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Ethnocultural Political Analysis: A New Approach to American Ethnic Studies

  • Robert P. Swierenga (a1)
Extract

At the seventy-ninth annual meeting of the American Historical Association in 1964, a panel of scholars enlivened one of the sessions with a heated debate over the effects of ethnic assimilation in American culture. The topic of debate, ‘Beyond the Melting Pot: Irish and Jewish Separateness in American Society’, focused on a recent controversial study of ethnic mixture in New York City by Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, both sociologists. Glazer and Moynihan in their book Beyond the Melting Pot traced the ‘role of ethnicity’ in the seaboard city. The melting pot ‘did not happen’, they concluded, ‘at least not in New York and, mutatis mutandis, in those parts of America which resemble New York’. This frontal assault on the concept of Americanization, long a cherished ideal in the United States, drew a sharp reaction from several panellists, especially William V. Shannon, editorial writer for die New York Times and author of The American Irish, and Irving Greenberg, professor of history at Yeshiva University. Both Shannon and Greenberg insisted that Irishmen and Jews had indeed been assimilated in American society, either for better or for worse. At this point, the discussion degenerated into the traditional moralistic debate on the merits and demerits of assimilation. Reflecting the divergent views of their colleagues in the history profession, Shannon praised assimilation and Greenberg condemned it.

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1 Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City (Cambridge, 1963). See also Glazer, Nathan, ‘Ethnic Groups in America: From National Culture to Ideology’, in Berger, Morroe et al. , Freedom and Control in Modern Society (New York, 1954), pp. 158–73.

2 Beyond the Melting Pot, p. v. Another important study rejecting the melting-pot idea is Gordon, Milton M., Assimilation in American Life (New York, 1964). A sociological analysis of 10 U.S. cities supporting the same conclusion is Lieberson, Stanley, Ethnic Patterns in American Cities (New York, 1963).

3 For a résumé of the opinions voiced at the AHA session, see New York Times, 31 12 1964; Washington Post, 31 12 1964; Washington Daily News, 31 12 1964. For a similar exchange in 1940, see Maurice R. Davie, ‘The Cultural “Syncretism” of Nationality Groups’, and Billington, Ray Allen, ‘Cultural Contribution versus Cultural Assimilation’, in Ware, Carolyn F. (ed.), The Cultural Approach to History (New York, 1940), pp. 7482.

4 Hays, Samuel P., ‘New Possibilities for American Political History: The Social Analysis of Political Life’, in Lipset, Seymour Martin and Hofstadter, Richard, Sociology and History: Methods (New York, 1968), pp. 181227; and the somewhat similar paper, ‘The Social Analysis of American Political History, 1880–1920, Political Science Quarterly, 80 (09 1965), 373–94.

5 Hays, , ‘New Possibilities’, p. 206. Hays broadened his theoretical framework in ‘Political Parties and the Community-Society Continuum’, Chambers, William N. and Burnham, Walter Dean (eds.), The American Party Systems; Stages of Political Development (New York, 1967), ch. 6.

6 Hays, , ‘New Possibilities’, pp. 188–9. Reference was to Lubell's, The Future of American Politics (New York, 1952), and Lipset's, ‘Religion and Politics in the American Past and Present’, in Lee, Robert and Marty, Martin E. (eds.), Religion and Social Conflict (New York, 1964). Lipset also has an important chapter on the importance of religion in the nineteenth century in The First New Nation (New York, 1963).

7 For an exhaustive but concise critical essay on the sociological, political science and historical literature, see Fuchs, Lawrence H., ‘Bibliographical Essay on Ethnicity and Politics’, in Fuchs, (ed.), American Ethnic Politics (New York, 1968), pp. 275–88.

8 These categories find rough parallels in Milton M. Gordon's theoretical analysis of minority group assimilation ideologies of Anglo-conformity, the melting-pot, and cultural pluralism. Anglo-conformity can be equated with nationalism-nativism, the melting-pot with filiopietism and progressivism, and cultural pluralism with scientific and ethnocultural history. See Gordon, , ‘Assimilation in America: Theory and Reality’, Daedalus, 90 (Spring 1961), 263–85. Edgar Litt, in his important new book, Beyond Pluralism: Ethnic Politics in America (Glenview, Ill., 1970), suggests a refinement of Gordon's Anglo-conformity category; namely, the ‘core-culture’ theory, which is an attempt to find a middle ground between pluralism and conformity. Over and above cultural pluralism, Litt argues, is a predominant WASP culture to which ethnics can identify and become acculturated, while concurrently maintaining quasi-autonomous cultures (pp. 8–15).

9 The phrase is that of Cole, Steward G. and Cole, Mildred W., Minorities and American Promise (New York, 1954), ch. 6. It signifies the desirability of maintaining Ang-American cultural patterns.

10 Saveth, Edward N., American Historians and European Immigrants, 1875–1925 (New York, 1948). See also Higham, John, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 (New Brunswick, 1955), pp. 138–9, and passim.

11 McMaster, John Bach, A History of the People of the United States (8 vols., New York, 19111913), vol. 6, pp. 7880, 82.

12 Ibid., vol. 6, p. 84. Cf. vol. 6, pp. 421–30, and vol. 5, pp. 391–4.

13 Rhodes, James Ford, History of the United States from Hays to McKinley, 1877–1896 (8 vols., New York, 19101919), vol. 8, p. 84.

14 Charming, Edward, A History of the United States (6 vols., New York, 19101925), vol. 4, p. 220.

15 Van Der Zee, Jacob, The Hollanders of Iowa (Iowa City, 1912), pp. 50, 107.

16 Faust, Albert B., The German Element in the United States with Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence (2nd ed., New York, 1909). Edward Saveth discusses the writings of filiopietists in American Historians, pp. 202–15.

17 Steiner, , The Immigrant Tide: Its Ebb and Flow (New York, 1909), p. 7. The best discussion of the ‘scientific’ racism of the progressive era is Oscar Handlin's essay, ‘Old Immigrants and New’, in Race and Nationality in American Life (New York, 1957), ch. 5.

18 Commons, John R., Race and Immigrants in America (New York, 1907), p. 21. Commons, nonetheless, was a restrictionist. Turner and Wilson were as positive as Commons. See Saveth, , American Historians, pp. 130–1, 147–8. J. H. Robinson was also as positive as Commons. ‘It is only education and social environment that separate the best of us from a savagery far lower than any to be observed on the earth to-day…’ Robinson, , The New History; Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook (New York, 1912), p. 87.

19 Saveth, American Historians, esp. ch. 1; Turner, , The Frontier in American History (New York, 1920), p. 23. Turner's contribution to immigrant history is a series of articles,‘Studies of American Immigration’, which appeared in the Chicago Record-Herald, 28 08, 4, 11, 18, 25 09, 16 10 1901.

20 ‘The Study of Immigration’, in Commager, Henry Steele (ed.), Immigration and American History: Essays in Honor of Theodore C. Blegen (Minneapolis, 1961), pp. 45.

21 Schlesinger's paper first appeared in the American Journal of Sociology, 27 (07 1921), 7185. It was later revised and reprinted in Schlesinger, New Viewpoints in American History (New York, 1922).

22 Schlesinger, , ‘Significance of Immigration’, p. 72.

23 Stephenson also published a major book on The Religious Aspects of Swedish Immigration (Minneapolis, 1932), and The Background of the Beginning of Swedish Immigration, 1850–1875’, American Historical Review, 31 (07 1926), 708–23.

24 See also Hansen, , The Immigrant in American History (Cambridge, 1940), and The History of American Immigration as a Field for Research’, American Historical Review, 32 (04 1927), 500–18. Both Stephenson and Hansen were trained in Frederick Jackson Turner's seminars.

25 Blegen, , Norwegian Migration to America (2 vols., Northfield, Minn., 1931, 1940). For an exhaustive listing of Blegen's publications, see Commager, , Immigration and American History, pp. 157–61.

26 Qualey, , Norwegian Settlement in the United States (Northfield, Minn., 1938). See also Qualey, , ‘Some Aspects of European Migration to the United States’, in Sheehan, Donald and Syrett, Harold C. (eds.), Essays in American Historiography: Papers Presented in Honor of Allan Nevins (New York, 1960), pp. 153–68; ‘Immigration as a World Phenomenon’, in Commager, , Immigration and American History, pp. 96106; ‘The Transitional Character of Nationality Group Culture’, in Ware, Cultural Approach to History, pp. 82–4.

27 Wittke, , Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America (Philadelphia, 1952).

28 Handlin, Oscar, ‘The New History and the Ethnic Factor in American Life’, Perspectives in American History, 4 (1970), 1415, 23.

29 Handlin, ‘Immigration in American Life: A Reappraisal’, in Commager, , Immigration and American History, p. 25.Rolle, Andrew described Handlin's view of the immigrant as ‘undeniably sentimental, stereotyped, and maudlin’, The Immigrant Upraised: Italian Adventurers and Colonists in an Expanding America (Norman, Okla., 1968), p. 336n. An earlier pioneering work to which Handlin admitted his indebtedness is Thomas, William I. and Znaniecki, Florian, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (2 vols., Chicago, 19181920). Maurice R. Davie and Ray Allen Billington in brief papers in Ware, Cultural Approach to History, pp. 7482, also urged historians to study immigrant ‘contributions’. Davie had in mind material achievements such as mechanical inventions, the arts, etc., while Billington preferred the more intangible factors, such as modes of thought, living habits, and intellectual and spiritual concepts (pp. 75, 81).

30 Levine, Edward M., The Irish and Irish Politicians: A Study of Cultural and Social Alienation (Notre Dame, Ind., 1966); Gleason, Philip, The Conservative Reformers: German-American Catholics and the Social Order (Notre Dame, 1968), chs. I, 9; Brown, Thoman N., Irish-American Nationalism, 1870–1890 (New York, 1966); Hoglund, A. William, Finnish Immigrants in America, 1880–1920 (Madison, 1960); Kolehmainen, John I. and Hill, George W., Haven in the Woods: The Study of the Finns in Wisconsin (Madison, 1951).

31 Contadini in Chicago: A Critique of The Uprooted’, Journal of American History, 51 (12 1964), 404–17. Vecoli has pressed the same theme more recently in Prelates and Peasants: Italian Immigration and the Catholic Church’, Journal of Social History, 2 (Spring 1969), 217–68.

32 Vandenbosch, Amry, The Dutch Communities of Chicago (Chicago, 1927); Lucas, Henry S., Netherlanders in America: Dutch Immigration to the United States and Canada, 1789–1950 (Ann Arbor, 1955), pp. 225–32, 322–30; Cook, Richard A., South Holland, Illinois: A History, 1846–1966 (South Holland, 1966).

33 Daniels, George, ‘Immigrant Vote in the 1860 Election: The Case of Iowa’, Mid-America, 44 (07 1962), 146–62; Swierenga, Robert P., ‘The Ethnic Voter and the First Lincoln Election’, Civil War History, 11 (03 1965), 2743. In lhese studies, which focus on the Lincoln election of 1860 in Iowa, German and Dutch ethnic leaders turned Republican with great fanfare and a pledge to carry along their particular groups, but the immigrant community ignored the leaders' advice and continued to vote against Republican prohibitionists and nativists.

34 Hays, , ‘Political Parties and the Community-Society Continuum’, loc. cit., p. 158.

35 Lubell, , The Future of American Politics, pp. 67.

36 The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case (Princeton, 1961), p. 165.

37 Formisano, Ronald P., ‘A Case Study of Party Formation: Michigan, 1835’, Mid-America, 50 (04 1968), 85. Formisano's full-length study is ‘The Social Bases of American Voting Behavior: Wayne County, Michigan, 1837–1852, As a Test Case’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Wayne State University, 1966).

38 Stanley, John L., ‘Majority Tyranny in Tocqueville's America: The Failure of Negro Suffrage in 1846’, Political Science Quarterly, 34 (09 1967), 412–35.

39 Dykstra, Robert R. and Hahn, Harlan, ‘Northern Voters and Negro Suffrage: The Case of Iowa, 1968’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 32 (Summer 1968), 202–15, esp 213–14, reprinted in Swierenga, Robert P. (ed.). Quantification in American History: Theory and Research (New York. 1970).

40 Holt, Michael F., Forging A Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, 1848–1860 (New Haven, 1969), p. 218. The quotation is from pp. 7, 9. For a broader study of Pennsylvania and other northern states along the same lines, see Roger Peterson, ‘The Reaction to a Heterogeneous Society: Voting in the Northern United States, 1848–1860’, paper read to the Conference in Political History, Cortland, New York, 16 October 1970.

41 Kleppner, Paul, ‘Lincoln and the Immigrant Vote: A Case of Religious Polarization’, Mid-America, 48 (07 1966), 176–95; Daniels, ‘Immigrant Vote in the 1860 Election’; and Swierenga, ‘The Ethnic Voter and the First Lincoln Election’. An excellent re-interpretation of the ante-bellum era which incorporates the ethnocultural approach is Silbey, Joel H., ‘The Civil War Synthesis in American Political History’, Civil War History, 10 (06 1964), 130–40. See also Silbey, , ‘Politics and Society: The Process of Political Change’, in Silbey, (ed.), The Transformation of American Politics, 1840–1860 (Englewood Cliffs, 1967), pp. 134.

42 Kleppner, , ‘Lincoln and the Immigrant Vote’, loc. cit., p. 187. Kleppner also made effective use of the reference group idea. He points out that when German Lutherans lived in close proximity to German Catholics they were more likely to vote Republican. Conversely, when German Catholics were not available for negative reference, the German Lutherans tended more to vote Democratic.

43 Earlier studies of German voting in the Midwest in 1860 are thoroughly confusing because of inadequate methodology. Most support a German switch to the Republicans in 1860, except for Schafer, Joseph, ‘Who Elected Lincoln?’, American Historical Review, 47 (10 1941), 5163, and Dorpalen, Andreas, ‘The German Element and the Issues of the Civil War’, Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 29 (06 1942), 5576. For the traditional view, see Donnal V. Smith, ‘The Influence of the Foreign-Born of the Northwest in the Election of 1860’, ibid., 19 (September 1932), 192–203; Dodd, William F., ‘The Fight for the Northwest, 1860’, American Historical Review, 16 (07 1911), 774–88; Monaghan, Jay, ‘Did Abraham Lincoln Receive the Illinois German Vote?’, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 35 (06 1942), 133–9; and Emery, Charles Wilson, ‘The Iowa Germans in the Election of 1860’, Annals of Iowa, Third Series, 22 (10 1940), 421–53. Much of the literature on this subject is collected in an anthology by Luebke, Frederick C. (ed.), Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln (Lincoln, forthcoming, 1971). The only earlier studies to take account of the religious division between German Catholics and Lutherans, as did Kleppner, are Schafer, ‘Who Elected Lincoln?’ and Johnson, Hildegard Binder, ‘The Election of 1860 and the Germans of Minnesota’, Minnesota History, 28 (03 1947), 2036.

44 Parsons, Stanley B., ‘Who Were the Nebraska Populists?’, Nebraska History, 44 (06 1963), 8399. Parsons' larger study is ‘The Populist Context: Nebraska Farmers and their Antagonists, 1882–1895’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa, 1964). For the Kansas story, see Nugent, Walter T. K., The Tolerant Populists (Chicago, 1963).

45 Wyman, Roger E., ‘Wisconsin Ethnic Groups and the Election of 1890’, Wisconsin Magazine of History, 51 (Summer 1968), 269–93; reprinted in Swierenga, Quantification in American History, pp. 239–66.

46 Luebke, Frederick C., Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900 (Lincoln, 1969).

47 Ibid., pp. 181–4. It is only fair to note the tenuous basis for the generalizations on German voting after 1900, since the research has yet to be done.

48 Ibid., p. 179. The essay cited is Cherny, Robert W., ‘The 1940 Election in Nebraska with Special Attention to Isolationist Voting Among Nonurban German Stock Voters of the State’ (unpublished M.A. thesis, Columbia University, 1967).

49 Kleppner, Paul, The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics: 1850–1900 (New York, 1970). A companion study of the impact of religious values on political behaviour in the five states of the Old Northwest (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin) plus Iowa, from 1888 through 1896 is Richard Jensen's The Winning of the Midwest: 1888–1896, being published by the University of Chicago Press. A preliminary summary is ‘The Historical Roots of Party Identification’, paper read to the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., September 1969, to be published in Civil War History in 1971. Jensen's religious analysis, which distinguishes between pietists and liturgicals. lacks the sophistication and sensitivity displayed in Kleppner's work but his treatment of the economic dimension is more thorough.

50 Kleppner, , Cross of Culture, p. 71.

51 Ibid., pp. 316–68.

52 Ibid., pp. 37–51.

53 Michael Paul Rogin discovered the same Republican trend in California in foreign-stock counties in 1896, largely because Populism in California also displayed nativist overtones. See California Populism and the “System of 1896”’, Western Political Quarterly, 22 (03 1969), 179–96, esp. 192.

54 The pioneering works are Lubell, , Future of American Politics, pp. 129–57; and Key, V. O. Jr, and Munger, Frank, ‘Social Determinism and Electoral Decision: The Case of Indiana’, in Burdick, Eugene and Brodbeck, Arthur J. (eds.), American Voting Behavior (Glencoe, 1959), pp. 281–99.

55 This is the meaning of assimilation as it is analyzed theoretically in Dahl, Robert A., Who Governs? (New Haven, 1961), pp. 34–6. An excellent theoretical article which questions Dahl's ‘three-stage’ model of assimilation and instead distinguishes acculturation from assimilation is Parenti, Michael, ‘Ethnic Politics and the Persistence of Ethnic Identification’, American Political Science Review, 61 (09 1967), 717–26. European scholars have made this distinction for some years already. See, for example, Zubrzycki, Jerzy, Polish Immigration in Britain: A Study of Adjustment (The Hague, 1956), esp. chs. 610, in which the author presents a typology of immigrant adjustment to a host society.

56 Wolfinger, Raymond E., ‘The Development and Persistence of Ethnic Voting’, American Political Science Review, 59 (12 1965), 896908; Pomper, Gerald,‘Ethnic and Group Voting in Nonpartisan Municipal Elections’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 30 (Spring 1966), 7997.

57 Homer, Dorothy T., ‘The Rockford Swedish Community’, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 57 (Summer 1964), 149–55.

58 Allswang, John M., A House For All Peoples: Ethnic Politics in Chicago, 1890–1936 (Lexington, Ky., 1970); The Chicago Negro Voter and the Democratic Consensus: A Case Study, 1918–1936’, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 60 (Summer 1967), 145–75. Allswang's book is an outgrowth of his dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh under Samuel Hays.

59 Hamilton County is studied by Howard W. Allen, ‘Isolationism and German-Americans’, Ibid., 57 (Summer 1964), 143–9. Chicago and Perry County attitudes are discussed in Lorinskas, Robert A. et al. , ‘The Persistence of Ethnic Voting in Urban and Rural Areas: Results from the Controlled Election Method’, Social Science Quarterly, 49 (03 1969), 891–9.

60 Greer, Scott, ‘Catholic Voters and the Democratic Party’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 25 (Winter 1961), 611–25.

61 Huthmacher, J. Joseph, Massachusetts: People and Politics,1919–1933 (Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

62 Rogin, Michael P., The Intellectuals and McCarthy: The Radical Specter (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), esp. chs. 35.

63 For Elmira, New York, see Berelson, Bernard R. et al. , Voting (Chicago, 1954), pp. 6175. For New York City see Gorenstein, Arthur, ‘A Portrait of Ethnic Politics; The Socialists in the 1908 and 1910 Congressional Elections on the East Side’, Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 50 (03 1961), 202–38. Richard K. Lieberman, a graduate student in history at New York University, is completing a computerized analysis of New York ethnic voting behaviour in the early 1900s.

64 Wolfinger, , ‘Development and Persistence of Ethnic Voting’, loc. cit., pp. 901–3.

65 Pomper, , ‘Ethnic and Group Voting’, loc. cit., p. 87.

66 Allen, , ‘Isolationism and German-Americans’, loc. cit., pp. 143–9.

67 Homer, , ‘Rockford Swedish Community’, loc. cit., pp. 149–55.

68 Allswang, A House For All Peoples.

69 Lorinskas, et al. , ‘Persistence of Ethnic Voting’, loc. cit., pp. 891–9.

70 Huthmacher, , Massachusetts: People and Politics, pp. 182–3, 260–79.

71 Greer, , ‘Catholic Voters and the Democratic Party’, loc. cit., p. 624.

72 Rogin, , The Intellectuals and McCarthy, p. 64.

73 Rogin, ch. 3.

74 Rogin, chs. 4–5.

75 Rogin, , pp. 118–9, 131. The quotation is from p. 118.

76 Parenti, , ‘Ethnic Politics and the Persistence of Ethnic Identification’, loc. cit., p. 719. Parenti also cites the pertinent sociological literature. A more general essay on the political consequences of immigration is Parenti's ‘Immigration and Political Life’, in Jaher, Frederick C., The Age of Industrialism in America: Essays in Social Structure and Cultural Values (New York, 1968), pp. 7999.

77 Gerson, Louis L., The Hyphenate in Recent American Politics and Diplomacy (Lawrence, Ka., 1964), p. 258. Gerson deplores the significant influence of hyphenates (due to persistent ethnic bloc voting) in American diplomacy and foreign policy, 1890–1956, a fact which he myopically attributes to the ‘manipulations’ of ‘susceptible’ people by party strategists who seek ‘to hyphenize the American people for political purposes’ (viii, pp. 258–9).

78 Smith, Timothy, ‘New Approaches to the History of Immigration in Twentieth Century America’, American Historical Review, 71 (07 1966), 1265.

79 Recent works in the traditional vein are Rolle, Andrew F., The Immigrant Upraised (Norman, Okla., 1968); Ander, O. Fritiof (ed.), In the Trek, of the Immigrants: Essays Presented to Carl Wittke (Rock Island, Ill., 1964); Saloutos, Theodore, The Greeks in the United States (Cambridge, 1964); Wittke, Carl, The Irish in America (Baton Rouge, 1956); Shannon, William V., The American Irish (New York, 1963); Pisani, Lawrence F., The Italian in America: A Social Study and History (New York, 1957); Scott, Franklin D., Emigration and Immigration [A Publication of the American Historical Association's Service Center for Teachers of History, No. 51] (New York, 1963); Pochmann, Henry A., German Culture in America: Philosophical and Literary Influences (Madison, 1957), and Pochmann's earlier but important Bibliography of German Culture in America to 1940 (Madison, 1952); and Lucas, , The Netherlanders in America (Ann Arbor, 1955).

80 Smith, , ‘New Approaches to the History of Immigration’, loc. cit., p. 1279. Smith's former colleague, Rudolph J. Vecoli, who is director of the Center for Immigration Studies at the University of Minnesota, apparently dissents from Smith's advice. In a recent article, Vecoli condemned the Anglo-American parochialism inherent in the melting-pot notion and urged students of immigration history to study ethnic differences. Vecoli cites Glazer and Moynihan's Beyond the Melting Pot approvingly. See Vecoli, , ‘The Immigrant Studies Collection of the University of Minnesota’, American Archivist, 32 (04 1969), 140.

81 Strangers in the Land, x. In an earlier essay, Higham traced the sordid tale of anti-semitism in the Gilded Age, but likewise concluded that ‘the genial and democratic norms of American life remained basically undisturbed’. Higham, , ‘Anti-Semitism in the Gilded Age: A Reinterpretation’, Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 43 (03 1957), 578. In a similar vein, Professor Smith suggests that ‘assimilation is a more useful perspective than alienation from which to approach the history of twentieth-century immigration’. Smith, , ‘New Approaches to the History of Immigration’, loc. cit., pp. 1274, 1279.

82 I am indebted to Frederick C. Luebke of the University of Nebraska and Henry Leonard and lohn T. Hubbell of Kent State University for substantive and editorial advice.

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