Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Cited by 13
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Castro, A. Komora, N. Ferreira, V. Lira, A. Mota, M. Silva, J. and Teixeira, P. 2016. Prevalence ofStaphylococcus aureusfrom nares and hands on health care professionals in a Portuguese Hospital. Journal of Applied Microbiology,

    del Diego Salas, J. Orly de Labry Lima, A. Espín Balbino, J. Bermúdez Tamayo, C. and Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, J. 2016. An economic evaluation of two interventions for the prevention of post-surgical infections in cardiac surgery. Revista de Calidad Asistencial, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 27.

    Liu, Su-Hsun Chen, Kuan-Fu Chen, Chih-Jung Lin, Yi-Hsiung and Huang, Yhu-Chering 2016. Intermittent nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus within a menstrual cycle. Medicine, Vol. 95, Issue. 26, p. e4040.

    Sørensen, Martin Wickman, Magnus Sollid, Johanna U. E. Furberg, Anne-Sofie and Klingenberg, Claus 2016. Allergic disease andStaphylococcus aureuscarriage in adolescents in the Arctic region of Norway. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,

    Aamot, H. V. Stavem, K. and Skråmm, I. 2015. No change in the distribution of types and antibiotic resistance in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from orthopaedic patients during a period of 12 years. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 34, Issue. 9, p. 1833.

    Chen, Baiji Dai, Xinlu He, Bo Pan, Kunyi Li, Hongyu Liu, Xiaoqiang Bao, Yunwen Lao, Weisi Wu, Xiquan Yao, Yandan and Huang, Songyin 2015. Differences in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics among community residents and healthcare workers at Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Southern China. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Schönrock, Stefanie Schablon, Anja Nienhaus, Albert and Peters, Claudia 2015. What do healthcare workers in elderly care know about occupational health and safety? An explorative survey. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    ROGHMANN, M.-C. LONGINAKER, N. CROFT, L. JOHNSON, J. K. LYDECKER, A. D. and STINE, O. C. 2014. Molecular epidemiology of Staphyloccocus aureus colonization in the Old Order of Amish of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, USA. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 142, Issue. 08, p. 1722.

    Slow, S. Priest, P.C. Chambers, S.T. Stewart, A.W. Jennings, L.C. Florkowski, C.M. Livesey, J.H. Camargo, C.A. Scragg, R. and Murdoch, D.R. 2014. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 20, Issue. 5, p. 453.

    Sollid, J.U.E. Furberg, A.S. Hanssen, A.M. and Johannessen, M. 2014. Staphylococcus aureus: Determinants of human carriage. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 21, p. 531.

    Steed, Lisa L. Costello, Justin Lohia, Shivangi Jones, Taylor Spannhake, Ernst W. and Nguyen, Shaun 2014. Reduction of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in health care professionals by treatment with a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic. American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 42, Issue. 8, p. 841.

    Mernelius, S. Löfgren, S. Lindgren, P.-E. and Matussek, A. 2013. The role of broth enrichment in Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and transmission from the throat to newborn infants: results from the Swedish hygiene intervention and transmission of S. aureus study. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 32, Issue. 12, p. 1593.

    Sørum, Marit Sangvik, Maria Stegger, Marc Olsen, Renate S. Johannessen, Mona Skov, Robert and Sollid, Johanna U. E. 2013. Staphylococcus aureusmutants lacking cell wall-bound protein A found in isolates from bacteraemia, MRSA infection and a healthy nasal carrier. Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 67, Issue. 1, p. 19.


Prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthcare workers in a general population. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study

  • K. OLSEN (a1) (a2), M. SANGVIK (a3), G. S. SIMONSEN (a1) (a3), J. U. E. SOLLID (a3), A. SUNDSFJORD (a3), I. THUNE (a2) (a4) and A.-S. FURBERG (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 22 March 2012

Healthcare workers (HCWs) may be a reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus transmission to patients. We examined whether HCW status is associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and population structure (spa types) in 1302 women (334 HCWs) and 977 men (71 HCWs) aged 30–69 years participating in the population-based Tromsø Study in 2007–2008. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. While no methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was isolated, overall, 26·2% of HCWs and 26·0% of non-HCWs were S. aureus nasal carriers. For women overall and women residing with children, the odds ratios for nasal carriage were 1·54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·09–2·19] and 1·86 (95% CI 1·14–3·04), respectively, in HCWs compared to non-HCWs. Moreover, HCWs vs. non-HCWs had a 2·17 and 3·16 times higher risk of spa types t012 and t015, respectively. This supports the view that HCWs have an increased risk of S. aureus nasal carriage depending on gender, family status and spa type.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthcare workers in a general population. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthcare workers in a general population. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthcare workers in a general population. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: K. Olsen, M.D., Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, N-9038 Tromsø, Norway. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.DJ Diekema , Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997–1999. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 32 (Suppl 2): 114132.

4.D Pittet , RP Wenzel . Nosocomial bloodstream infections. Secular trends in rates, mortality, and contribution to total hospital deaths. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 11771184.

5.C von Eiff , Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 1116.

6.HF Wertheim , Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers. Lancet 2004; 364: 703705.

9.PL Lu , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage, infection and transmission in dialysis patients, healthcare workers and their family members. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2008; 23: 16591665.

10.FP Mollema , Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to household contacts. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010; 48: 202207.

11.JH Wagenvoort , Risk of re-introduction of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into the hospital by intrafamilial spread from and to healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection 2005; 59: 6768.

12.R Schwarzkopf , Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in orthopaedic surgeons and their patients: a prospective cohort controlled study. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2010; 92: 18151819.

14.BP Suffoletto , Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in emergency department personnel. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2008; 52: 529533.

15.SJ Peacock , Determinants of acquisition and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in infancy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 57185725.

17.M Sangvik , Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011; 49: 42134218.

20.A van Belkum , Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage types. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 18201826.

22.B Strommenger , spa typing of Staphylococcus aureus as a frontline tool in epidemiological typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 574581.

23.D Harmsen , Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 54425448.

24.O Sakwinska , Ecological temporal stability of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010; 48: 27242728.

27.DP Calfee . The epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Infusion Nursing 2011; 34: 359364.

28.R Skov , Update on the prevention and control of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Published online: 9 January 2012; doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.09.029.

29.J Lamaro-Cardoso , Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in infants attending day care centers in Brazil. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 39913997.

31.L Fenner , Molecular epidemiology of invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains circulating at a Swiss University Hospital. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2008; 27: 623626.

32.H Grundmann , Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis. PLoS Medicine 2010; 7: e1000215.

33.RJ Gorwitz , Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001–2004. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197: 12261234.

35.S Pfingsten-Wurzburg , Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents in northern Germany. Journal of Hospital Infection 2011; 78: 108112.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *