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Prosthetic Joint Infection Following Invasive Dental Procedures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients With Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

  • Feng-Chen Kao (a1) (a2), Yao-Chun Hsu (a2) (a3) (a4) (a5) (a6), Wen-Hui Chen (a2) (a7), Jiun-Nong Lin (a8), Ying-Ying Lo (a9) and Yuan-Kun Tu (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We aimed to clarify whether invasive dental treatment is associated with increased risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and whether prophylactic antibiotics may lower the infection risk remain unclear.

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

PARTICIPANTS

All Taiwanese residents (N=255,568) who underwent total knee or hip arthroplasty between January 1, 1997, and November 30, 2009, were screened.

METHODS

The dental cohort consisted of 57,066 patients who received dental treatment and were individually matched 1:1 with the nondental cohort by age, sex, propensity score, and index date. The dental cohort was further divided by the use or nonuse of prophylactic antibiotics. The antibiotic and nonantibiotic subcohorts comprised 6,513 matched pairs.

RESULTS

PJI occurred in 328 patients (0.57%) in the dental subcohort and 348 patients (0.61%) in the nondental subcohort, with no between-cohort difference in the 1-year cumulative incidence (0.6% in both, P=.3). Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression revealed no association between dental procedures and PJI. Furthermore, PJI occurred in 13 patients (0.2%) in the antibiotic subcohort and 12 patients (0.18%) in the nonantibiotic subcohorts (P=.8). Multivariate-adjusted analyses confirmed that there was no association between the incidence of PJI and prophylactic antibiotics.

CONCLUSIONS

The risk of PJI is not increased following dental procedure in patients with hip or knee replacement and is unaffected by antibiotic prophylaxis.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017;38:154–161

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Dr. Wen-Hui Chen, Department of Dentistry, E-Da Hospital/I-Shou University; No.1, E-Da Rd., Yan-Chao District, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (wenhuichen0802@gmail.com); or to Dr. Yao-Chun Hsu, Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Database Research, E-Da Hospital/I-Shou University; No.1, E-Da Rd., Yan-Chao District, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (holdenhsu@gmail.com).

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