Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wg55d Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-18T20:41:05.691Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Root and shoot growth and water use of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) grown in dryland conditions: effects of sowing date and genotype

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 March 2009

S. C. Brown
Affiliation:
Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, London Road, Reading RG1 5AQ, UK
P. J. Gregory
Affiliation:
Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, London Road, Reading RG1 5AQ, UK
P. J. M. Cooper
Affiliation:
Farm Resource Management Programme, ICARDA, PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

Summary

Growth and water use of kabuli-type chickpea was measured during the 1982/83 and 1983/84 growing seasons in northern Syria under rainfed conditions. Winter-sown (November) and springsown (March) crops of cv. ILC 482 were grown in 1982/83 while in 1983/84 spring-sown crops of contrasting genotypes (ILC 482, ILC 1929 and ILC 3279) were compared.

In 1982/83, shoot dry matter and seed yields of the winter-sown crop were almost twice those of the spring-sown crop although the water use of both crops was almost the same. Root growth of both crops was most rapid before flowering but continued until maturity (early June) in the winter-sown and until mid to late pod filling (also early June) in the spring-sown crop. Root dry weight (c. 45 g/m2) and length (c. 45 cm/cm2) were similar in both crops during pod filling.

In 1983/84, shoot weight, root weight and root length were similar in all genotypes but the later maturity of ILC 3279 resulted in lower seed yield and hence harvest index, and greater water use.

The root length density decreased approximately logarithmically with depth in the soil profile although comparison between seasons and with other published results showed that the relations could not be used predictively. Water use efficiency was poorer in the second, drier season and was almost doubled by winter sowing.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1989

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Brown, S. C., Keatinge, J. D. H., Gregory, P. J. & Cooper, P. J. M. (1987). Effects of fertilizer, variety and location on barley production under rainfed conditions in northern Syria. 1. Root and shoot growth. Field Crops Research 16, 5366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, P. J. M., Gregory, P. J., Tully, D. & Harris, H. C. (1987). Improving water use efficiency of annual crops in the rainfed farming systems of West Asia and North Africa. Experimental Agriculture 23, 113158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerwitz, A. & Page, E. R. (1974). An empirical mathematical model to describe plant root systems. Journal of Applied Ecology 11, 773782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenwood, D. J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D. A. & Barnes, A. (1982). Root development of vegetable crops. Plant and Soil, 68, 7596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gregory, P. J. (1988). Root growth of chickpea, faba bean, lentil and pea and effects of water and salt stresses. In World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Ed. Summcrfield, R. J.), pp. 857868. Dortrecht: Kluwcr.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawtin, G. C. & Singh, K. B. (1984). Prospects and potential of winter sowing of chickpeas in the Mediterranean region. In World Crops: Production, Utilization, Description. Vol. 9. Ascochvla Blight and Winter Sowing of Chickpeas (Eds Saxena, M. C. & Singh, K. B.), pp. 716. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff/Junk.Google Scholar
Icarda [International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas] (1985) Annual Report for 1984, pp. xviixviii. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA.Google Scholar
Kasper, T. C., Stanley, C. D. & Taylor, H. M. (1978). Soybean root growth during the reproduction stages of development. Agronomy Journal 70, 11051107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keatinge, J. D. H. & Cooper, P. J. M. (1983). Kabuli chickpea as a winter-sown crop in northern Syria: moisture relations and crop productivity. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 100, 667680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, W. S. & Green, G. C. (1980). Water use by wheat and plant indicators of available soil water. Agronomv Journal 11, 253257.Google Scholar
Ritchie, J. T. (1981). Water dynamics in the soil-plantatmosphere system. Plant and Soil 58, 8196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saxena, M. C. (1985). Food Legume Improvement Program at ICARDA – an overview. In Faba Beans, Kabuli Chickpeas and Lentils in the 1980s (Eds Saxena, M. C. & Varma, S.), pp. 113. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA.Google Scholar
Sheldrake, A. R. & Saxena, N. P. (1979). Growth and development of chickpeas under progressive moisture stress. In Stress Physiology in Crop Plants (Eds Mussell, H. & Staples, R. C.), pp. 466483. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Siddique, K. H. M. & Sedgley, R. H. (1987). Canopy Development modifies the water economy of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 37, 599610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tennant, D. (1975). A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length. Journal of Ecology 63, 9951001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar