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Beware of Surrogate Outcome Measures

  • Peter C. Gøtzsche (a1), Alessandro Liberati (a2), Valter Torri (a2) and Luca Rossetti (a3)

Surrogate outcome measures may speed up clinical research if they can be measured earlier in a study than the primary outcome of interest. We review the justification for their use and conclude that reliance on them may be harmful. Results obtained with surrogates should therefore be regarded as preliminary. Large, definitive trials with clinically relevant outcomes should always be performed before new interventions are accepted.

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International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
  • ISSN: 0266-4623
  • EISSN: 1471-6348
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-technology-assessment-in-health-care
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