1. E Crosby . Airway management after upper cervical spine injury: what have we learned? Can J Anaesth 2002; 49: 733–744.
2. RH Hastings , SD Kelley . Neurologic deterioration associated with airway management in a cervical spine-injured patient. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 580–583.
3. IG Stiell , CM Clement , RD McKnight . The Canadian C-spine rule versus the NEXUS low-risk criteria in patients with trauma. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2510–2518.
4. SR Mallampati , SP Gatt , LD Gugino . A clinical sign to predict difficult tracheal intubation: a prospective study. Can Anaesth Soc J 1985; 32: 429–434.
5. RS Cormack , J Lehane . Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Anaesthesia 1984; 39: 1105–1111.
6. DC Reid , R Henderson , L Saboe , JD Miller . Etiology and clinical course of missed spine fractures. J Trauma 1987; 27: 980–986.
8. JL Benumof . Laryngeal mask airway and the ASA difficult airway algorithm. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 686–699.
9. J Brimacombe . The advantages of the LMA over the tracheal tube or facemask: a meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth 1995; 42: 1017–1023.
10. B Waltl , M Melischek , C Schuschnig . Tracheal intubation and cervical spine excursion: direct laryngoscopy vs. intubating laryngeal mask. Anaesthesia 2001; 56: 221–226.
11. ET Crosby . Airway management in adults after cervical spine trauma. Anesthesiology 2006; 104: 1293–1318.
13. J Gilliam , D Brunt , M MacMillan , RE Kinard , WJ Montgomery . Relationship of the pelvic angle to the sacral angle: measurement of clinical reliability and validity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1994; 20: 193–199.
14. NM Gajraj , DP Chason , VE Shearer . Comparison of the Belscope with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 610–611.
15. RH Hastings , AC Vigil , R Hanna , BY Yang , DJ Sartoris . Cervical spine movement during laryngoscopy with the Bullard, Macintosh, and Miller laryngoscopes. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 859–869.
16. J Brimacombe , C Keller , KH Kunzel . Cervical spine motion during airway management: a cinefluoroscopic study of the posteriorly destabilized third cervical vertebrae in human cadavers. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 1274–1278.
17. M Hauswald , DP Sklar , D Tandberg , JF Garcia . Cervical spine movement during airway management: cinefluoroscopic appraisal in human cadavers. Am J Emerg Med 1991; 9: 535–538.
18. A Sahin , MA Salman , IA Erden , U Aypar . Upper cervical vertebrae movement during intubating laryngeal mask, fibreoptic and direct laryngoscopy: a video-fluoroscopic study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 819–823.
19. PD Sawin , MM Todd , VC Traynelis . Cervical spine motion with direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation, an in vivo cinefluoroscopic study of subjects without cervical abnormality. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 26–36.
20. P McClure , S Siegler , R Nobilini . Three-dimensional flexibility characteristics of the human cervical spine in vivo. Spine 1998; 23: 216–223.
21. N Bogduk , S Mercer . Biomechanics of the cervical spine. I: normal kinematics. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2000; 15: 633–648.
22. A Holmes , C Wang , ZH Han , GT Dang . The range and nature of flexion-extension motion in the cervical spine. Spine 1994; 19: 2505–2510.
23. J Dvorak , JA Antinnes , M Panjabi , D Loustalot , M Bonomo . Age and gender related normal motion of the cervical spine. Spine 1992; 17: S393–S398.
24. WH Castro , A Sautmann , M Schilgen , M Sautmann . Noninvasive three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine motion in normal subjects in relation to age and sex. An experimental examination. Spine 2000; 25: 443–449.
25. AF Mannion , GN Klein , J Dvorak , C Lanz . Range of global motion of the cervical spine: intraindividual reliability and the influence of measurement device. Eur Spine J 2000; 9: 379–385.
27. S Manoach , L Paladino . Manual in-line stabilization for acute airway management of suspected cervical spine injury: historical review and current questions. Ann Emerg Med 2007.
28. AD McLeod , I Calder . Spinal cord injury and direct laryngoscopy – the legend lives on. Br J Anaesth 2000; 84: 705–709.
29. M Richter , HJ Wilke , P Kluger , L Claes , W Puhl . Load-displacement properties of the normal and injured lower cervical spine in vitro. Eur Spine J 2000; 9: 104–108.
32. RH Hastings , PR Wood . Head extension and laryngeal view during laryngoscopy with cervical spine stabilization maneuvers. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 825–831.
33.III WF Donaldson , JD Towers , A Doctor , A Brand , VP Donaldson . A methodology to evaluate motion of the unstable spine during intubation techniques. Spine 1993; 18: 2020–2023.
34. TG Majernick , R Bieniek , JB Houston , HG Hughes . Cervical spine movement during orotracheal intubation. Ann Emerg Med 1986; 15: 417–420.
35. S Kihara , S Watanabe , J Brimacombe . Segmental cervical spine movement with the intubating laryngeal mask during manual in-line stabilization in patients with cervical pathology undergoing cervical spine surgery. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 195–200.
36. AD Watts , AW Gelb , DB Bach , DM Pelz . Comparison of the Bullard and Macintosh laryngoscopes for endotracheal intubation of patients with a potential cervical spine injury. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 1335–1342.
37. BM Wahlen , E Gercek . Three-dimensional cervical spine movement during intubation using the Macintosh and Bullard laryngoscopes, the bonfils fibrescope and the intubating laryngeal mask airway. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 907–913.
38. JP Nolan , ME Wilson . Orotracheal intubation in patients with potential cervical spine injuries. An indication for the gum elastic bougie. Anaesthesia 1993; 48: 630–633.