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TROUBLING THE POLITICAL: WOMEN IN THE JORDANIAN DAY-WAGED LABOR MOVEMENT

  • Sara Ababneh
Abstract

The Jordanian Day-Waged Labor Movement (DWLM) played a central role in the Jordanian Popular Movement (al-Hirak al-Shaʿbi al-Urduni), commonly referred to as Hirak, from 2011 to the end of 2012. The large number of women who were active and took on leading roles in the DWLM contrasts with the absence of women's rights organizations in the Hirak. I argue that the DWLM was able to attract so many women because it developed a discourse and flexible structure that understood women to be embedded within communities and prioritized their economic needs. By studying this discourse and structure, it is possible to learn important lessons about gender-inclusive political and institutional reform.

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Corresponding author
Sara Ababneh is an Assistant Professor and Researcher at the Center for Strategic Studies, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; e-mail: ababnehs22@yahoo.com
References
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NOTES

Author's note: I thank Amal Sabbagh for her mentorship and guidance, and for taking me, step-by-step, through the various dimensions of ethical qualitative research; Hala Ghosheh for her practical feedback, for keeping me grounded, and for organizing the PSU Gender and Qualitative Research Course, which initially enabled me to work on this project; Rula Qawwas for her unflinching support and mentorship; Sumi Colligan for her meticulous and perceptive proofreading; the CSS interns and research assistants for all of their help with logistics and the less fun parts of writing articles, such as interview transcription; and Shadaab Rahemtulla for his thoughtful feedback throughout the research and writing process. I also express my gratitude to the anonymous IJMES reviewers, whose feedback and reflections greatly strengthened the article. Last but certainly not least, I am deeply indebted to the participants in this study, who never tired of my endless visits and follow-up phone calls, and whose work continues to inspire me.

1 In relation to women's rights, the term governorate usually refers to the eleven governorates other than Amman and is used to signify that these places are somehow less developed.

2 The main research methods used for this study include semistructured interviews; focus groups; participant observation; and research notes and a self-reflective journal. The in-depth semistructured interviews were all conducted in Arabic and were audiorecorded and transcribed. On average, each of the interviews lasted about two hours. With the exception of one interview, I met with the women at their workplace. This way I was able to hear their accounts of their activism while observing their work environment and relationships with coworkers. Some of the main activists were interviewed more than once. Over the course of fifteen months (November 2011 to February 2013), I conducted fourteen in-depth interviews with nine core female activists, one male organizer from the central part of Jordan, the leader of the movement Muhammad Snayd, the former minister of agriculture Saʿid al-Masri (25 November 2007 to 22 November 2010), two directors of the agricultural directorates, and ʿAbd al-Halim Dugan from the Ministry of Agriculture. I also facilitated four focus groups with the help of Ruba al-Twaysi, Suzan ʿAfifi, and Ahmad al-Sholi, who took notes during the focus groups and transcribed them. The interviews and focus groups were conducted in Karak, Madaba, Irbid, Jarash, Amman, Ajloun, Salt, and Wadi Shuʿaib. The focus groups had five, eight, six, and five participants, respectively. Three of four were held inside the various Directorates of Agriculture and one took place at the farm in which this particular group of activists worked. I also participated in a national demonstration co-organized by the DWLM and two of the weekly demonstrations in front of the Ministry of Agriculture in Amman. This “participant observation” enabled me to see firsthand how demonstrations were organized and how women participated in them. I witnessed how women led negotiations with officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and how ad hoc meetings were organized and future plans hatched.

3 Exceptions include the works of Ahmad Abu Khalil, Fida Adely, and Ahmad Awad at the Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies. Khalil, Ahmad Abu, “ʿUmal al-Muyawama bayn Khat al-Qahir wa-Khat al-Faqir,” al-Mastur Journal 15 (2007): 10; Adely, Fida, “The Emergence of a New Labor Movement in Jordan,” MERIP 264 (2012), accessed 26 May 2014, http://www.merip.org/mer/mer264/emergence-new-labor-movement-jordan; Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests in 2011” (report, “Labor Watch Reports,” Jordan Labor Watch and Phenix Center for Economic and Informatics Studies in Cooperation with Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Amman, Jordan, February 2012), accessed 12 October 2015, http://www.phenixcenter.net/en/paper/152.

4 Adely, “The Emergence of a New Labor Movement in Jordan”; Aʿla al-Fazaʾa, “al-Snayd Abraz Qadat al-Hirak al-Shaʿbi fi al-Urdun li-l-Sharq: al-I slamiyyun Yataʿun Idaratihum li-l-Hirak . . . wa-Yuʿamilunana bi-Uslub al-Ajihaz al-Amniyya,” Sahifat al-Sharq, 6 March 2012, accessed 10 February 2014, http://www.alsharq.net.sa/lite-post?id=152814; Ahmad al-Huwari, “al-Kalaldih: Hirak al-Mutalib bi-l-Islah fi al-Urdun Wulidat Qabl al-Rabiʿ al-ʿArabi,” al-Dustur, 4 November 2013, accessed 10 February 2014, http://addustour.com/sn/890771/; Hussein Khaza’i, “Violence on University Campuses and Higher Education” (lecture organized by Jordan Days and al-Ghad newspaper, Mujamaʿ al-Naqabat al-Mihaniyya, Amman, Jordan, 12 May 2012); Hussein Khaza’i, “al-ʿUnf al-Jamiʿi . . . Ruʾya min al-Dakhil,” Ammon News, 4 August 2013, accessed 6 February 2014, http://www.ammonnews.net/article.aspx?articleno=149417.

5 Adely, “The Emergence of a New Labor Movement in Jordan”; Tamer Khorma, “The Myth of the Jordanian Monarchy's Resilience to the Arab Spring: Lack of Genuine Political Reform Undermines Social Base of Monarchy,” SWP Comments 33 (2014), accessed 1 February 2015, http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/2014C33_kor.pdf.

6 Barari, Hassan A. and Satkowski, Christina A., “The Arab Spring: The Case of Jordan,”Ortadoğu Etütleri 3 (2012): 4157; Hassan A. Barari, “The Limits of Political Reform in Jordan: The Role of External Actors” (Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung International Policy Analysis, Bonn and Berlin, Germany, December 2013), accessed 19 June 2014, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/10455–20140108.pdf; Bouziane, Malika and Lenner, Katharina, “Protests in Jordan: Rumblings in the Kingdom of Dialogue,” in Protests, Revolutions and Transformations —The Arab World in a Period of Upheaval (Berlin: Center for Middle Eastern and North African Politics, Freie Universität Berlin, 2011), accessed 17 June 2014, http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/polwiss/forschung/international/vorderer-orient/publikation/WP_serie/WP1_All_FINAL_web.pdf; Hisham Bustani, “The Alternative Opposition in Jordan and the Failure to Understand Lessons of Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions,” Jadaliyya, 22 March 2011, accessed 1 February 2015, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/959/the-alternative-opposition-in-jordan-and-the-failure; Bustani, “Jordan's New Opposition and the Traps of Identity and Ambiguity,” Jadaliyya, 20 April 2011, accessed 1 February 2015, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/1303/jordans-new-opposition-and-the-traps-of-identity-a; Mohammad Hussainy, “Map of Political Parties and Movements in Jordan, 2013–2014” (report for the Identity Center, Amman, Jordan, January 2014), accessed 30 January 2015, http://www.identity-center.org/en/node/263; E. J. Karmel, “How Revolutionary Was Jordan's Hirak? What the Incognito Participation of Palestinian Jordanians in Hirak Tells Us about the Movements” (report for the Identity Center, Amman, Jordan, June 2014): 2, accessed 12 October 2015, http://www.identity-center.org/sites/default/files/How%20Revolutionary%20Was%20Jordan%27s%20Hirak__0.pdf; Tobin, Sarah A., “Jordan's Arab Spring: The Middle Class and Anti-Revolution,” Middle East Policy 19 (2012): 96109, accessed 19 June 2014, http://mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/jordans-arab-spring-middle-class-and-anti-revolution; Yom, Sean L., “Jordan: The Ruse of Reform,” Journal of Democracy 24 (2013): 127–39; Yom, , “Tribal Politics in Contemporary Jordan: The Case of the Hirak Movement,” Middle East Journal 68 (2014): 229–47.

7 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests.”

8 Ibid.

9 The work of Adely, Bouzaine and Lerner, Khorma, and Seeley are exceptions. Adely, “The Emergence of a New Labor Movement in Jordan”; Bouziane and Lenner, “Protests in Jordan”; Khorma, “The Myth of the Jordanian Monarchy's Resilience”; Nicholas Seeley, “Jordan's Arab Spring Continues to Disappoint,” Waging Nonviolence: People-Powered News & Analysis, 30 November 2012, accessed 15 January 2015, http://wagingnonviolence.org/feature/jordans-arab-spring-continues-to-disappoint/.

10 Yom, “Tribal Politics in Contemporary Jordan,” 231.

11 Barari, “The Limits of Political Reform in Jordan.”

12 Brand, Laurie A., Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experiences (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998); George, Allan, Jordan: Living Under Crossfire (London: Zed Books, 2005); Ryan Curtis, “‘We Are All Jordan’ . . . But Who Is We?,” MERIP, 13 July 2010, accessed 1 February 2015, http://www.merip.org/mero/mero071310.

13 For a similar argument concerning the depiction of women's rights as essentially the problem of a small minority of the population, see Lughod, Lila Abu and El-Mahdi, Rabab, “Beyond the ‘Woman Question’ in the Egyptian Revolution,” Feminist Studies 37 (2011): 684, accessed 31 January 2015, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23069928.

14 Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy, “Feminist Research,” in Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis, 2nd ed. (New York: Sage, 2012), 11.

15 Hussainy, “Map of Political Parties and Movements in Jordan, 2013–2014.”

16 Enloe, Cynthia, Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2000).

17 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests,” 24.

18 Nuha Al-Shamayla (day-waged worker in the Directorate of Agriculture in Karak), “The Day-Wage Labour Movement” (lecture at the conference “Women's Rights in Jordan: Contesting Voices, Class, NGOization, and Negotiating Foreign Interests,” Council on International Educational Exchange, International Faculty Development Seminar, Amman, Jordan, 11 August 2014).

19 Abu Khalil, “ʿUmal al-Muyawama,” 10.

20 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests,” 25.

21 Sukayna (pseudonym), employee in the Directorate of Agriculture, interview with the author, 12 April 2012, Jordan; Muhammad Snayd, day-waged worker in the Directorate of Agriculture in Dhiban, interview with the author, 24 April 2012, Amman, Jordan.

22 Abu Khalil, “ʿUmal al-Muyawama,” 11.

23 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests,” 7–9.

24 Nuha al-Shamayla, day-waged worker in the Directorate of Agriculture in Karak, interview with the author, 8 February 2012, Amman, Jordan; Muhammad Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012, Amman, Jordan.

25 Focus group with the author, 21 June 2012, Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan.

26 Focus group with the author, 1 July 2012, Karak, Jordan; focus group with the author, 19 March 2012, Jarash, Jordan.

27 Jordanian Civil Service Regulation, no. 30 (13 March 2007), 19, accessed 10 February 2014, http://www.csb.gov.jo/csb/Legislations/Systems/CivilService/TABE3.aspx.

28 These are approximate values at the time of writing.

29 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Asʿar al-Kahrabaʾ fi al-Urdun: Istiʿdad Iʾtmani bi-Kalaf Bahiza” (Phoenix Centre paper, Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, Amman, Jordan, 2013), accessed 2 February 2014, http://www.phenixcenter.net/ar/paper/127.

30 Most names have been changed to maintain the anonymity of participants. Only Muhammad Snayd and Nuha al-Shamayla agreed to have their names used. Some participants have asked me not to mention their governorate. In such cases I have omitted any information that might lead them to be identified. Al-Shamayla has since been hired permanently but she has stayed active, helping to organize rallies and attending them.

31 Al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 8 Feburary 2012, Jordan.

32 Phenix Centre for Economic and Informatics Studies, “Labor Protests,” 28.

34 Ibid., 26.

35 Abu Khalil, “ʿUmal al-Muyawama,” 13.

36 Muhammad Snayd, “The Day Wages Labor Movement and Protest Politics” (lecture at the conference “Women and Gender in Light of the Arab Spring,” Council on International Educational Exchange, International Faculty Development Seminar, 30 May 2013, Amman, Jordan).

37 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012.

39 Snayd, “The Day Wages Labor Movement and Protest Politics.”

40 Petra Jordan News Agency, “Tathbit Jamiʿ ʿUmal al-Muyawama al-ʿAmilin fi Wazarat al-Ashghal,” 9 October 2013, accessed 12 October 2015, http://petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=1&site_id=2&NewsID=126743&Type=P; al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 8 Feburary 2012; Lina (pseudonym), day-waged worker in a Directorate of Agriculture in Jordan, interview with the author, 6 February 2012, Jordan; Snayd “The Day Wages Labor Movement and Protest Politics.”

41 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012; Snayd, phone interview with the author, 11 October 2015.

42 Sukayna (pseudonym), employee in a Directorate of Agriculture in Jordan, interview with the author, Jordan, 12 April 2012.

43 Al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 8 Feburary 2012; Lina, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

44 Saʿid al-Masri, former minister of agriculture, Amman, Jordan, interview with the author, Amman, Jordan, 23 April 2012.

46 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012.

47 Ghassan (pseudonym), employee in the Directorate of Agriculture in Salt, Jordan, interview with the author, Salt, Jordan, 21 June 2012; focus group with the author, Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

48 Lina, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

49 Amani (pseudonym), day-waged worker in the Directorate of Agriculture in Ajloun, Jordan, interview with the author, Ajloun, Jordan, 11 March 2012; al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 8 February 2012; Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012.

50 ʿIssam Imbeidin, “Tawajuhat Hukumiyya li-Tathbit ʿUmal al-Muyawama al-Mafsulin min al-Ziraʿa . . . wa-l-ʿUmal Yuʿaliqun ʿItisamahum Amam al-Diwan al-Malaki,” Saraya, 31 March 2010, accessed 17 September 2014, http://www.sarayanews.com/index.php?page=article&id=20674.

51 The exact date and length of the sleepover was hard to establish. Participants had different stories about the event. All remembered that it was cold. Snayd recalled that he had had an interview at a radio station the following day, which was a Tuesday. He also remembers smelling like smoke during the interview because they had built a fire the previous night. In general, exact dates and other details were difficult to confirm through interviews because the participants, not having any kind of documentation of their activities, relied solely on memory. In the end, during phone conversations, the participants and I simultaneously conducted Google searches of news coverage of the sleepover to reconstruct the exact chronology of events.

52 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012; Amani, interview with the author, 11 March 2012; al-Shamayla interview with the author, 8 Feburary 2012; Lina, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

53 Snayd, phone interview with the author, 17 September 2014.

54 Amani, interview with the author, 11 March 2012; Lina, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

55 According to Snayd, some activists from the DWLM had met with representatives from the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Haraka al-Qawmiyya li-l-Dimuqratiyya al-Mubashira (National Movement for Direct Democracy), and Harakat al-Yasar al-Ijtimaʿi (Social Leftist Movement) a few weeks before the sleep-in. During the meeting, the Social Leftist Movement promised to help with the event. The Muslim Brotherhood participants said that they had so few representatives in parliament that they could not do anything. If, however, the day-waged laborers would agree to vote for them during the next parliamentary elections, they continued, they would support them in the future. Finally, the National Movement for Direct Democracy said that they would only aid the DWLM if the latter could convince 100 workers to join the movement.

56 Snayd, phone interview with the author, 17 September 2014.

57 Al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

58 Snayd, interview with the author, 17 September 2014.

59 Adely, “The Emergence of a New Labor Movement”; Khorma, “The Myth of the Jordanian Monarchy's Resilience.”

60 Snayd, “The Day Wages Labour Movement and Protest Politics.”

61 Manar Hafez, “Tay Malaf ʿUmal al-Muyawama,” Khabirni, 10 August 2015, accessed 12 October 2015, http://www.khaberni.com/more-153470-1-%D8%B7%D9%8A%20%D9%85%D9%84%D9%81%20%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A9.

62 Muhammad Snayd, phone interview with the author, 11 October 2015.

63 Amawi, Abla, “Gender and Citizenship in Jordan,” in Gender and Citizenship in the Middle East, ed. Joseph, Suad (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2000); Rubenberg, Cheryl, Palestinian Women, Patriarchy and Resistance in the West Bank (London: Lynne Rienner, 2001); Sonbol, Amira Azhary, Women of Jordan: Islam, Labor and the Law (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2002).

64 See Massad, Joseph, Colonial Effects: The Making of National Identity in Jordan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001) for a more critical reading of the notion of tribalism and its orientalist undertones.

65 IAF representative, phone interview with Suzan ʿAfifi, 4 September 2014.

66 Faraj al-Tamizi, Jordanian Communist Party, phone interview with Suzan ʿAfifi, 7 September 2014.

67 Abla Abu ʿUlba, general secretary of the Popular Democratic People's Party, phone interview with Suzan ʿAfifi, 4 September 2014.

68 For a similar argument about the variation in discourse among rural and urban Egyptian youth, see Abu-Lughod, Lila, “Living the ‘Revolution’ in an Egyptian Village: Moral Action in a National Space,” American Ethnologist 39 (2012): 2125, accessed 28 January 2015, doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2011.01341.x.

69 Focus group with the author, Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

70 Mazyuna was extremely concerned that her real identity might be discovered despite my using a pseudonym for her. I therefore omit any mention of where she works, the focus group of which she was a part, and when this focus group took place. I identify the place of work only for participants in my study who were not worried about revealing where they worked.

71 Focus group with the author, Jordan.

74 The Jordanian tawjīhī (Secondary School Certification Exam) has different streams to which students are admitted according to their tenth-grade marks. The students with the highest marks are allowed to enter the scientific stream, which focuses on natural sciences and math. Other streams include the humanities stream, the Islamic religion stream, the business stream, and the agriculture stream. The Ministry of Education often revises these streams, adding and dropping them according to need. Currently there is also an information technology stream that is very popular. However, at the time in which al-Shamayla did her tawīihī exam the information technology stream was not an option.

75 Al-Shamayla, interview with the author, 6 February 2012.

79 Focus group with the author, Jarash, Jordan, 19 March 2012.

81 Sukayna, interview with the author, 12 April 2012.

84 Droeber, Julia, Dreaming of Change: Young Middle-Class Women and Social Transformation in Jordan (Leiden: Brill, 2005).

85 Amman Stock Exchange Information Center, “Privatization in Jordan,” 2014, accessed 4 February 2014, http://www.ase.com.jo/en/privatization-jordan.

86 George, Jordan.

87 Yasmeen Tabbaa, “Assessing the Middle Class in Jordan (2008)—Policy Paper” (Economic and Social Council, Amman, Jordan, 2008), 3, accessed 5 October 2015, http://www.mopic-jaims.gov.jo/uploads/Assessing_the_Middle_Class_in_Jordan_(2008).pdf.

88 Higher Council for Retired Military Veterans, “The Economic Paper of the Higher Council of Retired Military Veterans” (Higher Council for Retired Military Veterans, April 2010).

89 Al-Shamayla, “The Day-Wage Labour Movement.”

90 See the Higher Council for Retired Military Veterans study as an example of such a critique. Higher Council for Retired Military Veterans, “The Economic Paper.”

91 Jordanian Department of Statistics, Taqrir Halat al-Faqr fi al-Urdun (Amman, Jordan, 2010), accessed 15 September 2014, http://www.dos.gov.jo/dos_home_a/main/Analasis_Reports/poverty_rep/poverty_report_2010.pdf.

92 Assad, Ragui, The Jordanian Labor Market in the New Millennium, ed. Assad, Ragui (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), viii.

93 Ibid., x.

94 Al-Masri, interview with the author, 23 April 2012.

95 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012.

98 The terms “East Bank Jordanians” and “Jordanian Jordanians” (as opposed to “Palestinian-Jordanians”) are commonly used to speak about those whose families lived in what is now Jordan prior to 1948.

99 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012.

100 Barnes-Dacey, Julien, “Europe and Jordan: Reform Before It's Too Late,” European Council on Foreign Relations 54 (2012): 3.

101 Schwedler, “The Political Geography,” 267.

102 Focus group with the author, 21 June 2012, Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan; focus group with the author, 1 July 2012, Karak, Jordan; Jana, general discussion after interview with the author, Salt, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

103 Jana, general discussion after interview with the author, Salt, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

104 I use the term “post-Cold War” here because during the Cold War era the Eastern Bloc insisted on including economic rights as part of human rights. Now most “rights” initiatives focus on political rights, which are narrowly defined and often exclude critiques of neoliberal capitalism.

105 General discussion after interview with author, Salt, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

106 Christoph Wilcke, “Shutting Out the Critics, Restrictive Laws Used to Repress Civil Society in Jordan” (report, Human Rights Watch, vol. 19, no. 10 [e], December 2007): 5, 18, 20, accessed 17 September 2014, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/jordan1207web.pdf.

107 For a more detailed discussion of the gendered nature of political activism and its effects on female political participation in Jordan, see Sara Ababneh, “Islamic Political Parties as a Means of Women's Empowerment?: The Case of Hamas and the Islamic Action Front” (DPhil thesis, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford, 2010).

108 Ababneh, Sara, “Islamic Political Activism as a Means of Women's Empowerment? The Case of the Female IAF Activists,” Special Issue, “Gender: Gender, Ethnicity and the Nation: Cross-Cultural Perspectives,” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 9 (2009): 124.

109 Karmel, “How Revolutionary Was Jordan's Hirak,” 5.

110 Ibid.

111 Al-Muʿala, “Jordanian Women in the Hirak.”

112 Alcoff, Linda and Harding, Sandra, “Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What Is ‘Strong Objectivity’?,” in Feminist Epistemologies, ed. Alcoff, Linda and Potter, Elisabeth (New York: Routledge, 1993), 4982; Enloe, Cynthia H., The Curious Feminist Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2004); Hesse-Biber, “Feminist Research,” 11; Smith, Dorothey E., The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1987).

113 Al-Muʿala, “Jordanian Women in the Hirak.”

114 Snayd, interview with the author, 24 April 2012; focus group with the author, Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan, 21 June 2012; focus group with author, Jarash, Jordan, 19 March 2012.

115 Jansen, Wilhelmina, “Contested Identities: Women and Religion in Algeria and Jordan,” in Women and Islamization: Contemporary Dimensions of Discourse on Gender Relations, ed. Ask, Karin and Tjomsland, Marit (Oxford: Berg, 1998); Droeber, Dreaming of Change; Hoodfar, Homa, “Iranian Women at the Intersection of Citizenship and the Family Code,” in Gender and Citizenship in the Middle East; Joseph, Suad, “Brother/Sister Relationships: Connectivity, Love, and Power in the Reproduction of Patriarchy in Lebanon,” American Ethnologist 21 (1994) 5073; Joseph, “Gendering Citizenship in the Middle East.”

116 For a wider discussion on relational vs. individual understandings of self, see Ababneh, Sara, “The Palestinian Women's Movement vs. Hamas: Attempting to Understand Women's Empowerment Outside a Feminist Framework,” Journal of International Women's Studies 15 (2014): 3553.

117 Joseph, “Gendering Citizenship in the Middle East,” 24–25.

118 See Mahmood, Saba's critique of the notion of autonomy in Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005).

119 Focus group with the author, Jarash, Jordan, 19 March 2012.

120 Lina, interview with the author, 6 February 2012; focus group with the author, Wadi Shuaʿib, Jordan, 21 June 2012.

121 On the importance of moving away from predefined notions of empowerment, see Ababneh, “The Palestinian Women's Movement vs. Hamas.”

122 Focus group with the author, Jarash, Jordan, 19 March 2012.

123 Ruwayda (pseudonym), day-waged worker in the Directorate of Agriculture in Irbid, Jordan, interview with the author, 12 April 2012.

124 Al-Sholi, Ahmad, “Min al-Wilada Ihtijajiyan ila al-Intihar Biruqratiyan: Nisf Aʿwda li-Naqabat al-Muʿalimin al-Urdunin,” Majalat al-Thawra al-Daʾima 5 (2015), accessed 20 August 2015, http://permanentrevolution-journal.org/ar/node/127.

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