Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Photoperiod sensitivity affects flowering duration in wheat

  • H. E. JONES (a1), M. LUKAC (a1) (a2), B. BRAK (a1), M. MARTINEZ-EIXARCH (a1) (a3), A. ALHOMEDHI (a1), M. J. GOODING (a1), L. U. WINGEN (a4) and S. GRIFFITHS (a4)...
Summary

Flowering and successful pollination in wheat are key determinants of both quantity and quality of grain. Bread wheat line ‘Paragon’, introgressed with single or multiple daylength insensitivity alleles was used to dissect the effects on the timing and duration of flowering within a hierarchical plant architecture. Flowering of wheat plants was observed in a series of pot-based and field experiments. Ppd-D1a was the most potent known allele affecting the timing of flowering, requiring the least thermal time to flowering across all experiments. The duration of flowering for individual lines was dominated by the shift in the start of flowering in later tillers and the number of tillers per plant, rather than variation in flowering duration of individual spikes. There was a strong relationship between flowering duration and the start of flowering with the earliest lines flowering for the longest. The greatest flowering overlap between tillers was recorded for the Ppd-1b. Across all lines, a warmer environment significantly reduced the duration of flowering and the influence of Ppd-1a alleles on the start of flowering. These findings provide evidence of pleiotropic effects of the Ppd-1a alleles, and have direct implications for breeding for increased stress resilient wheat varieties.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Photoperiod sensitivity affects flowering duration in wheat
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Photoperiod sensitivity affects flowering duration in wheat
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Photoperiod sensitivity affects flowering duration in wheat
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: h.e.jones@reading.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Barber, H. M., Carney, J., Alghabari, F. & Gooding, M. J. (2015). Decimal growth stages for precision wheat production in changing environments? Annals of Applied Biology 166, 355371.
Beales, J., Turner, A., Griffiths, S., Snape, J. W. & Laurie, D. A. (2007). A pseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 115, 721733.
Bentley, A. R., Turner, A. S., Gosman, N., Leigh, F. J., Maccaferri, M., Dreisigacker, S., Greenland, A. & Laurie, D. A. (2011). Frequency of photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-A1a alleles in tetraploid, hexaploid and synthetic hexaploid wheat germplasm. Plant Breeding 130, 1015.
Challinor, A. J., Wheeler, T. R., Craufurd, P. Q. & Slingo, J. M. (2005). Simulation of the impact of high temperature stress on annual crop yields. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 135, 180189.
Díaz, A., Zikhali, M., Turner, A. S., Isaac, P. & Laurie, D. A. (2012). Copy number variation affecting the Photoperiod-B1 and Vernalization-A1 genes is associated with altered flowering time in wheat (Triticum aestivum). PLoS ONE 7, e33234. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033234.
Foulkes, M. J., Sylvester-Bradley, R., Worland, A. J. & Snape, J. W. (2004). Effects of a photoperiod-response gene Ppd-D1 on yield potential and drought resistance in UK winter wheat. Euphytica 135, 6373.
González, F. G., Slafer, G. A. & Miralles, D. J. (2005). Floret development and survival in wheat plants exposed to contrasting photoperiod and radiation environments during stem elongation. Functional Plant Biology 32, 189197.
González, F. G., Miralles, D. J. & Slafer, G. A. (2011). Wheat floret survival as related to pre-anthesis spike growth. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 48894901.
Greenup, A., Peacock, W. J., Dennis, E. S. & Trevaskis, B. (2009). The molecular biology of seasonal flowering-responses in Arabidopsis and the cereals. Annals of Botany 103, 11651172.
Griffiths, S., Simmonds, J., Leverington, M., Wang, Y., Fish, L., Sayers, L., Alibert, L., Orford, S., Wingen, L., Herry, L., Faure, S., Laurie, D., Bilham, L. & Snape, J. (2009). Meta-QTL analysis of the genetic control of ear emergence in elite European winter wheat germplasm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119, 383395.
Hucl, P. (1996). Out-crossing rates for 10 Canadian spring wheat cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 76, 423427.
Jarvis, R. A. (1968). Soils of the Reading District (Sheet 268). Harpenden, UK: Rothamsted Experimental Station.
Kato, K. & Yokoyama, H. (1992). Geographical variation in heading characters among wheat landraces, Triticum aestivum L., and its implication for their adaptability. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 84, 259265.
Kirby, E. J. M. & Appleyard, M. (1981). Cereal Development Guide. Stoneleigh, UK: National Agricultural Centre.
Kirby, E. J. M. & Appleyard, M. (1984). Cereal Development Guide. Stoneleigh, UK: Arable Unit, National Agricultural Centre.
Kiss, T., Balla, K., Veisz, O., Láng, L., Bedö, Z., Griffiths, S., Isaac, P. & Karsai, I. (2014). Allele frequencies in the VRN-A1, VRN-B1, and VRN-D1 vernalization response and PPD-B1 and PPD-D1 photoperiod sensitivity genes, and their effects on heading in a diverse set of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Molecular Breeding 34, 297310.
Lukac, M., Gooding, M. J., Griffiths, S. & Jones, H. E. (2012). Asynchronous flowering and within-plant flowering diversity in wheat and the implications for crop resilience to heat. Annals of Botany 109, 843850.
Matus-Cadiz, M. A., Hucl, P., Horak, M. J. & Blomquist, L. K. (2004). Gene flow in wheat at the field scale. Crop Science 44, 718727.
Met Office (2012). UK Climate – Historic Station Data. Exeter, Devon, UK: Met Office. Available from: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate-historic/#?tab=climateHistoric (accessed 15 December 2015).
Reynolds, M., Foulkes, J., Furbank, R., Griffiths, S., King, J., Murchie, E., Parry, M. & Slafer, G. (2012). Achieving yield gains in wheat. Plant, Cell and Environment 35, 17991823.
Saini, H. S. & Aspinall, D. (1982). Abnormal sporogenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). induced by short periods of high-temperature. Annals of Botany 49, 835846.
Shaw, L. M., Turner, A. S. & Laurie, A. D. (2012). The impact of photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a mutations on the photoperiod pathway across the three genomes of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). The Plant Journal 71, 7184.
Slafer, G. A., Kantolic, A. G., Appendino, M. L., Miralles, D. J. & Savin, R. (2009). Crop development: genetic control, environmental modulation and relevance for genetic improvement of crop yield. In Crop Physiology: Applications for Genetic Improvement and Agronomy (Eds Sadras, V. O. & Calderini, D. F.), pp. 277308. Burlington, MA, USA: Academic Press.
Snape, J. W., Leckie, D., Parker, B. B. & Nevo, E. (1991). The genetical analysis and exploitation of differential responses to herbicides in crop species. In Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops (Eds Casely, J. C., Cussans, G. W. & Atkin, R. K.), pp. 305317. Oxfordshire, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Waines, J. G. & Hegde, S. G. (2003). Intraspecific gene flow in bread wheat as affected by reproductive biology and pollination ecology of wheat flowers. Crop Science 43, 451463.
Wilhelm, E. P., Turner, A. S. & Laurie, D. A. (2009). Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-A1a mutations in tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 118, 285294.
Worland, A. J. & Law, C. N. (1986). Genetic analysis of chromosome 2D of wheat. I. The location of genes affecting height, day-length insensitivity, hybrid dwarfism and yellow-rust resistance. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenzüchtung (Journal of Plant Breeding) 96, 331345.
Worland, A. J., Korzun, V., Röder, M. S., Ganal, M. W. & Law, C. N. (1998). Genetic analysis of the dwarfing gene Rht8 in wheat. Part II. The distribution and adaptive significance of allelic variants at the Rht8 locus of wheat as revealed by microsatellite screening. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 96, 11101120.
Yang, F. P., Zhang, X. K., Xia, X. C., Laurie, D. A., Yang, W. X. & He, Z. H. (2009). Distribution of the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a allele in Chinese wheat cultivars. Euphytica 165, 445452.
Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T. & Konzak, C. F. (1974). Decimal code for growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415421.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed