1.The views and opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the author.
Hansen, P. and Jonsson, S. (2012) Imperial origins of European integration and the case of Eurafrica: A reply to Gary Marks’ ‘Europe and Its Empires’. Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(6), pp. 1028–1041.
Carbone, M. (2013) International development and the European Union’s external policies: Changing contexts, problematic nexuses, contested partnerships. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26(3), pp. 483–496.
Gosnell, J. (2006) France, empire, Europe: Out of Africa?
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 26(2), pp. 203–212; A. May (2013) The Commonwealth and Britain’s turn to Europe, 1945–73. Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 102(1), pp. 29–39; K. Muller (2001) Shadows of empire in the European Union. European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms, 6(4), pp. 439–451.
Elgström, O. (2008) Images of the EU in EPA negotiations: Angel, demon-or just human?
European Integration Online Papers, 12, pp. 1–12; R. Gibb (2004) Developing countries and market access: The bitter-sweet taste of the European Union’s sugar policy in Southern Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies, 42(4), pp. 563–588; S. Rynning (2003) The European Union: Towards a strategic culture? Security Dialogue, 34(4), pp. 479–496.
European Centre for Development Policy Management, ECDPM (2006) The EU-Africa Partnership in Historical Perspective (Maastricht: ECDPM).
European Commission (2005) EU Strategy for Africa: Towards a Euro-African Pact to Accelerate Africa’s Development, COM(2005) 489 Final (Brussels: European Commission); EU (2006) Presidency Conclusions 15/16 December 2005, 15914/1/05 REV 1 (Brussels: Council of the EU).
EU (2007) Lisbon Declaration (Lisbon: EU and AU); European Commission (2007) First Action Plan 2008-2010 (Accra: European Commission).
EU (2008) The Africa-European Union Strategic Partnership (Brussels: European Council).
Smith, M. (2013) Beyond the comfort zone: Internal crisis and external challenge in the European Union’s response to rising powers. International Affairs, 89(3), pp. 653–671.
Zwolski, K. (2012) The EU as an international security actor after Lisbon: Finally a green light for a holistic approach?
Cooperation and Conflict, 47(1), pp. 68–87.
EU (2010) Tripoli Declaration (Tripoli: EU and AU).
EU (2011) The Africa-European Union Strategic Partnership (Brussels: European Council).
EU (2014) Roadmap (Brussels: EU and AU).
European Commission (2015) African Union Support Programme III (Brussels: European Commission).
16.Established with Decision 2003/3 of the African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP)-EC Council of Ministers).
17.According to the International Organisation for Migration, irregular migration refers to: movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. There is no clear or universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorisation or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is for example seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. There is, however, a tendency to restrict the use of the term ‘illegal migration’ to cases of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons.
EU (2015) Action Plan (Valletta: European Council).
19.Sahel/Lake Chad: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, the Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal; Horn of Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda; North of Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia.
European Commission (2016) Communication on Establishing a New Partnership Framework with Third Countries under the European Agenda on Migration. COM(2016) 385 final (Brussels: European Commission).
European Commission (2016) Proposal for a New European Consensus on Development Our World, our Dignity, our Future. COM(2016) 740 final (Brussels, European Commission).