Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Risk factors for sporadic domestically acquired Salmonella serovar Enteritidis infections: a case-control study in Ontario, Canada, 2011

  • D. MIDDLETON (a1) (a2), R. SAVAGE (a1), M. K. TIGHE (a1), L. VRBOVA (a1) (a3) (a4), R. WALTON (a1) (a2) (a3), Y. WHITFIELD (a1) (a5), C. VARGA (a6) (a7), B. LEE (a1) (a5), L. ROSELLA (a1) (a2), B. DHAR (a1), C. JOHNSON (a1) (a2), R. AHMED (a8), V. G. ALLEN (a1) and N. S. CROWCROFT (a1) (a2)...

In Ontario, Canada, the number of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) cases increased over the years 2005–2010. A population-based case-control study was undertaken from January to August 2011 for the purpose of identifying risk factors for acquiring illness due to SE within Ontario. A total of 199 cases and 241 controls were enrolled. After adjustment for confounders, consuming any poultry meat [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·31–3·83], processed chicken (aOR 3·32, 95% CI 1·26–8·76) and not washing hands following handling of raw eggs (OR 2·82, 95% CI 1·48–5·37) were significantly associated with SE infection. The population attributable fraction was 46% for any poultry meat consumption and 10% for processed chicken. Poultry meat continues to be identified as a risk factor for SE illness. Control of SE at source, as well as proper food handling practices, are required to reduce the number of SE cases.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr D. Middleton, Public Health Ontario, 3rd Floor, 480 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 1V2. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2. MKThomas , Estimated numbers of community cases of illness due to Salmonella, Campylobacter and Verotoxigenic Escherichia Coli: pathogen-specific community rates. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology 2006; 17: 229234.

3.Statistics Canada. Population by year, by province and territory ( Accessed 11 November 2012.

4. Public Health Agency of Canada. Laboratory Surveillance Data For Enteric Pathogens In Canada. Annual Summary 2000 ( Accessed 1 February 2012.

6.Public Health Agency of Canada. Laboratory surveillance data for enteric pathogens in Canada. Annual Summary 2002 and 2003 ( Accessed 1 February 2012.

12.SF Altekruse , Salmonella enteritidis in broiler chickens, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Disease 2006; 12: 18481852.

14.AC Kimura , Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S244S252.

17.MK Tighe , The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 310.

20.Health Protection and Promotion Act. R.S.O. 1990, c. H.7 ( Accessed 1 November 2012.

21.Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Initial Report on Public Health, August 2009 ( Accessed 1 August 2012.

22. BRockhill , BNewman , CWeinberg . Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. American Journal of Public Health 1998; 88: 1519.

23.S Greenland , K Drescher . Maximum likelihood estimation of the attributable fraction from logistic models. Biometrics 1993; 49: 865872.

24.SJ Chai , Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis: increasing incidence of domestically acquired infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012; 54 Suppl 5: S488–97.

30. LMacDougall , Frozen chicken nuggets and strips–a newly identified risk factor for Salmonella Heidelberg infection in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Food Protection 2004; 67: 11111115.

31. OBucher , Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed. Journal of Food Protection 2007; 70: 22512258.

33. KMolbak , JNiemann . Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis, Denmark, 1997–1999. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 156: 654661.

34.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigation update: multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections associated with shell eggs. ( Accessed 1 August, 2012.

35.M Taylor , Investigation of the concurrent emergence of Salmonella enteritidis in humans and poultry in British Columbia, Canada, 2008–2010. Zoonoses and Public Health 2012; 59: 584592.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *