Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Gastrointestinal infections caused by consumption of raw drinking milk in England & Wales, 1992–2017

  • N. Adams (a1) (a2), L. Byrne (a1), J. Edge (a3), A. Hoban (a1), C. Jenkins (a1) (a2) and L. Larkin (a1)...

Abstract

Systematic, national surveillance of outbreaks of intestinal infectious disease has been undertaken by Public Health England (PHE) since 1992. Between 1992 and 2002, there were 19 outbreaks linked to raw drinking milk (RDM) or products made using raw milk, involving 229 people; 36 of these were hospitalised. There followed an eleven-year period (2003–2013) where no outbreaks linked to RDM were reported. However, since 2014 seven outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (n = 3) or Campylobacter jejuni (n = 4) caused by contaminated RDM were investigated and reported. Between 2014 and 2017, there were 114 cases, five reported hospitalisations and one death. The data presented within this review indicated that the risk of RDM has increased since 2014. Despite the labelling requirements and recommendations that children should not consume RDM, almost a third of outbreak cases were children. In addition, there has been an increase in consumer popularity and in registered RDM producers in the UK. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) continue to provide advice on RDM to consumers and have recently made additional recommendations to enhance existing controls around registration and hygiene of RDM producers.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Gastrointestinal infections caused by consumption of raw drinking milk in England & Wales, 1992–2017
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Gastrointestinal infections caused by consumption of raw drinking milk in England & Wales, 1992–2017
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Gastrointestinal infections caused by consumption of raw drinking milk in England & Wales, 1992–2017
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: C. Jenkins, E-mail: claire.jenkins@phe.gov.uk

References

Hide All
1.European Food Safety Authority (2015) Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the consumption of raw drinking milk. European Food Safety Authority Journal 13, 3940.
2.Wall, PG et al. (1996) Food poisoning: notifications, laboratory reports, and outbreaks – where do the statistics come from and what do they mean? Communicable Disease Report Reviews 6, R93100, 12.
3.Adams, NL et al. (2016) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157, England and Wales, 1983–2012. Emerging Infectious Disease 22, 590597.
4.Gormley, FJ et al. (2011) A 17-year review of foodborne outbreaks: describing the continuing decline in England and Wales (1992–2008). Epidemiology & Infection 139, 688699.
5.Gillespie, IA et al. (2005) Foodborne general outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 infection, England and Wales, 1992–2002: where are the risks? Epidemiology & Infection 133, 795801.
6.Gillespie, IA et al. (2003) Milkborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, England and Wales, 1992–2000. Epidemiology & Infection 130, 461468.
7.Fernandes, AM et al. (2015) Partial failure of milk pasteurization as a risk for the transmission of campylobacter from cattle to humans. Clinical Infectious Diseases 61, 903909.
8.Byrne, L et al. (2015) The epidemiology, microbiology and clinical impact of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in England, 2009–2012. Epidemiology & Infection 143, 34753487.
9.Butcher, H et al. (2016) Whole genome sequencing improved case ascertainment in an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with raw drinking milk. Epidemiology & Infection 144, 28122823.
10.Treacy, J et al. (2019) Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in England linked to raw drinking milk resolved by rapid application of advanced pathogen characterisation methods. Eurosurveillance 24, 17. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.
11.Willis, C et al. (2018) An assessment of the microbiological quality and safety of raw drinking milk on retail sale in England. Journal of Applied Microbiology 124, 535546.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed