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A Critique of Periodicity in Early Modern Journalism. The First Spanish Serial Gazette: Gazeta de Roma in Valencia (1618–1620)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 June 2015

Carmen Espejo
Affiliation:
Facultad de Comunicación, Avda. Américo Vespucio, 41.092 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail: carmenes@us.es; frbaena@us.es
Francisco Baena
Affiliation:
Facultad de Comunicación, Avda. Américo Vespucio, 41.092 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail: carmenes@us.es; frbaena@us.es

Abstract

In this paper we propose a methodological critique of the History of Early Modern Journalism. Our proposal recommends a review of the ‘micro’ concept applied to research in The History of Early Modern Journalism. The current study on the Gazeta de Roma in Valencia (1618–1620) is a sample of this microscopic procedure, and is an important and revealing example that enables us to reinterpret the concept of periodicity. We will discuss the value of periodicity as a demarcation. The contemporaries of the first European newspapers applied characteristics and criteria other than periodicity: a ‘newspaper’ was then a serial document that informed progressively about the news from a certain area at that time, the continuity of which was recognizable thanks to certain typographical resources, in the absence of the header concept.

Type
Focus: Early Modern Print Culture in Europe
Copyright
© Academia Europaea 2015 

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References

References and Notes

1.In the United Kingdom, the Burney Collection has more than 1200 printed titles and almost a million digitized pages of British newspapers from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In France, the repertoire of Gazetier Universal currently offers nearly 600 headers published during the Old Regime, as well as two useful dictionaries of newspapers and journalists, while Gallica. Bibliothèque Numérique contains the practically complete digital collection of the Gazette (1631–1792) and of Le Journal des sçavans (1665–1797). In Austria, the Fuggerzeitungen project has catalogued and digitized more than 16,000 handwritten newspapers addressed to the Fugger family, between 1568 and 1605, which are conserved in the National Library of Vienna. In Italy, the Biblioteca Digitale dell’Archiginnasio includes a wide collection of Le Gazzette Bolognesi (1645–1796). In Spain, the Biblioteca Digital Siglo de Oro (BIDISO) has digitized nearly 2000 publications of news pamphlets, avvisi and gazettes published in the Iberian Peninsula from 1500 to 1800. In Portugal, the Hemeroteca Digital – Hemeroteca Municipal de Lisboa allows the online consultation of the Gazeta de Lisboa in different periods of its publication (1715–1726, 1728–1740 and 1810). Other European initiatives are: Relation, the oldest newspaper in the world, printed in Strasbourg in 1605; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Den Haag, which includes a Dutch newspaper published in 1618 in its digital collection; and Vedomosti, the first newspaper printed in Russia (1702–1727).Google Scholar
2.Dooley, B. and Baron, S. (eds) (2001) The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe (London-New York: Routledge); J.W. Koopmans (ed.) (2005) News and Politics in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800) (Leuven: Peeters); B. Dooley (ed.) (2010) The Dissemination of News and the Emergence of Contemporaneity in Early Modern Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate); J. Raymond (2012) Newspapers: a national or international phenomenon? Media History, 18(3–4), pp. 249–257; R. Chartier and C. Espejo (2012) La aparición del periodismo en Europa. Comunicación y propaganda en el Barroco (Madrid: Marcial Pons).Google Scholar
3.Deacon, D., Pickering, M., Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (2007) A Practical Guide to Methods in Media and Cultural Analysis (London/New York: Bloomsbury).Google Scholar
4.O’Malley, T. (2002) Media history and media studies: aspects of the development of the study of media history in the UK 1945–2000. Media History, 8(2), pp. 155173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5.Walker, G. (2005) Writing Early Modern History (London: Hodder Arnold).Google Scholar
6.Sommerville, C.J. (1996) The News Revolution in England. Cultural Dynamics of Daily Information (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
7.Franciscato, C. (2005) Journalism and change in time experience in Western society. Brazilian Journalism Research, 1(1), pp. 155175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8.de Aguinaga, E. (2001) Hacia una teoría del periodismo. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 7, pp. 241255.Google Scholar
9.Sfez, L. (1993) Dictionnaire critique de la communication (París: P.U.F).Google Scholar
10.Arblaster, P. (2011) Abraham Verhoeven y la corte de Bruselas: el monopolio de noticias de Isabel Clara Eugenia. In: C. Van Wyhe (ed.), Isabel Clara Eugenia. Soberanía femenina en las cortes de Madrid y Bruselas (Madrid/London: CEEH/Paul Holberton), pp. 280305.Google Scholar
11.Guillamet, J. (2003) Els origins de la premsa a Catalunya. Catàleg de periòdics antics (1641–1833) (Barcelona: Ajuntament de Barcelona).Google Scholar
12.The press of Felipe Mey was part of a dynasty of printers, of Flemish origin, established in Valencia from 1535. The condition of the members of this printing house as printer-publishers is emphasized, because they were among the few authors, in this city or in others, that were not limited to printing in accordance with the specific requests of the clients, who were basically the civil and religious classes of the city, but who launched publishing strategies with which they attempted to extend their market: for example, reference books for university students, and small formats such as stories and small religious works for the general public. On the other hand, the same idea of publishing printed products in a series could have occurred to the Meys thanks to the frequency with which they published decrees, posters, cards or proclamations for the institutions of the city. This Valencian printing house has also been considered to be the inventor of the numbered series of poetic sheets, a concept at least close to that of the newspaper; see R.M. Gregori Roig (2008) Creant modernitat: la impresora Jerònima Galés i els Mey (València, segle XVI), PhD dissertation, Universidad de Valencia.Google Scholar
13.These two numbers are described in Católogo y Biblioteca Digital de Relaciones de Sucesos: http://www.bidiso.es/RelacionesSucesosBusqueda/.Google Scholar
14.Petta, M. (2009) Printed funerals in 16th- and 17th-century Milan. In: E. Bambrilla et al. (eds), Routines of Existence: Time, Life and After Life in Society and Religio (Pisa: Plus-Pisa University Press).Google Scholar
15.‘Dase cuenta, como el Conde Palatino Hereje, Rey injusto de Boemia, ha hecho quitar de la Yglesia de los Padres de la Compañía de Iesus, y de otras Yglesias, todos los Altares, e Imágenes de los Santos, y las Cruces de los caminos, con otras grâdes heregias que ha vsado, dignas de gran dolor y sentimiento en los coraçones de los Christianos…’. ‘Here you realize how the heretic Count of Palatinate, unrighteous king of Bohemia, has had all images of saints and figures removed from the Church of Society of Jesus, and other churches as well as all the altars and the crosses on the roads and other major heresies that caused great pain and sorrows to the heart of Christians’ (our translation).Google Scholar
16.‘Dase cuenta de cómo cogieron cien Turcos Cosarios, los quales se hauian comido a los Cautiuos Christianos…’. ‘Here it will be told how they caught a hundred Turk Corsairs, who had eaten the Christian captives…’ (our translation).Google Scholar
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