Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Maeda, Naoyoshi Ohashi, Takashi Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile Hattori, Toshio Takahashi, Yayoi Harigae, Hideo Hasegawa, Hiroo Yamada, Yasuaki Fujii, Masahiro Maenaka, Katsumi and Uede, Toshimitsu 2015. Osteopontin-integrin interaction as a novel molecular target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy in adult T-cell leukemia. Retrovirology, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Berges, Nina Hehmann-Titt, Grit Hristodorov, Dmitrij Melmer, Georg Thepen, Theo and Barth, Stefan 2014. Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins: Modified Versions of Human Granzyme B and Angiogenin Have the Potential to Replace Bacterial Toxins in Targeted Therapies against CD64+ Diseases. Antibodies, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 92.

    Singer, J. and Jensen-Jarolim, E. 2014. IgE-based immunotherapy of cancer: challenges and chances. Allergy, Vol. 69, Issue. 2, p. 137.

    Kaneda, Yasufumi 2012. Virosome: A novel vector to enable multi-modal strategies for cancer therapy. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 64, Issue. 8, p. 730.

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah Bozeman, Erica N. Patel, Jaina Kaur, Ramneet Meganathan, Jeyandra and Selvaraj, Periasamy 2012. Immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer treatment: A novel protein transfer approach for cancer vaccine development. Medicinal Research Reviews, Vol. 32, Issue. 6, p. 1197.

    Béné, M C Nebe, T Bettelheim, P Buldini, B Bumbea, H Kern, W Lacombe, F Lemez, P Marinov, I Matutes, E Maynadié, M Oelschlagel, U Orfao, A Schabath, R Solenthaler, M Tschurtschenthaler, G Vladareanu, A M Zini, G Faure, G C and Porwit, A 2011. Immunophenotyping of acute leukemia and lymphoproliferative disorders: a consensus proposal of the European LeukemiaNet Work Package 10. Leukemia, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 567.

    Hwang, Ilseon Kang, Yu Na Kwon, Kun Young Kwon, Sun Young Kim, Sang Pyo Lee, Sang Sook Jung, Hye Ra and Choe, Mi Sun 2011. Comparative Study of Relative Value for Diagnostic Procedure of Surgical Pathology in Korea and United States. The Korean Journal of Pathology, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 9.

    Mallikaratchy, P. R. Ruggiero, A. Gardner, J. R. Kuryavyi, V. Maguire, W. F. Heaney, M. L. McDevitt, M. R. Patel, D. J. and Scheinberg, D. A. 2011. A multivalent DNA aptamer specific for the B-cell receptor on human lymphoma and leukemia. Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 39, Issue. 6, p. 2458.

    Pozzesi, N. Pierangeli, S. Vacca, C. Falchi, L. Pettorossi, V. Martelli, M.P. Thuy, T.T. Ninh, P.T. Liberati, A.M. Riccardi, C. Sung, T.V. and Delfino, D.V. 2011. Maesopsin 4-O-β-D-Glucoside, a Natural Compound Isolated from the Leaves ofArtocarpus tonkinensis, Inhibits Proliferation and Up-Regulates HMOX1, SRXN1 and BCAS3 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Journal of Chemotherapy, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 150.

    Tur, Mehmet Kemal Huhn, Michael Jost, Edgar Thepen, Theo Brümmendorf, Tim H. and Barth, Stefan 2011. In vivo efficacy of the recombinant anti-CD64 immunotoxin H22(scFv)-ETA′ in a human acute myeloid leukemia xenograft tumor model. International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 129, Issue. 5, p. 1277.

    Yu, Jianhua Mitsui, Takeki Wei, Min Mao, Hsiaoyin Butchar, Jonathan P. Shah, Mithun Vinod Zhang, Jianying Mishra, Anjali Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher Liu, Xingluo Liu, Shujun Yokohama, Akihiko Trotta, Rossana Marcucci, Guido Benson, Don M. Loughran, Thomas P. Tridandapani, Susheela and Caligiuri, Michael A. 2011. NKp46 identifies an NKT cell subset susceptible to leukemic transformation in mouse and human. Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 121, Issue. 4, p. 1456.

    Ball, Edward D. and Elizabeth Broome, H. 2010. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of hematologic malignancy. Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 403.

    Barrett, A John and Battiwalla, Minoo 2010. Relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Expert Review of Hematology, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 429.

    Jaras, M. Johnels, P. Hansen, N. Agerstam, H. Tsapogas, P. Rissler, M. Lassen, C. Olofsson, T. Bjerrum, O. W. Richter, J. and Fioretos, T. 2010. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue. 37, p. 16280.

    Kaneda, Yasufumi 2010. A non-replicating oncolytic vector as a novel therapeutic tool against cancer. BMB Reports, Vol. 43, Issue. 12, p. 773.

    Levitzki, Alexander and Klein, Shoshana 2010. Signal transduction therapy of cancer. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 287.

  • Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, Volume 11
  • 2009, e29

Antibody-based therapy of leukaemia

  • John C. Morris (a1) and Thomas A. Waldmann (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2009

Over the past decade, monoclonal antibodies have dramatically impacted the treatment of haematological malignancies, as evidenced by the effect of rituximab on the response rate and survival of patients with follicular and diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Currently, only two monoclonal antibodies – the anti-CD33 immunotoxin gemtuzumab ozogamicin and the CD52-directed antibody alemtuzumab – are approved for treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, respectively. Although not approved for such treatment, alemtuzumab is also active against T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia, cutaneous T cell lymphoma and Sézary syndrome, and adult T cell leukaemia and lymphoma. In addition, rituximab has demonstrated activity against B cell chronic lymphocytic and hairy cell leukaemia. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD4, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD45, CD66 and CD122 are now being studied in the clinic for the treatment of leukaemia. Here, we discuss how these new antibodies have been engineered to reduce immunogenicity and improve antibody targeting and binding. Improved interactions with Fc receptors on immune effector cells can enhance destruction of target cells through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-mediated cell lysis. The antibodies can also be armed with cellular toxins or radionuclides to enhance the destruction of leukaemia cells.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: John C. Morris, Co-Director Clinical Trials, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1457, USA. Tel: +1 301 402 2912; Fax: +1 301 402 1001; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2G. Köhler and C. Milstein (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256, 495-497

4H. Hagberg (1999) Chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) – an effective treatment for a patient with relapsing hairy cell leukaemia. Medical Oncology 16, 221-222

5P.G. Swann (2008) Considerations for the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Current Opinion in Immunology 20, 493-499

6X.Y. Liu , L.M. Pop and E.S. Vitetta (2008) Engineering therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Immunological Reviews 222, 9-27

7A. Nissim and Y. Chernajovsky (2008) Historical development of monoclonal antibody therapeutics. In Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: Therapeutic Antibodies. (Y Chernajovsky . and A. Nissim , eds.) 181, pp. 3-18, Springer

8N. Lonberg (2008) Human monoclonal antibodies from transgenic mice. In Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: Therapeutic Antibodies, (Y. Chernajovsky and A. Nissim , eds.) 181, pp. 69-97, Springer

9M.C. Veri (2007) Monoclonal antibodies capable of discriminating the human inhibitory Fcgamma-receptor IIB (CD32B) from the activating Fcgamma-receptor IIA (CD32A): biochemical, biological and functional characterization. Immunology 121, 392-404

11B. Coiffier (2002) CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. New England Journal of Medicine 346, 235-242

12L.H. Sehn (2005) Introduction of combined CHOP plus rituximab therapy dramatically improved outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in British Columbia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 5027-5033

13R. Marcus (2008) Phase III study of R-CVP compared with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone alone in patients with previously untreated advanced follicular lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 26, 4579-4586

14H. Kantarjian (2008) Therapeutic advances in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome over the past 40 years. Cancer 113 (Suppl.), 1933-1952

16P.R. Crocker and P. Redelinghuys (2008) Siglecs as positive and negative regulators of the immune system. Biochemical Society Transactions 36, 1467-1471

18P.R. Hamann (2002) An anti-CD33 antibody-calicheamicin conjugate for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Choice of linker. Bioconjugate Chemistry 13, 40-66

19N. Zein , A.M. Sinha , W.J. McGahren and G.A. Ellestad (1988) Calicheamicin gamma 1: An antitumor antibiotic that cleaves double-stranded DNA site specifically. Science 240, 1198-1201

20V.H. van Der Velden (2001) Targeting of the CD33-calicheamicin immunoconjugate Mylotarg (CMA-676) in acute myeloid leukemia: in vivo and in vitro saturation and internalization by leukemic and normal myeloid cells. Blood 97, 3197-3204

21K. Naito (2000) Calicheamicin-conjugated humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody (gemtuzumab ozogamicin, CMA-676) shows cytocidal effect on CD33-positive leukemia cell lines, but is inactive on P-glycoprotein-expressing sublines. Leukemia 14, 1436-1443

22J.A. Dowell , J. Korth-Bradley , H. Liu , S.P. King and M.S. Berger (2001) Pharmacokinetics of gemtuzumab ozogamicin, an antibody-targeted chemotherapy agent for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 41, 1206-1214

24R.A. Larson (2005) Final report of the efficacy and safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in patients with CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Cancer 104, 1442-1452

25W.J. Kell (2003) A feasibility study of simultaneous administration of gemtuzumab ozogamicin with intensive chemotherapy in induction and consolidation in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 102, 4277-4283

28C. Nabhan (2005) Phase II pilot trial of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as first line therapy in acute myeloid leukemia patients age 65 or older. Leukemia Research 29, 53-57

29P. Chevallier (2005) Administration of Mylotarg 4 days after beginning of a chemotherapy including intermediate-dose aracytin and mitoxantrone (MIDAM regimen) produces a high rate of complete hematologic remission in patients with CD33+ primary resistant or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia Research 29, 1003-1007

30P. Chevallier (2008) Long-term disease-free survival after gemtuzumab, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and mitoxantrone in patients with CD33(+) primary resistant or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 26, 5192-5197

31A. Aribi (2007) Combination therapy with arsenic trioxide, all-trans-retinoic acid, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer 109, 1355-1359

32M.L. Linenberger (2001) Multidrug-resistance phenotype and clinical responses to gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Blood 98, 988-994

33V.H. van Der Velden (2004) High CD33-antigen loads in peripheral blood limit the efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) treatment in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Leukemia 18, 983-988

34P. Chevallier (2008) Persistence of CD33 expression at relapse in CD33(+) acute myeloid leukaemia patients after receiving Gemtuzumab in the course of the disease. British Journal of Haematology 143, 744-746

35E.J. Feldman (2005) Phase III randomized multicenter study of a humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody, lintuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, versus chemotherapy alone in patients with refractory or first-relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 4110-4116

38T. Mustelin , T. Vang and N. Bottini (2005) Protein tyrosine phosphatases and the immune response. Nature Reviews Immunology 5, 43-57

40J.M. Pagel (2006) 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus busulfan and cyclophosphamide before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. Blood 107, 2184-2191

41S.C. Stocks , M.H. Ruchaud-Sparagano , M.A. Kerr , F. Grunert , C. Haslett and I. Dransfield (1996) CD66: role in the regulation of neutrophil effector function. European Journal of Immunology 26, 2924-2932

42D. Bunjes (2001) Rhenium 188-labeled anti-CD66 (a, b, c, e) monoclonal antibody to intensify the conditioning regimen prior to stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: results of a phase I-II study. Blood 98, 565-572

43M. Ringhoffer (2005) 188Re or 90Y-labelled anti-CD66 antibody as part of a dose-reduced conditioning regimen for patients with acute leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome over the age of 55: results of a phase I-II study. British Journal of Haematology 130, 604-613

45I. Buchmann (2003) A comparison of the biodistribution and biokinetics of (99 m)Tc-anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 and (99 m)Tc-anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 with regard to suitability for myeloablative radioimmunotherapy. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 30, 667-673

46L. Jin , K.J. Hope , Q. Zhai , F. Smadja-Joffe , and J.E. Dick (2006) Targeting of CD44 eradicates human acute myeloid leukemic stem cells. Nature Medicine 12, 1167-1174

47M. Graf , K. Hecht , S. Reif , R. Pelka-Fleischer , K. Pfister and H. Schmetzer (2004) Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies. European Journal of Haematology 72, 89-106

48N. Misaghian (2009) Targeting the leukemic stem cell: the Holy Grail of leukemia therapy. Leukemia 23, 25-42

49X. Du , M. Ho and I. Pastan (2007) New immunotoxins targeting CD123, a stem cell antigen on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Journal of Immunotherapy 30, 607-613

50L.M. Nadler , J. Ritz , R. Hardy , J.M. Pesando , S.F. Schlossman and P. Stashenko (1981) A unique cell surface antigen identifying lymphoid malignancies of B cell origin. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 67, 134-140

54M.R. Smith (2003) Rituximab (monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody): mechanisms of action and resistance. Oncogene 22, 7359-7368

55C. Stolz (2008) Targeting Bcl-2 family proteins modulates the sensitivity of B-cell lymphoma to rituximab-induced apoptosis. Blood 112, 3312-3321

57G. Cartron (2002) Therapeutic activity of humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and polymorphism in IgG Fc receptor Fcgamma RIIIa gene. Blood 99, 754-758

58S.S. Farag , I.W. Flinn , R. Modali , T.A. Lehman , D. Young and J.C. Byrd (2004) Fc gamma RIIIα and Fc gamma RIIα polymorphisms do not predict response to rituximab in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 103, 1472-1474

59J.C. Byrd , (2002) The mechanism of tumor cell clearance by rituximab in vivo in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence of caspase activation and apoptosis induction. Blood 99, 1038-1043

62N.L. Berinstein (1998) Association of serum Rituximab (IDEC-C2B8) concentration and anti-tumor response in the treatment of recurrent low-grade or follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Annals of Oncology 9, 995-1001

64L.D. Piro (1998) Extended rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) therapy for relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Annals of Oncology 10, 655-661

65D.T. Nguyen , J.A. Amess , H. Doughty , L. Hendry and L.W. Diamond (1999) IDEC-C2B8 anti-CD20 (rituximab) immunotherapy in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders: evaluation of response on 48 patients. European Journal Haematology 62, 76-82

66M. Ladetto , L. Bergui , I. Ricca , S. Campana , A. Pileri and C. Tarella (2000) Rituximab anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody induces marked but transient reductions of peripheral blood lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. Medical Oncology 17, 203-210

67J.D. Hainsworth (2003) Single-agent rituximab as first-line and maintenance treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: a phase II trial of the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network. Journal of Clinical Oncology 21, 1746-1751

70J. Perz , J. Topaly , S. Fruehauf , M. Hensel and A.D. Ho (2002) Level of CD 20-expression and efficacy of rituximab treatment in patients with resistant or relapsing B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukmia and Lymphoma 43, 149-151

71J.C. Byrd (2003) Randomized phase 2 study of fludarabine with concurrent versus sequential treatment with rituximab in symptomatic, untreated patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9712 (CALGB 9712). Blood 101, 6-14

72J.C. Byrd (2005) Addition of rituximab to fludarabine may prolong progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an updated retrospective comparative analysis of CALGB 9712 and CALGB 9011. Blood 105, 49-53

73N. Lamanna (2009) Sequential therapy with fludarabine, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia produces high-quality responses: molecular remissions predict for durable complete responses. Journal of Clinical Oncology 27, 491-497

74K.A. Foon (2009) Chemoimmunotherapy with low-dose fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and high dose rituximab in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 27, 498-503

76J. Nieva , K. Bethel and A. Saven (2003) Phase 2 study of rituximab in the treatment of cladribine-failed patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood 102, 810-813

79J.L. Teeling (2004) Characterization of new human CD20 monoclonal antibodies with potent cytolytic activity against non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Blood. 104, 1793-1800

80A. Hagenbeek (2008) First clinical use of ofatumumab, a novel fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma: results of a phase 1/2 trial. Blood 111, 5486-5495

81B. Coiffier (2008) Safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1-2 study. Blood 111, 1094-1100

82A. Osterborg (2008) Ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20), a novel CD20 monoclonal antibody, is an active treatment for patients with CLL refractory to both fludarabine and alemtuzumab or bulky fludarabine-refractory disease: Results from the planned interim analysis of an international pivotal trial. Blood 112, 328 [Abstract]

85R. Stein (2004) Characterization of a new humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, IMMU-106, and Its use in combination with the humanized anti-CD22 antibody, epratuzumab, for the therapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clinical Cancer Research 10, 2868-2878

87K. Dorshkind and E. Montecino-Rodriguez (2007) Fetal B-cell lymphopoiesis and the emergence of B-1-cell potential. Nature Reviews Immunology 7, 213-219

90R.H. Carter and D.T. Fearon (1992) CD19: lowering the threshold for antigen receptor stimulation of B lymphocytes. Science 256, 105-107

91K.B. Bobbitt and L.B. Justement (2000) Regulation of MHC class II signal transduction by the B cell coreceptors CD19 and CD22. Journal of Immunology 165, 5588-5596

92H.M. Horton (2008) Potent in vitro and in vivo activity of an Fc-engineered anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody against lymphoma and leukemia. Cancer Research 68, 8049-8057

93J. Zalevsky (2009) The impact of Fc engineering on an anti-CD19 antibody: increased Fc-gamma receptor affinity enhances B-cell clearing in nonhuman primates. Blood 113, 3735-3743

95U. Paulus , N. Schmitz , K. Viehmann , N. von Neuhoff and P. Dreger (1997) Combined positive/negative selection for highly effective purging of PBPC grafts: towards clinical application in patients with B-CLL. Bone Marrow Transplant 20, 415-420

96P. Dreger (2000) A prospective study of positive/negative ex vivo B-cell depletion in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Experimental Hematology 28, 1187-1196

97T.P. Szatrowski (2003) Lineage specific treatment of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission with anti-B4-blocked ricin or high-dose cytarabine: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9311. Cancer 97, 1471-1480

98J.A. Walker and K.G. Smith (2008) CD22: An inhibitory enigma. Immunology 123, 314-325

100J. Carnahan (2007) Epratuzumab, a CD22-targeting recombinant humanized antibody with a different mode of action from rituximab. Molecular Immunology 44, 1331-1341

101J.P. Leonard (2004) Epratuzumab, a humanized anti-CD22 antibody, in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: phase I/II clinical trial results. Clin Cancer Res 10, 5327-5334

102I.N. Micallef (2006) A pilot study of epratuzumab and rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer 107, 2826-2832

103E.A. Raetz (2008) Chemoimmunotherapy reinduction with epratuzumab in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in marrow relapse: a Children's Oncology Group Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 26, 3756-3762

104R.J. Kreitman (2005) Phase I trial of recombinant immunotoxin RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22) in patients with B-cell malignancies. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 6719-6729

105R.J. Kreitman (2001) Efficacy of the anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in chemotherapy-resistant hairy-cell leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 241-247

106S. Bang , S. Nagata , M. Onda , R.J. Kreitman and I. Pastan (2005) HA22 (R490A) is a recombinant immunotoxin with increased antitumor activity without an increase in animal toxicity. Clinical Cancer Research 11, 1545-1550

107J.F. DiJoseph (2004) Antibody-targeted chemotherapy with CMC-544: a CD22-targeted immunoconjugate of calicheamicin for the treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. Blood 103, 1807-1814

108J.F. DiJoseph , M.M. Dougher , D.C. Armellino , D.Y. Evans and N.K. Damle (2007) Therapeutic potential of CD22-specific antibody-targeted chemotherapy using inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544) for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 21, 2240-2245

109G. Delespesse (1991) Expression, structure, and function of the CD23 antigen. Advances in Immunology 49, 149-191

110J.Y. Bonnefoy (1997) Structure and functions of CD23. International Reviews of Immunology 16, 113-128

112N.I. Pathan , P. Chu , K. Hariharan , C. Cheney , A. Molina and J. Byrd (2008) Mediation of apoptosis by and antitumor activity of lumiliximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and CD23+ lymphoma cell lines. Blood 111, 1594-1602

113J.C. Byrd (2007) Phase 1 study of lumiliximab with detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measurements in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clinical Cancer Research 13, 4448-4455

116H. Nückel , U.H. Frey , A. Röth , U. Dührsen and W. Siffert (2005) Alemtuzumab induces enhanced apoptosis in vitro in B-cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. European Journal of Pharmacology 514, 217-224

119M.J. Keating (2002) Therapeutic role of alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) in patients who have failed fludarabine: results of a large international study. Blood 99, 3554-3561

120K.R. Rai (2002) Alemtuzumab in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients who also had received fludarabine. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20, 3891-3897

121A. Ferrajoli (2003) Phase II study of alemtuzumab in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Cancer 98, 773-778

123J. Lundin (2002) Phase II trial of subcutaneous anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) as first-line treatment for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Blood 100, 768-773

124P. Hillmen (2007) Alemtuzumab compared with chlorambucil as first-line therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 25, 5616-5623

125T. Elter (2005) Fludarabine in combination with alemtuzumab is effective and feasible in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase II trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 7024-7031

126B. Kennedy (2002) Campath-1H and fludarabine in combination are highly active in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 99, 2245-2247

128S.M. O'Brien (2003) Alemtuzumab as treatment for residual disease after chemotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 98, 2657-2663

129P. Moreton (2005) Eradication of minimal residual disease in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia after alemtuzumab therapy is associated with prolonged survival. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 2971-2979

130G. Lozanski (2004) Alemtuzumab is an effective therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with p53 mutations and deletions. Blood 103, 3278-3281

133C.E. Dearden (2001) High remission rate in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with CAMPATH-1H. Blood 98, 1721-1726

134M.J. Keating (2002) Campath-1H treatment of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia in patients for whom at least one prior chemotherapy regimen has failed. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20, 205-213

135J. Lundin (2003) Phase 2 study of alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody) in patients with advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. Blood 101, 4267-4272

136G.A. Kennedy (2003) Treatment of patients with advanced mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome with alemtuzumab. European Journal of Haematology 71, 250-256

139A. Mone (2005) Durable hematologic complete response and suppression of HTLV-1 viral load following alemtuzumab in zidovudine/IFNalpha-refractory adult T-cell leukemia. Blood 106, 3380-3382

140F. Ravandi and S. Faderl (2006) Complete response in a patient with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) treated with combination of alemtuzumab and pentostatin. Leukemia Research 30, 103-105

145F.D. Groves , M.S. Linet , L.B. Travis and S.S. Devesa (2000) Cancer surveillance series: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence by histologic subtype in the United States from 1978 through 1995. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92, 1240-1251

147P. Moingeon (1989) The structural biology of CD2. Immunological Reviews 111, 111-144

148P.E. Moingeon (1991) Complementary roles for CD2 and LFA-1 adhesion pathways during T-cell activation. European Journal of Immunology 21, 605-610

149P.A. van der Merwe and S.J. Davis (2003) Molecular interactions mediating T cell antigen recognition. Annual Review of Immunology 21, 659-684

150Y. Xu (2004) The anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody BTI-322 generates unresponsiveness by activation-associated T cell depletion. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 138, 476-483

151J. Shaffer (2007) Regulatory T-cell recovery in recipients of haploidentical nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with a humanized anti-CD2 mAb, MEDI-507, with or without fludarabine. Experimental Hematology 35, 1140-1152

152Z. Zhang , M. Zhang , J.V. Ravetch , C. Goldman and T.A. Waldmann (2003) Effective therapy for a murine model of adult T-cell leukemia with the humanized anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, MEDI-507. Blood 102, 284-288

154D. O'Mahony (2009) EBV-related lymphoproliferative disease complicating therapy with the anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, siplizumab, in patients with T-cell malignancies. Clinical Cancer Research 15, 2514-2522

155K.C. Garcia and E.J. Adams (2005) How the T-cell receptor sees antigen- A structural view. Cell 122, 333-336

156A.D. Kirk (2006) Induction immunosuppression. Transplantation 82, 593-602

157S. Knop (2007) Treatment of steroid-resistant acute GVHD with OKT3 and high-dose steroids results in better disease control and lower incidence of infectious complications when compared to high-dose steroids alone: A randomized multi-center trial by the EBMT Chronic Leukemia Working Party. Leukemia 21, 1830-1833

158L. Chatenoud (2003) CD3-specific antibody-induced active tolerance: From bench to bedside. Nature Reviews Immunology 3, 123-132

163Y.H. Kim (2007) Clinical efficacy of zanolimumab (HuMax-CD4): two phase 2 studies in refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 109, 4655-4662

164D.A. Rider (2007) A human CD4 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma combines inhibition of T-cell signaling by a dual mechanism with potent Fc-dependent effector activity. Cancer Research 67, 9945-9953

169R.J. Robb , A. Munck and K.A. Smith (1982) T-cell growth factor receptors. Journal of Experimental Medicine 154, 1455-1474

170J.C. Morris and T.A. Waldmann (2000) Advances in interleukin 2 receptor targeted treatment. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 59 (Suppl. 1), 109-114

171T.A. Waldmann (1986) The structure, function, and expression of interleukin-2 receptors on normal and malignant T-cells. Science 232, 727-732

174C. Queen (1989) A humanized antibody that binds to the interleukin 2 receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, 10029-10033

175M. Zhang (2004) Activating Fc receptors are required for anti-tumor efficacy of the antibodies directed toward CD25 in a murine model of adult T-cell leukemia. Cancer Research 64, 5825-5829

176B. Nashan , S. Light , I.R. Hardie , A. Lin and J.R. Johnson (1999) Reduction of acute renal allograft rejection by daclizumab. Daclizumab Double Therapy Study Group. Transplantation 67, 110-115

177B.J. Poiesz , F.W. Ruscetti , A.F. Gazdar , P.A. Bunn , J.D. Minna and R.C. Gallo (1980) Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 77, 7415-7419

178E. Matutes (2007) Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Pathology 60, 1373-1377

179C.L. Tendler (1990) Transactivation of interleukin 2 and its receptor induces immune activation in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy: Pathogenic implications and a rationale for immunotherapy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87, 5218-5222

185M. Tsudo , R.W. Kozak , C.K. Goldman and T.A. Waldmann (1986) Demonstration of a non-Tac peptide that binds interleukin 2: a potential participant in a multichain interleukin 2 receptor complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 83, 9694-9698

186M. Tsudo , F. Kitamura and M. Miyasaka (1989) Characterization of the interleukin 2 receptor beta chain using three distinct monoclonal antibodies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, 1982-1986

188T.A. Waldmann (2006) The biology of interleukin-2 and interleukin-15: Implications for cancer therapy and vaccine design. Nature Reviews Immunology 6, 595-601

191A. Alileche , C.K. Goldman and T.A. Waldmann (2001) Differential effects of IL-2 and IL-15 on expression of IL-2 receptor-α. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 285, 1302-1308

193J.C. Morris (2006) Preclinical and phase I clinical trial of blockade of IL-15 using Mik-β-1 monoclonal antibody in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 401-406

T.A. Waldmann and J.C. Morris (2006) Development of antibodies and chimeric molecules for cancer immunotherapy, In J.P. Allison and G. Dranoff (eds.) Advances in Immunology: Cancer Immunotherapy 90, 83-131. Elsevier Academic Press.

J.C. Morris , T.A. Waldmann and J.E. Janik (2008) Receptor-directed therapy of T-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Journal of Immunotoxicology 5, 235-248.

R.J. Kreitman (2009) Recombinant immunotoxins containing truncated bacterial toxins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. BioDrugs 23, 1-13.

M. Migkou , M.A. Dimopoulos , M. Gavriatopoulou and E. Terpos (2009) Applications of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 9, 207-220.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1462-3994
  • URL: /core/journals/expert-reviews-in-molecular-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *