The use of POTWs and CWTs that discharge partially treated produced water has the potential to increase salt loads to surface waters significantly. These loads may cause unacceptably high concentrations of dissolved solids or bromide in source waters, particularly when rivers are at low-flow conditions. The present study evaluates produced water management in Pennsylvania from 2006 through 2011 to determine whether surface water discharges were sufficient to cause salt or bromide loads that would negatively affect drinking water sources. The increase in produced water that occurred in 2008 in Pennsylvania was accompanied by an increase in use of CWTs and POTWs that were exempt from discharge limits on dissolved solids. Estimates of salt loads associated with produced water and with discharges from CWTs and POTWs in 2008 and 2009 indicate that more than 50% of the total dissolved solids in the produced water generated in those years were released to surface water systems. Especially during the low-flow conditions of 2008 and 2009, these loads would be expected to affect drinking water.

Environmental Practice 14:1–13 (2012)

Type
Features
Copyright
Copyright © National Association of Environmental Professionals 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Blauch, M.E., Myers, R.R., Moore, T.R., and Lipinski, B.A.. 2009. Marcellus Shale Post-Frac Flowback Waters—Where Is All the Salt Coming from and What Are the Implications? Presentation at the Society of Petroleum Engineers Eastern Regional Meeting, September 23–25, Charleston, WV. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Allen, TX, 20 pp.Google Scholar
Bodkin, R., Kern, J., McClellan, P., Butt, A., and Martin, C.. 2007. Limiting Total Dissolved Solids to Protect Aquatic Life. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 62(3):57A61A.Google Scholar
Chang, E.E., Lin, Y.P., and Chiang, P.C.. 2001. Effects of Bromide on the Formation of THMs and HAAs. Chemosphere 43(8):10291034.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clark, C.E., and Veil, J.A.. 2009, September. Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in the United States. ANL/EVS/R-09/1. US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60 pp. Available at http://www.evs.anl.gov/pub/doc/ANL_EVS__R09_produced_water_volume_report_2437.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Clark, J.E., Bonura, D.K., and Voorhees, R.F.. 2006. An Overview of Injection Well History in the United States of America. In Underground Injection: Science and Technology, volume 52, Tsang, C.-F. and Apps, J.A., eds. Developments in Water Science. Elsevier, New York, 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI). 2012. HydroDesktop, version 5.7.2012.18857. CUAHSI Open Source Hydrologic Data Tools. CUAHSI, Washington, DC. http://hydrodesktop.codeplex.com/releases/view/84174 (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Cowman, G.A., and Singer, P.C.. 1996. Effect of Bromide Ion on Haloacetic Acid Speciation Resulting from Chlorination and Chloramination of Aquatic Humic Substances. Environmental Science & Technology 30(1):1624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiCosmo, B. 2012. EPA Weighs Setting Possible First-Time Water Quality Criteria for Bromide. Inside EPA, January 6.Google Scholar
Dresel, P.E., and Rose, A.W.. 2010. Chemistry and Origin of Oil and Gas Well Brines in Western Pennsylvania. Open-File Report OFOG 10-02.0. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Harrisburg, PA, 48 pp. Available at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/pub/openfile/pdfs/ofog10_01.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Flury, M., and Papritz, A.. 1993. Bromide in the Natural Environment: Occurrence and Toxicity. Journal of Environmental Quality 22(4):747758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, J., and Passmore, M.. 2000, November. A Survey of the Condition of Streams in the Primary Region of Mountaintop Mining/Valley Fill Coal Mining. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. US EPA Region 3 Aquatic Biology Group, Wheeling, WV, 160 pp. Available at http://www.epa.gov/region03/mtntop/pdf/appendices/d/streams-invertebrate-study/FINAL.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Harper, J.A. 2008. The Marcellus Shale: An Old “New” Gas Reservoir. Pennsylvania Geology 38(1):213. Available at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/pub/pageolmag/pdfs/v38n1.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Hart, B.T., Bailey, P., Edwards, R., Hortle, K., James, K., McMahon, A., Meredith, C., and Swadling, K.. 1991. A Review of the Salt Sensitivity of the Australian Freshwater Biota. Hydrobiologia 210(1-2):105144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, T. 2009, December 31. Sampling and Analysis of Water Streams Associated with the Development of Marcellus Shale Gas. Final report to the Marcellus Shale Coalition. Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL, 249 pp. Available at http://eidmarcellus.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/MSCommission-Report.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Hellergrossman, L., Manka, J., Limonirelis, B., and Rebhun, M.. 1993. Formation and Distribution of Haloacetic Acids, THM, and TOX in Chlorination of Bromide-Rich Lake Water. Water Research 27(8):13231331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, J. 2010. Natural Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin. Chesapeake Bay Forestry Workgroup. Presentation to the public at Marywood University, Annapolis, MD. Available at http://www.srbc.net/programs/docs/SRBC%20Science%20of%20the%20marcellus%20012910.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Hopey, D. 2008. DEP Seeks Cause of River Pollution. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, October 22. Available at http://old.post-gazette.com/pg/08296/922096-100.stm (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Kaushal, S., Groffman, P.M., Likens, G.E., Belt, K.T., Stack, W.P., Kelly, V.R., Band, L.E., and Fisher, G.T.. 2005. Increased Salinization of Fresh Water in the Northeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102(38):1351713520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krasner, S.W., McGuire, M.J., Jacangelo, J.G., Patania, N.L., Reagan, K.M., and Aieta, E.M.. 1989. The Occurrence of Disinfection By-products in United States Drinking Water. Journal American Water Works Association 81(8):4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mantell, M.E. 2011, March 29–30. Produced Water Reuse and Recycling Challenges and Opportunities across Major Shale Plays. EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Study Technical Workshop 4. Water Resources Management, Chesapeake Energy, Oklahoma City, OK, 49 pp. Available at http://www.epa.gov/hfstudy/09_Mantell_-_Reuse_508.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Miller, P., and Svarczkopf, T.. 2011. Water Reuse Considerations for Marcellus Shale Development. Pittsburgh Engineer, Spring, pp. 18–19. Available at http://www.eswp.com/PDF/Spring%202011%20Pgh%20ENG.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
National Cancer Institute (NCI). 1976, March 1. Report on the Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Chloroform. National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series, NTIS-PB-264-018. NCI, Bethesda, MD, 70 pp. Available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/trchloroform.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Nielsen, D.L., Brock, M.A., Rees, G.N., and Baldwin, D.S.. 2003. Effects of Increasing Salinity on Freshwater Ecosystems in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 51(6):655665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ove, T. 2012. Green County Businessman Sentenced for Dumping Wastewater across Six Counties. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 16. Available at http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/local/washington/green-county-businessman-sentenced-for-dumping-wastewater-across-six-counties-640556/ (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Paterra, P. 2011. DEP Shuts Down Tri-County Waste Water over Illegal Dumping. Pittsburgh Tribune Review, March 22. Available at http://triblive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/regional/s_728516.html#axzz2C57x2vs4 (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2008, January 22. DEP Investigates Source of Elevated Total Dissolved Solids in Monongahela River: Preliminary Investigation Identifies Multiple Sources; DEP to Take Immediate Measures to Reduce. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA. Available at http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/newsroom/14287?id=2024&typeid=1 (accessed September 17, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2010. Chapter 95: Wastewater Treatment Requirements. 25 PA Code 95. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA, 10 pp. Available at http://www.pacode.com/secure/data/025/chapter95/025_0095.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2011, April 19. DEP Calls on Natural Gas Drillers to Stop Giving Treatment Facilities Wastewater: Efforts in Motion to Quickly Stop Drilling Wastewater from Going to Treatment Works ‘Grandfathered’ by the Previous Administration. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA. Available at http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/newsroom/14287?id=17071&typeid=1 (accessed May 1, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2012a. Marcellus Shale. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA. http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/marcellus_shale/20296 (accessed September 17, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2012b. Oil and Gas Reports. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA. http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/oil_and_gas_reports/20297 (accessed May 1, 2012).Google Scholar
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP). 2012c. PA DEP Oil & Gas Reporting Website: Statewide Data Downloads. PA DEP, Harrisburg, PA. https://www.paoilandgasreporting.state.pa.us/publicreports/Modules/DataExports/DataExports.aspx (accessed May 1, 2012).Google Scholar
Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., Richardson, S.D., Thruston, A.D., Woo, Y.T., and McKague, A.B.. 2004. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Newly Discovered Iodoacid Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 38(18):47134722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, S.D., Fasano, F., Ellington, J.J., Crumley, F.G., Buettner, K.M., Evans, J.J., Blount, B.C., Silva, L.K., Waite, T.J., Luther, G.W., McKague, A.B., Miltner, R.J., Wagner, E.D., and Plewa, M.J.. 2008. Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water. Environmental Science & Technology 42(22):83308338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, S.D., Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., Schoeny, R., and DeMarini, D.M.. 2007. Occurrence, Genotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity of Regulated and Emerging Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water: A Review and Roadmap for Research. Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research 636(1-3):178242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, S.D., Thruston, A.D., Rav-Acha, C., Groisman, L., Popilevsky, I., Juraev, O., Glezer, V., McKague, A.B., Plewa, M.J., and Wagner, E.D.. 2003. Tribromopyrrole, Brominated Acids, and Other Disinfection Byproducts Produced by Disinfection of Drinking Water Rich in Bromide. Environmental Science & Technology 37(17):37823793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
States, S., Cyprych, G., Stoner, M., Wydra, F., Casson, L., and Monnell, J.. 2011. Bromide in the Allegheny River and THMs in Pittsburgh Drinking Water: A Link with Marcellus Shale Drilling. Presentation at the American Water Works Association–Water Technology Conference, November 13–17, Phoenix, AZ.Google Scholar
Tarr, J.A. 2009. There Will Be Gas: A Look at Western Pennsylvania's Other Natural Gas Drilling Booms (and Busts) [The Next Page]. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, August 2. Available at http://old.post-gazette.com/pg/09214/987834-109.stm (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 2009. Drinking Water Contaminants. US EPA, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html (accessed June 23, 2012).Google Scholar
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 2012a. Key Documents about Mid-Atlantic Oil and Gas Extraction: Correspondence between PADEP and Wastewater Treatment Facilities. US EPA, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/region03/marcellus_shale/ (accessed March 15, 2012).Google Scholar
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 2012b. Key Documents about Mid-Atlantic Oil and Gas Extraction: Voluntary Sampling Data from Oil and Gas Wastewater Facilities. US EPA, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/region03/marcellus_shale/ (accessed March 15, 2012).Google Scholar
US Geological Survey (USGS) 03049500. 2012. Natrona, PAhttp://waterdata.usgs.gov/pa/nwis/uv/?site_no=03049500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00010 (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
World Health Organization (WHO). 2009. Bromide in Drinking-Water: Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 14 pp. Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/Fourth_Edition_Bromide_Final_January_2010.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar
Wozniak, M. 2011. Investigation of Total Dissolved Solids Regulation in the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province: A Case Study from Pennsylvania and Recommendations for the Future (unpublished Master's of Environmental Assessment thesis). North Carolina State University, Raleigh. NC, 24 pp. 24 pp. Available at http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/dr/bitstream/1840.4/4175/1/Wozniak,+Mark+project.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012).Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

RESEARCH ARTICLE: Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Surface Drinking Water Sources in Pennsylvania
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

RESEARCH ARTICLE: Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Surface Drinking Water Sources in Pennsylvania
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

RESEARCH ARTICLE: Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Surface Drinking Water Sources in Pennsylvania
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *