Hostname: page-component-f7d5f74f5-47svn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-03T19:46:11.240Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Effect of cooking on free amino acid and mineral profiles of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2012

Berta Gonçalves*
CITAB - Cent. Res. Technol. Agro-Environ. Biol. Sci., Univ. Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
Olga Borges
Deleg. Reg. Agric. Nordeste Transmont., Ave. General Humberto Delgado, 5300-167 Bragança, Portugal
Eduardo Rosa
CITAB - Cent. Res. Technol. Agro-Environ. Biol. Sci., Univ. Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
João Coutinho
UTAD-CQ-Cent. Chem., Univ. Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Ana Paula Silva
CITAB - Cent. Res. Technol. Agro-Environ. Biol. Sci., Univ. Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
* Correspondence and reprints
Get access


Introduction. Chestnut represents one of the most important crops for the Portuguese economy. The most common consumption mode of these fruits is roasted or boiled. In this context, the major aim of our study was to evaluate the amino acid contents and the mineral composition of raw and cooked chestnuts. Materials and methods. Amino acids were determined by HPLC and minerals were determined by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry or by flame emission photometry. The most important Portuguese cultivars were evaluated: Aveleira, Boaventura, Côta, Judia, Lada, Lamela, Longal Padrela, Longal Soutos da Lapa, Negra and Martaínha. Results and discussion. The cooking method significantly affected the total amino acid composition with contents in roasted samples 13% and 12 % higher than in boiled and raw chestnuts, respectively. Roasted chestnuts presented higher alanine, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine contents than either raw or boiled chestnuts. Moreover, serine presented the highest content in raw or roasted chestnut kernels. Regarding the mineral composition, potassium (K) was the predominant macronutrient in the chestnuts, whereas phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were found in low contents. Cooking significantly affected the mineral composition, except for iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) contents. In general, calcium decreased upon cooking. K, Ca, Mg and B decreased with boiling. The present data confirm that cooked chestnuts are a good source of amino acids and minerals, both affected by boiling and roasting, which have been associated with positive health benefits.

