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Greedy Organisations

  • Lewis A. Coser
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(1) Cf. Becker, Howard S., Notes on the Concept of Commitment, American Journal of Sociology, LXVI (1960), 3240.

(2) Gluckman, Max, Custom and Conflict in Africa (Oxford, Blackwell, 1955).

(3) Simmel, Georg, Conflict and the Web of Group-Affiliations, transl. by Wolff, Kurt H. and Bendix, Reinhard (New York, The Free Press, 1955), p. 150.

(4) Coser, Lewis A., The Political Functions of Eunuchism, American Sociological Review, XXIX (1964), pp. 880885.

(5) Cf. also Hopkins, Keith, “Eunuchs in Politics in the Later Roman Empire”, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 189 (New Series No. 9) (1963), PP. 6280.

(6) Coser, , op. cit. p. 885.

(7) Lea, Henry Charles, History of Sacerdotal Celibacy in the Christian Church3 (New York, Macmillan, 1907), Vol. I, pp. 60—63.

(8) Ibid. p. 137 and Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, Blackwell, 1964), Vol. II, p. 929.

(9) Lea, , op. cit. Vol. I, p. 167.

(10) Jones, , op. cit. Vol. II, p. 927.

(11) Lea, , op. cit. Vol. I, p. 44.

(12) Ibid. Vol. I, p. 408.

(13) Ibid. Vol. I, pp. 408–409. Cf. also Mirbt, Carl, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII (Leipzig, Hinrichssche, 1894), p. 339.

(14) Mirbt, , op. cit. p. 337.

(15) Ibid. p. 337.

(16) Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids, Mich., Erdmans, 1960 [originally published in 1907]), Vol. V, p. 37.

(17) Flick, Alexander C., The Rise of the Medieval Church (New York, Burt Franklin, n.d. [originally published in 1909]), p. 453.

(18) Fliche, Augustin, La Réforme grégorienne (Paris, Champion, 1924), Vol. I, p. 211.

(19) Emerton, Ephriam (ed.), The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII (New York, Columbia University Press, 1932). See also Mirbt, and Flick, , op. cit.

(20) The above is quoted almost verbatim from Tellenbach, Gerd, Church, State, and Christian Society at the Times of the Investiture Contest (Oxford, Blackwell, 1940), pp. 129130.

(21) Glock, Charles and Stark, Rodney, Religion and Society in Tension (Chicago, Rand McNally, 1965), p. 52.

(22) Simmel, , op. cit. pp. 144146.

(23) Chavard, F., Le Célibat des prêtres et ses conséquences (Genève, J. Benoit, 1874), p. 360.

(24) Houtin, Albert, Courte kistoire du cilibat ecclésiastique (Paris, Rieder, 1929), p. 253.

(25) Cf. Jager, Abbé, Le Célibat ecclésiastique2 (Paris, Gaume, 1836), p. 121.

(26) Mgr Pavy, Louis-Antoine-Augustin, Du Célibat ecclésiastique2 (Paris, Jacques Lecoffre, 1852), p. 346.

(27) Sambuga, Joseph Anton, Schuzrede für den ehelosen Stand der Geistlichen (Frankental, Ludwig Gegel, 1782), pp. 3536 and 5152.

(28) Anon, Bruder was hälts du wohl von dem Verbote der Priester-Ehe oder von dem ehelosen Leben der Mönchen, Nonnen, Ordens- und Weltpriester in der römischkatholischen Kirche? (Vienna 1782), pp. 9899.

(29) Coser, , Op. cit.

(30) Manuel, Frank E., “Toward a Psychological History of Utopia” in Manuel, Frank E. (ed.), Utopias and Utopian Thought (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1966), p. 70.

(31) Noyes, John Humphrey, History of American Socialisms (New York, Hillary House, 1961 [first published in 1870]), p. 147.

(32) Slater, Philip, On Social Regression, American Sociological Review, XXVIII, (1963), pp. 339364.

(33) Nordhoff, Charles, The Communistic Societies in the United States (New York, Schocken Books, 1965 [first published in 1875]), p. 276.

(34) Bittner, Egon in his “Radicalism and the Organization of Radical Movements”, American Sociological Review, XXVIII (1963), p. 938, makes a similar point. Cf. also Vladimir Nahirny, C., Some Observations on Ideological Groups, American Journal of Sociology, XLVII (1962), 397–4O5.

(35) Noyes, , op. cit. p. 140.

(36) Webber, Everett, Escape to Utopia (New York, Hastings House, 1959), pp. 288289, and Holloway, Mark, Heavens on Earth (New York, Library Publishers, 1951), p. 172.

(37) Noyes, , op. cit. p. 626.

(38) Noyes, , op. cit. pp. 634635. Brackets in the original.

(39) Noyes, , op. cit. pp. 143145.

(40) Green, Calvin and Wells, Seth (eds.), A Summary View of the Millenial Church or United Society of Believers2 (Albany, N.Y., 1848), pp. 276277.

(41) Hinds, William A., American Communities and Cooperative Colonies, rev. ed., (Chicago, Charles H. Kerr, 1902), p. 187.

(42) Duss, John S., The Harmonists (Harrisburg, The Pennsylvania Book Service, 1943), pp. 2829. On closely related developments in the Israeli Kibbutz, cf. Talmon, Yonina, “The Family in a Revolutionary Movement—The Case of the Kibbutz in Israel”, in Nimkoff, M. F. (ed.), Comparative Family Systems (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965), pp. 259286.

(43) Merton, Robert K., Social Theory and Social Structure (New York, The Free Press, 1957), pp. 319 sqq.Coser, Rose Laub, Insulation from Observability and Types of Social Conformity, American Sociological Review, XXVI (1961), 2839.

(44) Coser, R. L., loc. cit. p. 28.

(45) Nordhoff, , op. cit. pp. 145146.

(46) Andrews, Edward D., The People Called Shakers (New York, Oxford University Press, 1953).

(47) Nordhoff, , op. cit. pp. 289290.

(48) Ibid. p. 291.

(49) Ibid. pp. 292–293.

* A slightly revised version of this paper was presented to the first meeting of the Massachusetts Sociological Society at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., in March 1967.

(50) A number of the themes adumbrated here are more fully developed in an honor's thesis of a student of mine, Levine, Harry G., The Structure of Utopia: A Sociological Analysis of Five American Communistic Communities (available at the Brandeis University Library, Waltham 54, Mass.).

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