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Experimental Studies Relating to Ship-beri-beri and Scurvy. II. On the Etiology of Scurvy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2009

Axel Holst
Professor of Hygiene.
Theodor Frölich
University of Christiania.
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(1) On the macroscopical alterations in the tissues of guinea-pigs which had been fed exclusively on bread, groats, and unpeeled grain.

By experimenting with the “one-sided” diets which were used in the experiments, mentioned in the foregoing paper on polyneuritis in poultry, we found that guinea-pigs also contract a disease, and that this disease is accompanied by very characteristic changes.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1907


page 641 note 1 Archives générales de médecine, 1871, II.

page 641 note 2 Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Medicin, 1892, vol. XLIX.

page 641 note 3 Quoted by Looser, in Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde, Dec. 1905.

page 642 note 1 Quoted by Lind, Looser, Netter (Semaine médicate, 1899) and others.

page 642 note 2 Centralbl. für die medic. Wissenschaften, 1878, vol. XVI.

page 643 note 1 Medical Record, 2nd July, 1898.

page 643 note 2 Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, vol. XLVI., London, 1883.

page 643 note 3 See the remarks concerning the epidemic of scurvy during the Crimean War in the foregoing article on polyneuritis in poultry. Such cases occurred also in the epidemic of scurvy in the siege of Paris, 1871. (Charpentier, Étude sur le scorbut en générale, l'épidémie de 1871 en particulier. Paris, Adrien Delahaye, 1871, pp. 59—62.)

page 643 note 4 We may add, that very many of our animals showed, when examined microscopically, an extensive degeneration of the axis-cylinders of the nerves without any degeneration of the myeline sheaths. This latter phenomenon proves, that the degeneration of the axiscylinders has occurred only a short time before death. The same degeneration also occurred frequently in the animals, which, as will be shown in the next section of this article, were fed on cabbage or fresh potatoes only. This degeneration, therefore, has no particular connection with scurvy.

page 644 note 1 Medico-Chirurg. Transact., London, 1883, p. 187.

page 644 note 2 Münchner medic. Wochenschr., 1890, No. 36.

page 644 note 3 Centralbl. für allgem. Pathol. und pathol. Anatomie, 1897, vol. VII. p. 687.

page 644 note 4 Ziegler's Beiträge zur pathol. Anat., vol. XXVII. p. 173.

page 644 note 5 Ibid., Supplement (Festschr. für Professor Jul. Arnold), 1905. Other isolated cases are described by Stoos and Butzke.

page 644 note 6 Untersuch. über die Möller-Barlow'sche Krankheit. Jena, 1900.

page 644 note 7 Centralbl. f. allgem. Pathol. etc., 1899, vol. X. p. 834; Ziegler's Beiträge, 1901, vol. XXX.; Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde, January, 1907.

page 644 note 8 Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen, 1904, vol. VII. Nos. 5 & 6, 1906, vol. X. No. 1.

page 647 note 1 Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen, vol. X. 1906, No. 1.

page 653 note 1 Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde, Vol. LXI. 1905, p. 6.

page 660 note 1 Six other animals, fed on the same quantities of lemon-juice in addition to the same nutriments, died within 8 to 14 days.

page 661 note 1 We always examined several ribs as well as one tibia and femur.

page 662 note 1 We always examined several ribs as well as one tibia and femur.

page 662 note 2 Zeitschr. f. Biol. 1895, Vol. XXXI.

page 662 note 3 Virchow's Archiv. Vol. CXLVII. p. 430.

page 663 note 1 Lancet, 1900, II.

page 663 note 2 Ibid. 1902, I.

page 664 note 1 Über leichte Scorbutformen. Deutsches Archiv. für klin. Medicin, Vol. XXV. 1880, p. 115.

page 664 note 2 Über das Auftreten des Scorbuts in Zusammenhange mit Hungersnot. Inaugural Dissertation. Berlin, 1903, p. 27 a foll.

page 665 note 1 Ziemssens, Handbuch der spec. Path. und Therapie, Vol. XIII. 1876, p. 560.

page 665 note 2 Handbuch der historisch-geogr. Pathol. 1883, pp. 385—387.

page 665 note 3 Die Bluterkrankheit, Stuttgart, 1889 (Billroth-Lückes Deutsche Chirurgie).

page 665 note 4 Archives générates de médecine, 1887, I. p. 27.

page 665 note 5 Lancet, 1900, I. p. 1184.

page 665 note 6 Also six control monkeys got a fatal diarrhoea; but there did not appear blood or mucus in the stools; nor did the animals get spongy gums.

page 666 note 1 Medico-Chirurg. Transact. 1883.

page 666 note 2 Encyclopädisches Wörterbuch der medic. Wissensch., von Busch, Dieffenbach and others. Berlin 1843, Vol. XXXI. p. 382.

page 666 note 3 Barlow's disease, Copenhagen, p. 1901, p. 122 a.f.

page 667 note 1 H. Salomon, Über Durstkuren, Berlin, Hirschwald, 1905, p. 2; Jürgensen, Deutsches Arch. für klin. Med. 1866, I.

page 667 note 2 Dublin Quarterly Journal of medic. Science, August, 1877, p. 109.

page 668 note 1 Annales d'hygiène publ. 1871, Vol. XXXV.

page 668 note 2 Union médicale, September and October, 1871.

page 668 note 3 Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen, 1906, Vol. X. No 1.

page 668 note 4 Lancet, 1900, II. p. 1164.

page 669 note 1 Forhandlinger i Kristiania medicinske selskab. (Transact. of the medic. Soc. of Christiania), Norsk Magazin for Laegevidenskaben (Norweg. Magaz. for medic. Science), 1847, p. 523.

page 669 note 2 Wald, Vierteljahrschrift für gerichtliche Medicin, 1857, Vol. XI. p. 45.

page 669 note 3 See the articles of Delpech (l.c.) and of Lasègue and Legroux (Archives générales de médecine, 1871, II.).