Original article
© 2012 Cirad/EDP Sciences

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Gomes, M.H., Rosa, E., Free amino acid composition in primary and secondary inflorescences of 11 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivars and its variation between growing seasons, J. Sci. Food Agric. 81 (2000) 295299.3.0.CO;2-#>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belitz H.D., Grosch W., Schieberle P., Food chemistry, 3rd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Ger., 2004.
Voet D., Voet J.G., Biochemistry, 3rd ed., Wiley Hoboken, N.J., U.S.A., 2004.
Anon., Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients), Food Nutr. Board, Inst. Med. Ntl. Acad., Ntl. Acad. Press Wash., Wash., D.C., U.S.A., 2005.
Nyman, J., Incorporation of arginine, ornithine and phenylalanine into tropane alkaloids in suspension-cultured cells and aseptic roots of intact plants on Atropa belladonna, J. Exp. Bot. 45 (1994) 979986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desmaison, A.M., Marcher, M.H., Tixier, M., Changes in free and total amino acid composition of ripening chestnut seeds, Phytochem. 23 (1984) 24532456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Vasconcelos, M.C., Bennett, R.N., Rosa, E., Cardoso, J., Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation, J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 35083516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borges, O., Gonçalves, B., Soeiro, J., Correia, P., Silva, A., Nutritional quality of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal, Food Chem. 106 (2008) 976984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Vasconcelos, M.C., Bennett, R.N., Rosa, E., Cardoso, J.V., Industrial processing effects on chestnut fruits ( Castanea sativa Mill.). 2. Crude protein, free amino acids and phenolic phytochemicals, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44 (2009) 26132619.Google Scholar
De Vasconcelos, M.C., Nunes, F., García-Viguera, C., Bennett, R., Rosa, E., Cardoso, J.V., Industrial processing effects on chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.). 3. Minerals, free sugars, carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45 (2010) 496505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Candela, M., Astiasaran, I., Bello, J., Cooking and warm-holding: effect on general composition and amino acids of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), and lentils (Lens culinaris), J. Agric. Food Chem. 45 (1997) 47634767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Künsch, U., Scharer, H., Conedera, M., Sassella, A., Jermini, M., Jelmini, G., Quality assessment of chestnut fruits, Acta Hortic. 494 (1999) 119122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonçalves, B., Borges, O., Soares Costa H., Bennett R., Santos M., Silva A.P., Metabolite composition of chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) upon cooking: Proximate analysis, fibre, organic acids and phenolics, Food Chem. 122 (2010) 154160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gehrke, C.W., Kuo, K.C., Kaiser, F.E., Zumwalt, R.W., Analysis of amino acids by gas chromatography as the N-trifluoroacetyl n-butyl esters, J. Assoc. Anal. Chem. 70 (1987) 160170.Google ScholarPubMed
Mills H.A., Benton Jones Jr. J., Plant analysis. Handbook II, MicroMacro Publ. Inc., Athens, U.S.A., 1996.
Anon., Dietary Guidelines for Americans, U.S. Dep. Agric. & U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv., 7th Ed., Wash., D.C., U.S.A., 2010, <>
Klein, L.B., Mondey, N.I., Comparison of microwave and conventional baking in relation to nitrogenous and mineral composition, J. Food Sci. 46 (2001) 18741877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisiewska, Z., Kmiecik, W., Gębczyński, P., Sobczyńska, L., Amino acid profile of raw and as-eaten products of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.), Food Chem. 126 (2011) 460465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziena, H.M., Youssef, M.M., El-Mahdy, A.R., Amino acid composition and some antinutritional factors of cooked faba beans (Medammis): Effect of cooking temperature and time, J. Food Sci. 56 (1991) 13471352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Vasconcelos, M.C., Bennett, R.N., Rosa, E., Cardoso, J., Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products, J. Sci. Food Agric. 90 (2010) 15781589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, F.B., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Rimm, E.B., Colditz, G.A., Rosner, B.A., Speizer, F.E., Hennekens, C.H.Wilett, W.C., Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study, Brit. Med. J. 317 (1998) 13411345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Albert, C.M., Gaziano, J.M., Willett, W.C., Manson, J.E., Hennekens, C.H., Nut consumption and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death in the physicians, health study, Arch. Intern. Med. 162 (2002) 13821387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlotti, M.E., Gallarate, M., Gasco, M.R., Morel, S., Serafino, A., Ugazio, E., Synergistic action of vitamin C and amino acids on vitamin E in inhibition of the lipoperoxidation of linoleic acid in disperse systems, Int. J. Pharm. 155 (1997) 251261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, R.H., Health benefits of fruits and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combination of phytochemicals, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78 (2003) 517S520S.Google Scholar
Yang, Y., Liu, R.H., Halim, L., Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common edible nut seeds, Food Sci. Technol. 42 (2009) 18.Google Scholar
Karase, L., Wenzl, T., Anklam, E., Determination of acrylamide in roasted chestnuts and chestnut-based foods by isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS, Food Chem. 114 (2009) 15551558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Souci S.W., Fachman W., Kraut K., Food composition and nutrition tables 1989/90, 4th ed., Stutgart, Dtsch. Forschungsanst. Lebensmittelchem., 1989.
Khaw, K.T., Barrett-Connor, E., Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality: A 12-year prospective population study, New Engl. J. Med. 316 (1987) 235240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whelton, P.K., He, J., Potassium in preventing and treating high blood pressure, Semin. Nephrol. 19 (1999) 494499.Google ScholarPubMed
Warner, M.G., Complementary and alternative therapies for hypertension, Complement. Health Pract. Rev. 6 (2000) 1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahsan, S.K., Magnesium in health and disease, J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 48 (1998) 246250.Google ScholarPubMed
Diehl, J.F., Nuts shown to offer health benefits, INFORM 13 (2002) 134138.Google Scholar
McCarron, D.A., Calcium metabolism in hypertension, Keio J. Med. 44 (1995) 105114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jiang, S.L., Wu, J.G., Feng, Y., Yang, X.E., Shi, C.H., Correlation analysis of mineral element contents and quality traits in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.), J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 96089613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou, C.S., Liu, W.H., Fan, B.W., Luo, L., Study on correlation between trace elements and quality and output of rice in Sichuan, Guangdong, Trace Elem. Sci. 10 (2003) 5659.Google Scholar