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Western Asiatic Shaft-Hole Axes

  • Rachel Maxwell-Hyslop

The following study is a continuation of my earlier essay on swords and daggers (Iraq, VIII, 1946) and was undertaken with the help of a research grant from the Central Research Fund of London University. This has enabled me to examine at first hand the material in the Louvre and the Musées Royaux at Brussels as well as the collections in the British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, and the Institute of Archaeology, London, and I am indebted to the authorities of all these Museums for permission to publish many of the axes in their collections. These collections and the mass of scattered material in both excavation reports and special studies form the basis for this essay, which must be regarded merely as the outline for a typological scheme which, when more stratified material is available, will no doubt have to be modified and developed.

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page 91 note 1 Przeworski, , M.A., p. 34. Here a date in the twelfth century B.C. is suggested, based on typological comparisons with dated axes from Susa. (See Plate XXXIV, Type 11.)

page 93 note 1 Speleers, in B.M.A.H., 05, 1932. Fig. 8.

page 97 note 1 Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Taf iv, right hand example and Dussaud, H.D.A., Fig. 6.

page 98 note 1 Godard, BL., Figs. 23-25.

page 98 note 2 Mallowan, in Iraq, ix, 1 p. 25, footnote 1.

page 99 note 1 Tallgren in E.S.A., 11, Fig. 89.

page 100 note 1 Childe, , Dawn of European Civilisation, 4th edition, p. 117, Fig. 53, and Danube in prehistory, Fig. 113. Dullo, in P.Z., XXVII (1956), p. 150.

page 103 note 1 Guide to the Iraq Museum Collections, Pl. XXIV.

page 103 note 2 Thureau-Dangin, Til Barsib, Pl. XXVIII.

page 103 note 3 Herzfeld, Iran in the Ancient East, Fig. 246, and Przeworski M.A., Taf. XIX, 3.

page 105 note 1 Smith, , E.H.A., Fig. 9, p. 97.

page 107 note 1 Mallowan, in lraq, IX, 2, p. 187.

page 107 note 2 Vulpe, R., Les Haches de Bronze de Type Albano-Dalmate in Istros, I, 1934, and Bronzefunde aus Nord-Albanien in P.Z., XXIII, 1932, 1/2.

page 108 note 1 See Type 20.

page 108 note 2 Hancar in E.S.A., VII, Abb. 17.

page 108 note 3 I.L.N., Feb. 20th, 1937, p. 259, and Schaeffer, Chronologie, Fig. 44.

page 109 note 1 Professor Childe has drawn my attention to the interesting axe from Kelermes with ribbing on the socket and blade shaped like the Giyan axe. Jessen in IGAIMK., Fig. 128, 9.

page 109 note 2 G. Nioradze in E.S.A., VII, Abb. 1. Przeworski, M.A., Taf. XXII, 4, shows a copper mould found at Taglioni, Georgia, for axes of Koban type. See ibid., p. 115 for discussion of technical methods used with this mould.

page 109 note 3 Kuftin, , Archaeological Excavations in Trialeti I, Fig. 19, and p. 157. For similar axes from Abkhasia, see Schaeffef, Chronologie, Fig. 269.

page 110 note 1 Archaeologia, 88, Pl. LXXIII, 8. See p. 245 for details of parallels at Geneva, in the Leigh Ashton collection, London, and Brussels. Another example comes from Zalu Ab, published by Godard, , Galette des Beaux Arts, X 1933, Fig. 10. There are also several examples in the Musées Royaux, Brussels. See B.M.A.H., 01./Dec, 1946, p. 6, Fig. 12. Przeworski, M.A. Taf. XIX, 3, publishes an interesting example with decoration.

page 110 note 2 King, Babylonian Boundary Stones, Pl. XIX. cf. Kuftin, Trialeti, Pl. XCII.

page 110 note 3 Some are decorated in an Assyrian style with winged figures performing ritual acts and others are closely comparable to the N. Syrian sculptured reliefs at Zendjirli and Carchemish.

page 110 note 4 These axes, and the Cambridge axe with blunt spikes (Plate XXXVI, 12) are similar to the ‘axtnadeln’ from Koban, cf. Hancar, in E.S.A., ix Abb. 16.

page 112 note 1 See Mallowan, in Antiquity, 43, p. 336, and in Iraq, IX, 1, p. 25, footnote 1.

page 112 note 2 Przeworski, , M.A., p. 116, discusses the technical methods used for this mould.

page 112 note 3 Dolgozatok Ferencz Jószef-tudományeg yetem archaeologiai intézetébol, Szegted, VII, 1931, Taf. XI, 56, and P 24.

page 112 note 4 Przeworski, ibid., Taf. XIX, 4, cf. Childe, Danube, Fig. 53, and Mikov, , Predistoriceski Selisca i. nadrodki v. Balgarija (Prehistoric sites and finds in Bulgaria), 1933, Fig. 62.

page 113 note 1 The provenance is given as Kaisariyah, It is possible this may refer to Asia Minor, but all the other axes in this collection come from Palestine or Syria.

page 113 note 2 cf. Przeworski, M.A., Taf.XXI, 1. An unstratified Anatolian lugged adze, now in the American Girls' College, Istanbul.

page 114 note 1 Gjerstad, , Studies, p. 233, 5. See also Myres, Cesnola Cat., No. 4698.

page 115 note 1 Gjerstad, ibid., p, 233, 6.

page 115 note 2 Childe, Danube, Fig. 147. (Hadju Samson.) cf. also Fig. 148 and Petrie, , T.W., Pl. xi, 139 and 126, where the round cylindrical socket, similar to Gjerstad, , Studies, p. 233, 5, is also shown.

page 116 note 1 Mackay, Part I, Pl. III.

page 116 note 2 Smith, , Early History of Assyria, Pl. 5, p. 73.

page 117 note 1 Scharff, Die Altertümer der Vor-und Früh-zeit Ägyptens 2, Taf. 22, N. 108.

page 117 note 2 Examples are known from Palestine, Gaza, Gezer, Tall al Hesy, and denote Egyptian contacts.

page 117 note 3 See Wolf, B.A.H., Abb. 16, 17.

page 117 note 4 Z.A., XII, 1946.

page 118 note 1 Langdon, , Kish, I, Pl. XX, 5. Professor Mallowan has suggested that some of the curved blades from Ur or Kish (Langdon, ibid., Pl. XX, 5, upper example) may have been hafted into a shaft placed along the curved edge, and therefore may be the originals of the axe on the Naram-Sin stele discussed above.

page 118 note 2 Petrie, , T.W., Pl. LXXIV, 171.

page 119 note 1 Hancar, in E.S.A., VII, Abb. 17. See also Piggott, in Ancient India, 4, pp. 2640.

page 120 note 1 Furtwangler, , Die antiken Gemmen, Taf. XV, 4, 9, 10. Taf. LXI, 11, 12, p. 109. Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Phoenicia, Fig. 194.

page 121 note 1 See Dullo in P.Z., Abb. 6.

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