Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dodds, Catherine Weait, Matthew Bourne, Adam and Egede, Siri 2015. Keeping confidence: HIV and the criminal law from HIV service providers’ perspectives. Critical Public Health, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 410.


    ×
  • International Journal of Law in Context, Volume 9, Issue 4
  • December 2013, pp. 535-564

Unsafe law: health, rights and the legal response to HIV

  • Matthew Weait (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1744552313000293
  • Published online: 16 December 2013
Abstract
Abstract

This paper describes the ways in which, over the past three decades, law has come to serve as an obstacle in the fight against HIV, and how it contributes to the stigmatisation of, and discrimination against, people living with the virus. It argues that in order to make unsafe law safer, policy-makers, legislators and those responsible for the interpretation and enforcement of law must base their HIV response not on populist morality but on the strong evidence base provided by three decades of clinical, scientific and social research. Drawing on that research and the author's own involvement in policy development in this area, it suggests that rights-based arguments are, while important, insufficient as the basis for delivering the changes that are necessary, discusses the difficulties involved in achieving those changes, and argues that legal scholarship and research has an important role to play in HIV activism and combating the global epidemic.

Copyright
Corresponding author
m.weait@bbk.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. B. Abecasis , A. M. Geretti , J. Albert , L. Power , M. Weait and A. M. Vandamme (2011) ‘Science in Court: The Myth of HIV Fingerprinting,’ Lancet Infectious Diseases 11(2): 7879.

A. A. Adimora and J. D. Auerbach (2010) ‘Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention in the United States,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 55(Supplement 2): S132–35.

A. Adler , S. Mounier-Jack and R. J. Coker (2009) ‘Late Diagnosis of HIV in Europe: Definitional and Public Health Challenges,’ Aids Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of Aids/HIV 21(3): 284–93.

J. J. Amon and K. W. Todrys (2008) ‘Fear of Foreigners: HIV-related Restrictions on Entry, Stay, and Residence’, Journal of the International AIDS Society 11. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2621119/>.

T. Anderson (2009) ‘HIV/AIDS in Cuba: A Rights-based Analysis,’ Health and Human Rights, 11(1): 93104.

Y. Balabanova , R. Coker , R. A. Atun and F. Drobniewski (2006) ‘Stigma and HIV infection in Russia,’ AIDS Care 18(7): 846–52.

I. Basu , S. Jana , M. J. Rotheram-Borus , D. Swendeman , S. J. Lee , P. Newman and R. Weiss (2004) ‘HIV Prevention among Sex Workers in India,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 36(3): 845–52.

R. Bayer and A. Fairchild-Carrino (1993) ‘AIDS and the Limits of Control: Public Health Orders, Quarantine, and Recalcitrant Behavior,’ American Journal of Public Health 83(10): 1471–76.

R. Bayer and C. Healton (1989) ‘Controlling AIDS in Cuba. The logic of quarantine,’ New England Journal of Medicine 320(15): 1022–24.

E. J. Bernard , Y. Azad , A. M. Vandamme , M. Weait and A. M. Geretti (2007) ‘HIV Forensics: Pitfalls and Acceptable Standards in the use of Phylogenetic Analysis as Evidence in Criminal Investigations of HIV Transmission,’ HIV Medicine 8(6): 382–87.

K. Bhaskaran , O. Hamouda , M. Sannes , F. Boufassa , A. M. Johnson , P. C. Lambert and K. Porter (2008) ‘Changes in the Risk of Death after HIV Seroconversion Compared with Mortality in the General Population,’ Journal of the American Medical Association 300(1): 5159.

M. R. Biradavolu , K. M. Blankenship , A. Jena and N. Dhungana (2012) ‘Structural Stigma, Sex Work and HIV: Contradictions and Lessons Learnt from a Community-led Structural Intervention in Southern India,’ Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Ii95ii99.

K. M. Blankenship , M. R. Biradavolu , A. Jena and A. George (2010) ‘Challenging the Stigmatization of Female Sex Workers through a Community-led Structural Intervention: Learning from a Case Study of a Female Sex Worker intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India,’ AIDS Care 22(Supplement 2): 1629–36.

K. M. Blankenship , S. J. Bray and M. H. Merson (2000) ‘Structural Interventions in Public Health,’ AIDS 14(Supplement 1): S1121.

K. M. Blankenship , S. R. Friedman , S. Dworkin and J. E. Mantell (2006) ‘Structural Interventions: Concepts, Challenges and Opportunities for Research,’ Journal of Urban Health 83(1): 5972.

K. M. Blankenship , B. S. West , T. S. Kershaw and M. R. Biradavolu (2008) ‘Power, Community Mobilization, and Condom Use Practices among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India,’ AIDS 22(Supplement 5): S109–16.

N. K. Blomley (1994) ‘Activism and the Academy,’ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 12(4): 383–85.

B. G. Bokhour , J. L. Solomon , H. Knapp , S. M. Asch and A. L. Gifford (2009) ‘Barriers and Facilitators to Routine HIV Testing in VA Primary Care,’ Journal of General Internal Medicine 24(10): 1109–14.

L. Brown , K. Macintyre and L. Trujillo (2003) ‘Interventions to Reduce HIV/AIDS Stigma: What Have We Learned?,’ AIDS Education and Prevention 15(1): 4969.

T. Calin , J. Green , J. Hetherton and G. Brook (2007) ‘Disclosure of HIV among Black African Men and Women Attending a London HIV Clinic,’ AIDS Care 19(3): 385–91.

L. Calzavara , A. N. Burchell , C. Major , R. S. Remis , P. Corey , T. Myers , P. Millson and E. Wallace (2002) ‘Increases in HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men Undergoing Repeat Diagnostic HIV Testing in Ontario, Canada,’ AIDS 16(12): 1655–61.

C. Campbell and F. Cornish (2012) ‘How Can Community Health Programmes Build Enabling Environments for Transformative Communication? Experiences from India and South Africa,’ AIDS and Behavior 16(4): 847–57.

P. Case , T. Meehan and T. S. Jones (1998) ‘Arrests and Incarceration of Injection Drug Users for Syringe Possession in Massachusetts: Implications for HIV Prevention,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Hum Retrovirol 18(Supplement 1): S7175.

J. Castilla , J. Del romero , V. Hernando , B. Marincovich , S. Garcia and C. Rodriguez (2005) ‘Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 40(1): 96101.

T. R. Chadborn , K. Baster , V. C. Delpech , C. A. Sabin , K. Sinka , B. D. Rice and B. G. Evans (2005) ‘No Time to Wait: How Many HIV-infected Homosexual Men Are Diagnosed Late and Consequently Die? (England and Wales, 1993–2002),’ AIDS 19(5): 513–20.

T. R. Chadborn , V. C. Delpech , C. A. Sabin , K. Sinka and B. G. Evans (2006) ‘The Late Diagnosis and Consequent Short-term Mortality of HIV-infected Heterosexuals (England and Wales, 2000–2004),’ AIDS 20(18): 2371–79.

C. H. Chen , W. C. Ko , H. C. Lee , K. L. Hsu and N. Y. Ko (2008) ‘Risky Behaviors for HIV Infection among Male Incarcerated Injection Drug Users in Taiwan: A Case-control Study,’ AIDS Care 20(10): 1251–57.

H. J. Clark , G. Lindner , L. Armistead and B. J. Austin (2003) ‘Stigma, Disclosure, and Psychological Functioning among HIV-infected and Non-infected African-American Women,’ Women Health 38(4): 5771.

T. Coenen , J. Lundgren , J. V. Lazarus and S. Matic (2008) ‘Optimal HIV Testing and Earlier Care: The Way Forward in Europe,’ HIV Medicine 9: 15.

J. Cohen (2004) ‘HIV/AIDS in India. Sonagachi Sex Workers Stymie HIV,’ Science 304(5670): 506.

M. S. Cohen , Y. Q. Chen , M. Mccauley , T. Gamble , M. C. Hosseinipour , N. Kumarasamy , J. G. Hakim , J. Kumwenda , B. Grinsztejn , J. H. Pilotto , S. V. Godbole , S. Mehendale , S. Chariyalertsak , B. R. Santos , K. H. Mayer , I. F. Hoffman , S. H. Eshleman , E. Piwowar-Manning , L. Wang , J. Makhema , L. A. Mills , G. De bruyn , I. Sanne , J. Eron , J. Gallant , D. Havlir , S. Swindells , H. Ribaudo , V. Elharrar , D. Burns , T. E. Taha , K. Nielsen-Saines , D. Celentano , M. Essex , T. R. Fleming and H. S. Team (2011) ‘Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy,’ New England Journal of Medicine 365(6): 493505.

F. Cornish and R. Ghosh (2007) ‘The Necessary Contradictions of ‘Community-led’ Health Promotion: A Case Study of HIV Prevention in an Indian Red Light District,’ Social Science and Medicine 64(2): 496507.

D. Crimp (1987) ‘How to Have Promiscuity in an Epidemic,’ October 43(October): 237–71.

A. L. Cunningham , H. Donaghy , A. N. Harman , M. Kim and S. G. Turville (2010) ‘Manipulation of Dendritic Cell Function by Viruses,’ Current Opinion in Microbiology 13(4): 524–29.

S. Cu-Uvin , A. M. Caliendo , S. Reinert , A. Chang , C. Juliano-Remollino , T. P. Flanigan , K. H. Mayer and C. C. Carpenter (2000) ‘Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA,’ AIDS 14(4): 415–21.

M. G. Daniels (2008) ‘Late HIV Diagnosis,’ Sexually Transmitted Diseases 35(3): 323–24.

R. Danziger (1996) ‘Compulsory Testing for HIV in Hungary,’ Social Science and Medicine 43(8): 1199–204.

L. Degenhardt , B. Mathers , P. Vickerman , T. Rhodes , C. Latkin and M. Hickman (2010) ‘Prevention of HIV Infection for People Who Inject Drugs: Why Individual, Structural, and Combination Approaches Are Needed,’ Lancet 376(9737): 285301.

M. Delaney (2006) ‘History of HAART – The True Story of How Effective Multi-drug Therapy Was Developed for Treatment of HIV Disease,’ Retrovirology 3(Supplement 1)(S6): 1.

J. B. De wit and P. C. G. Adam (2008) ‘To Test or Not to Test: Psychosocial Barriers to HIV Testing in High-income Countries,’ HIV Medicine 9(Supplement 2): 2022.

C. Dodds , A. Bourne and M. Weait (2009) ‘Responses to Criminal Prosecutions for HIV Transmission among Gay Men with HIV in England and Wales,’ Reproductive Health Matters 17(34): 135–45.

K. Dolan , B. Kite , E. Black , C. Aceijas and G. V. Stimson (2007) ‘HIV in Prison in Low-income and Middle-income Countries,’ Lancet Infectious Diseases 7(1): 3241.

N. Dowshen , H. J. Binns and R. Garofalo (2009) ‘Experiences of HIV-related Stigma among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men,’ AIDS Patient Care STDS 23(5): 371–76.

N. H. Dukers , J. Spaargaren , R. B. Geskus , J. Beijnen , R. A. Coutinho and H. S. Fennema (2002) ‘HIV Incidence on the Increase among Homosexual Men Attending an Amsterdam Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic: Using a Novel Approach for Detecting Recent Infections,’ AIDS 16(10): F1924.

R. Elliott (2007) ‘Deadly Disregard: Government Refusal to Implement Evidence-based Measures to Prevent HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Prisons,’ Canadian Medical Association Journal 177(3): 262–64.

D. Epstein (2000) ‘Sexualities and Education: Catch 28,’ Sexualities 3(4): 387–94.

J. T. Erausquin , M. Biradavolu , E. Reed , R. Burroway and K. M. Blankenship (2012) ‘Trends in Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: The Impact of a Community Mobilisation Intervention,’ Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 66(Supplement 2): ii4954.

I. Fakoya , R. Reynolds , G. Caswell and I. Shiripinda (2008) ‘Barriers to HIV Testing for Migrant Black Africans in Western Europe,’ HIV Medicine 9(Supplement 2): 2325.

C. T. Fang , H. M. Hsu , S. J. Twu , M. Y. Chen , Y. Y. Chang , J. S. Hwang , J. D. Wang and C. Y. Chuang (2004) ‘Decreased HIV Transmission After a Policy of Providing Free Access to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Taiwan,’ Journal of Infectious Diseases 190(5): 879–85.

H. Fay , S. D. Baral , G. Trapence , F. Motimedi , E. Umar , S. Iipinge , F. Dausab , A. Wirtz and C. Beyrer (2011) ‘Stigma, Health Care Access, and HIV Knowledge Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana,’ AIDS and Behavior 15(6): 1088–97.

M. Fisher (2008) ‘Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Major Consequences and Missed Opportunities,’ Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 21(1): 13.

N. L. Ford and M. D. Quam (1987) ‘AIDS Quarantine. The Legal and Practical Implications,’ Journal of Legal Medicine 8(3): 353–96.

J. D. Fortenberry , M. Mcfarlane , A. Bleakley , S. Bull , M. Fishbein , D. M. Grimley , C. K. Malotte and B. P. Stoner (2002) ‘Relationships of Stigma and Shame to Gonorrhea and HIV Screening,’ American Journal of Public Health 92(3): 378–81.

N. Freudenberg (2011) ‘HIV in the Epicenter of the Epicenter: HIV and Drug Use Among Criminal Justice Populations in New York City, 1980–2007,’ Substance Use & Misuse 46(2/3): 159–70.

C. Galarneau (2010) ‘Blood Donation, Deferral, and Discrimination: FDA Donor Deferral Policy for Men Who Have Sex with Men,’ American Journal of Bioethics 10(2): 2939.

C. L. Galletly and S. D. Pinkerton (2006) ‘Conflicting Messages: How Criminal HIV Disclosure Laws Undermine Public Health Efforts to Control the Spread of HIV,’ AIDS and Behavior 10(5): 451–61.

F. Gardezi , L. Calzavara , W. Husbands , W. Tharao , E. Lawson , T. Myers , A. Pancham , C. George , R. Remis , D. Willms , F. Mcgee and S. Adebajo (2008) ‘Experiences of and Responses to HIV Among African and Caribbean Communities in Toronto, Canada,’ AIDS Care 20(6): 718–25.

B. L. Genberg , Z. Hlavka , K. A. Konda , S. Maman , S. Chariyalertsak , A. Chingono , J. Mbwambo , P. Modiba , H. Van Rooyen and D. D. Celentano (2009) ‘A Comparison of HIV/AIDS-related Stigma in Four Countries: Negative Attitudes and Perceived Acts of Discrimination Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS,’ Social Science & Medicine 68(12): 2279–87.

B. L. Genberg , S. Kawichai , A. Chingono , M. Sendah , S. Chariyalertsak , K. A. Konda and D. D. Celentano (2008) ‘Assessing HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination in Developing Countries,’ AIDS and Behavior 12(5): 772–80.

T. Ghose , D. T. Swendeman and S. M. George (2011) ‘The Role of Brothels in Reducing HIV Risk in Sonagachi, India,’ Qualitative Health Research 21(5): 587600.

T. Ghose , D. Swendeman , S. George and D. Chowdhury (2008) ‘Mobilizing Collective Identity to Reduce HIV Risk Among Sex Workers in Sonagachi, India: The Boundaries, Consciousness, Negotiation Framework,’ Social Science & Medicine 67(2): 311–20.

V. L. Gilbart , S. Dougan , K. Sinka and B. G. Evans (2006) ‘Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection Among Individuals with Low, Unrecognised or Unacknowledged Risks in England, Wales and Northern Ireland,’ Aids Care–Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV 18(2): 133–39.

E. Girardi , M. S. Aloisi , C. Arici , P. Pezzotti , D. Serraino , R. Balzano , G. Vigevani , F. Alberici , M. Ursitti , M. D'Alessandro , A. D'Arminio Monforte and G. Ippolito (2004) ‘Delayed Presentation and Late Testing for HIV: Demographic and Behavioral Risk Factors in a Multicenter Study in Italy,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 36(4): 951–59.

E. Girardi , C. A. Sabin and A. D. Monforte (2007) ‘Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Epidemiological Features, Consequences and Strategies to Encourage Earlier Testing,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 46(Supplement 1): S38.

J. J. Goedert (1987) ‘What is Safe Sex?,’ New England Journal of Medicine 316: 1339–42.

P. Grenfell , W. Nutland , S. Mcmanus , J. Datta , K. Soldan and K. Wellings (2011) ‘Views and Experiences of Men Who Have Sex with Men on the Ban on Blood Donation: A Cross Sectional Survey with Qualitative Interviews’, British Medical Journal, 343. Available at: <http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d5604?view=long&pmid=21903692>.

H. I. Hall , D. R. Holtgrave and C. Maulsby (2012) ‘HIV Transmission Rates from Persons Living with HIV Who Are Aware and Unaware of Their Infection,’ AIDS 26(7): 893–96.

F. F. Hamers and A. N. Phillips (2008) ‘Diagnosed and Undiagnosed HIV-infected Populations in Europe,’ HIV Medicine 9(Supplement 2): 612.

J. S. Hocking , A. J. Rodger , D. G. Rhodes and N. Crofts (2000) ‘Late Presentation of HIV Infection Associated with Prolonged Survival Following AIDS Diagnosis–Characteristics of Individuals,’ International Journal of STD & AIDS 11(8): 503–08.

D. M. Huebner , M. C. Davis , C. J. Nemeroff and L. S. Aiken (2002) ‘The Impact of Internalized Homophobia on HIV Preventive Interventions,’ Amercan Journal of Community Psychology 30(3): 327–48.

S. Jana , I. Basu , M. J. Rotheram-Borus and P. A. Newman (2004) ‘The Sonagachi Project: A Sustainable Community Intervention Program,’ AIDS Education and Prevention 16(5): 405–14.

R. Jürgens , A. Ball and A. Verster (2009) ‘Interventions to Reduce HIV Transmission Related to Injecting Drug Use in Prison,’ Lancet Infectious Diseases 9: 5766.

R. Jürgens , M. Nowak and M. Day (2011) ‘HIV and Incarceration: Prisons and Detention’, Journal of the International AIDS Society 14: 26. Available at: <http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1758-2652-14-26.pdf>.

J. M. Kanyamurwa and G. T. Ampek (2007) ‘Gender Differentiation in Community Responses to AIDS in Rural Uganda,’ AIDS Care 19(Supplement 1): S6472.

M. H. Katz , S. K. Schwarcz , T. A. Kellogg , J. D. Klausner , J. W. Dilley , S. Gibson and W. Mcfarland (2002) ‘Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment on HIV Seroincidence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: San Francisco,’ American Journal of Public Health 92(3): 388–94.

J. A. Kelly , S. C. Kalichman , M. R. Kauth , H. G. Kilgore , H. V. Hood , P. E. Campos , S. M. Rao , T. L. Brasfield and J. S. St Lawrence (1991a) ‘Situational Factors Associated with AIDS Risk Behavior Lapses and Coping Strategies Used by Gay Men Who Successfully Avoid Lapses,’ American Journal of Public Health 81(10): 1335–38.

J. A. Kelly and D. A. Murphy (1991) ‘Some Lessons Learned about Risk Reduction after Ten Years of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic,’ AIDS Care 3(3): 251–57.

J. A. Kelly , J. S. St Lawrence and T. L. Brasfield (1991b) ‘Predictors of Vulnerability to AIDS Risk Behavior Relapse,’ Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59(1): 163–66.

D. Kerrigan , P. Telles , H. Torres , C. Overs and C. Castle (2008) ‘Community Development and HIV/STI-related Vulnerability Among Female Sex Workers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,’ Health Education Research 23(1): 137–45.

J. Kim , P. Pronyk , T. Barnett and C. Watts (2008) ‘Exploring the Role of Economic Empowerment in HIV Prevention,’ AIDS 22(Supplement 4): S5771.

D. Lai , L. Y. Hwang and R. P. Beasley (2012) ‘Compulsory HIV Testing for Exit from and Entry to China: Effectiveness, Cost, and Stigma – a Policy Update,’ Journal of Public Health Policy 33(2): 269–72.

J. V. Lazarus , N. Curth , M. Weait and S. Matic (2010) ‘HIV-related Restrictions on Entry, Residence and Stay in the WHO European Region: A Survey. Journal of the International AIDS Society 13: 2. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823611/pdf/1758-2652-13-2.pdf>.

Z. Lazzarini , S. Bray and S. Burris (2002) ‘Evaluating the Impact of Criminal Laws on HIV Risk Behavior,’ Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 30(2): 239–53.

S. Maman , L. Abler , L. Parker , T. Lane , A. Chirowodza , J. Ntogwisangu , N. Srirak , P. Modiba , O. Murima and K. Fritz (2009) ‘A Comparison of HIV Stigma and Discrimination in Five International Sites: The Influence of Care and Treatment Resources in High Prevalence Settings,’ Social Science and Medicine 68(12): 2271–78.

J. M. Mann (1995) ‘Human Rights and the New Public Health,’ Health and Human Rights 1(3): 229–33.

J. M. Mann (1996) ‘Health and Human Rights: Broadening the Agenda for Health Professionals,’ Health and Human Rights 2(1): 15.

J. M. Mann (1998) ‘AIDS and Human Rights: Where Do We Go from Here?,’ Health and Human Rights 3(1): 143–49.

J. M. Mann , L. Gostin , S. Gruskin , T. Brennan , Z. Lazzarini and H. V. Fineberg (1994) ‘Health and Human Rights,’ Health and Human Rights 1(1): 623.

G. Marks , N. Crepaz and R. S. Janssen (2006) ‘Estimating Sexual Transmission of HIV from Persons Aware and Unaware That They Are Infected with the Virus in the USA,’ AIDS 20(10): 1447–50.

G. Marks , N. Crepaz , J. W. Senterfitt and R. S. Janssen (2005) ‘Meta-analysis of High-risk Sexual Behavior in Persons Aware and Unaware They Are Infected with HIV in the United States: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 39(4): 446–53.

J. Martucci (2010) ‘Negotiating Exclusion: MSM, Identity, and Blood Policy in the Age of AIDS’. Social Studies of Science 40(2): 215–41.

B. M. Mathers , L. Degenhardt , B. Phillips , L. Wiessing , M. Hickman , S. A. Strathdee , A. Wodak , S. Panda , M. Tyndall , A. Toufik , R. P. Mattick (Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use) (2008) ‘Global Epidemiology of Injecting Drug Use and HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs: A Systematic Review,’ Lancet 372(9651): 1733–45.

I. Maxey (1999) ‘Beyond Boundaries? Activism, Academia, Reflexivity and Research,’ Area 31(3): 199208.

J. P. May and E. L. Williams (2002) ‘Acceptability of Condom Availability in a U.S. Jail,’ AIDS Education and Prevention 14(5 Supplement B): 8591.

M. T. May , M. Gompels , V. Delpech , K. Porter , F. Post , M. Johnson , D. Dunn , A. Palfreeman , R. Gilson , B. Gazzard , T. Hill , J. Walsh , M. Fisher , C. Orkin , J. Ainsworth , L. Bansi , A. Phillips , C. Leen , M. Nelson , J. Anderson and C. Sabin (2011) ‘Impact of Late Diagnosis and Treatment on Life Expectancy in People with HIV-1: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study’, British Medical Journal 343: d6016. Available at: <http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d6016>.

M. T. May and S. M. Ingle (2011) ‘Life Expectancy of HIV-positive Adults: A Review,’ Sex Health 8(4): 526–33.

P. A. Michaud , J. C. Suris , L. R. Thomas , C. Kahlert , C. Rudin and J. J. Cheseaux (2009) ‘To Say or Not to Say: A Qualitative Study on the Disclosure of Their Condition by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adolescents,’ Journal of Adolescent Health 44(4): 356–62.

R. D. Mohr (1987) ‘AIDS, Gays, and State Coercion,’ Bioethics 1(1): 3550.

J. P. Montgomery , E. D. Mokotoff , A. C. Gentry and J. M. Blair (2003) ‘The Extent of Bisexual Behaviour in HIV-infected Men and Implications for Transmission to Their Female Sex Partners,’ AIDS Care 15(6): 829–37.

A. Mowbray (2010) ‘A Study of the Principle of Fair Balance in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights,’ Human Rights Law Review 10(2): 289317.

F. Munger (2001) ‘Inquiry and Activism in Law and Society,’ Law and Society Review 35(1): 720.

D. F. Musto (1986) ‘Quarantine and the Problem of AIDS,’ Milbank Quarterly 64(1): 97117.

D. M. Mwamburi , N. Dladla , E. Qwana and M. N. Lurie (2005) ‘Factors Associated with Wanting to Know HIV Results in South Africa,’ AIDS Patient Care STDS 19(8): 518–25.

E. Mykhalovskiy (2011) ‘The Problem of “Significant Risk”: Exploring the Public Health Impact of Criminalizing HIV Non-disclosure,’ Social Science & Medicine 73(5): 668–75.

F. Nakagawa , R. K. Lodwick , C. J. Smith , R. Smith , V. Cambiano , J. D. Lundgren , V. Delpech and A. N. Phillips (2012) ‘Projected Life Expectancy of People with HIV According to Timing of Diagnosis,’ AIDS 26(3): 335–43.

J. Nanin , T. Osubu , J. Walker , B. Powell , D. Powell and J. Parsons (2009) ‘”HIV Is Still Real”: Perceptions of HIV Testing and HIV Prevention Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City’. American Journal of Mens Health 3(2): 150–64.

M. Oransky , C. B. Fisher , M. Mahadevan and M. Singer (2009) ‘Barriers and Opportunities for Recruitment for Nonintervention Studies on HIV Risk: Perspectives of Street Drug Users,’ Substance Use & Misuse 44(11): 1642–59.

S. Paparini , L. Doyal and J. Anderson (2008) ‘“I Count Myself as Being in a Different World”: African Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV in London. An Exploratory Study,’ AIDS Care 20(5): 601–05.

A. Persson and C. Newman (2008) ‘Making Monsters: Heterosexuality, Crime and Race in Recent Western Media Coverage of HIV,’ Sociology of Health and Illness 30(4): 632–46.

D. Pillay , A. Rambaut , A. M. Geretti and A. J. L. Brown (2007) ‘HIV Phylogenetics – Criminal Convictions Relying Solely on This to Establish Transmission Are Unsafe,’ British Medical Journal 335(7618): 460–61.

L. Platt , N. Bobrova , T. Rhodes , A. Uusküla , J. V. Parry , K. Rüütel , A. Talu , K. Abel , K. Rajaleid and A. Judd (2006) ‘High HIV Prevalence Among Injecting Drug Users in Estonia: Implications for Understanding the Risk Environment,’ AIDS 20(16): 2120–23.

L. Platt , M. Hickman , T. Rhodes , L. Mikhailova , V. Karavashkin , A. Vlasov , K. Tilling , V. Hope , M. Khutorksoy and A. Renton (2004) ‘The Prevalence of Injecting Drug Use in a Russian City: Implications for Harm Reduction and Coverage,’ Addiction 99(11): 1430–38.

P. M. Pronyk , J. C. Kim , T. Abramsky , G. Phetla , J. R. Hargreaves , L. A. Morison , C. Watts , J. Busza and J. D. Porter (2008) ‘A Combined Microfinance and Training Intervention Can Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour in Young Female Participants,’ AIDS 22(13): 1659–65.

S. E. Reid , S. M. Topp , E. R. Turnbull , S. Hatwiinda , J. B. Harris , K. R. Maggard , S. T. Roberts , A. Krüüner , J. C. Morse , N. Kapata , C. Chisela and G. Henostroza (2012) ‘Tuberculosis and HIV Control in Sub-Saharan African Prisons: “Thinking Outside the Prison Cell”,’ Journal of Infectious Diseases 205(Supplement 2): S265–73.

T. Rhodes , L. Mikhailova , A. Sarang , C. M. Lowndes , A. Rylkov , M. Khutorskoy and A. Renton (2003) ‘Situational Factors Influencing Drug Injecting, Risk Reduction and Syringe Exchange in Togliatti City, Russian Federation: A Qualitative Study of Micro Risk Environment,’ Social Science and Medicine 57(1): 3954.

T. Rhodes , L. Platt , S. Maximova , E. Koshkina , N. Latishevskaya , M. Hickman , A. Renton , N. Bobrova , T. Mcdonald and J. V. Parry (2006a) ‘Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis C and Syphilis Among Injecting Drug Users in Russia: A Multi-city Study,’ Addiction 101(2): 252–66.

T. Rhodes , L. Platt , A. Sarang , A. Vlasov , L. Mikhailova and G. Monaghan (2006b) ‘Street Policing, Injecting Drug Use and Harm Reduction in a Russian City: A Qualitative Study of Police Perspectives,’ Journal of Urban Health 83(5): 911–25.

T. Rhodes and A. Sarang (2012) ‘Drug Treatment and the Conditionality of HIV Treatment Access: A Qualitative Study in a Russian City,’ Addiction 107(10): 1827–36.

T. Rhodes , M. Singer , P. Bourgois , S. R. Friedman and S. A. Strathdee (2005) ‘The Social Structural Production of HIV Risk Among Injecting Drug Users,’ Social Science and Medicine 61(5): 1026–44.

M. W. Ross and B. R. Rosser (1996) ‘Measurement and Correlates of Internalized Homophobia: A Factor Analytic Study,’ Journal of Clinical Psychology 52(1): 1521.

C. A. Sabin , C. J. Smith , H. Gumley , G. Murphy , F. C. Lampe , A. N. Phillips , B. Prinz , M. Youle and M. A. Johnson (2004) ‘Late Presenters in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Uptake of and Responses to Antiretroviral Therapy,’ AIDS 18(16): 2145–51.

A. Sarang , T. Rhodes and L. Platt (2008) ‘Access to Syringes in Three Russian Cities: Implications for Syringe Distribution and Coverage,’ International Journal of Drug Policy 19(Supplement 1): S2536.

K. Shannon and J. Csete (2010) ‘Violence, Condom Negotiation, and HIV/STI Risk Among Sex Workers,’ Journal of the American Medical Association 304(5): 573–74.

W. Small , T. Rhodes , E. Wood and T. Kerr (2007) ‘Public Injection Settings in Vancouver: Physical Environment, Social Context and Risk,’ International Journal of Drug Policy 18(1): 2736.

A. Smith , J. Fiddler , K. Walby and S. Hier (2011) ‘Blood Donation and Institutional Trust: Risk, Policy Rhetoric, and the Men Who Have Sex with Men Lifetime Deferral Policy in Canada,’ Canadian Review of Sociology 48(4): 369–89.

D. Smith (1992) ‘Sociology from Women's Experience: A Reaffirmation,’ Sociological Theory 10(1): 8898.

S. A. Strathdee , T. B. Hallett , N. Bobrova , T. Rhodes , R. Booth , R. Abdool and C. A. Hankins (2010) ‘HIV and Risk Environment for Injecting Drug Users: The Past, Present, and Future,’ Lancet 376(9737): 268–84.

S. A. Strathdee , R. Lozada , R. A. Pollini , K. C. Brouwer , A. Mantsios , D. A. Abramovitz , T. Rhodes , C. A. Latkin , O. Loza , J. Alvelais , C. Magis-Rodriguez and T. L. Patterson (2008) ‘Individual, Social, and Environmental Influences Associated with HIV Infection Among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico,’ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 47(3): 369–76.

D. Swendeman , I. Basu , S. Das , S. Jana and M. J. Rotheram-Borus (2009) ‘Empowering Sex Workers in India to Reduce Vulnerability to HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases,’ Social Science and Medicine 69(8): 1157–66.

A. I. Tauber (1994) The Immune Self: Theory or Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

P. J. Turnbull , K. A. Dolan and G. V. Stimson (1993) ‘HIV Testing, and the Care and Treatment of HIV Positive People in English Prisons,’ AIDS Care 5(2): 199206.

C. Underwood , J. Skinner , N. Osman and H. Schwandt (2011) ‘Structural Determinants of Adolescent Girls’ Vulnerability to HIV: Views from Community Members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique,’ Social Science and Medicine 73(2): 343–50.

R. O. Valdiserri (2007) ‘Late HIV Diagnosis: Bad Medicine and Worse Public Health,’ PLOS Medicine 4(6): 975–76.

P. Vale de Andrade and L. Caparinha (2010) ‘Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal’, British Medical Journal: 341: c4554. Available at: <http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c4554>.

M. Valle and J. Levy (2009) ‘Weighing the Consequences: Self-disclosure of HIV-positive Status Among African American Injection Drug Users,’ Health Education & Behavior 36(1): 155–66.

H. Watchirs (2003) ‘AIDS Audit – HIV and Human Rights: An Australian Pilot,’ Law and Policy 25(3): 245–68.

R. A. Weiss (1993) ‘How Does HIV Cause AIDS?,’ Science 260(5112): 1273–79.

H. Yang , X. Li , B. Stanton , X. Fang , D. Lin and S. Naar-King (2006) ‘HIV-related Knowledge, Stigma, and Willingness to Disclose: A Mediation Analysis,’ AIDS Care 18(7): 717–24.

D. L. Yirrell , P. Robertson , D. J. Goldberg , J. Mcmenamin , S. Cameron and A. J. Leigh Brown (1997) ‘Molecular Investigation into Outbreak of HIV in a Scottish Prison,’ British Medical Journal 314(7092): 1446–50.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Law in Context
  • ISSN: 1744-5523
  • EISSN: 1744-5531
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-law-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×