Skip to main content Accessibility help



It is anticipated that the demand for contraceptives in Iran will increase in the near future as the number of women of reproductive age increases and with women wanting smaller families. The aim of this paper was to study the demand for long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPCMs), and its determinants, among Kurdish women in Mahabad city, Iran. Data were taken from the Mahabad Fertility Survey (MFS) conducted on a sample of over 700 households in April 2012. The results show that the demand for LAPCMs was 71.35% at the time of survey, although only 27.7% of women were using these methods. Thus, the number of unintended pregnancies is likely to increase in the future if this gap is not reduced. The multivariate analysis showed significant impacts on the dependent variables of the number of children ever born, perceived contraceptive costs and childbearing intentions. Moreover, women at the end of their reproductive lives and those with higher education were more likely to desire LAPCMs. It is concluded that despite a growing use of contraceptive methods in Iran in recent decades, the development of reproductive health services and promotion of the quality of family planning services remains a necessity.

Corresponding author
1Corresponding author. Email:
Hide All
Abbasi-Shavazi, M. J., McDonald, P. & Hosseini-Chavoshi, M. (2009) The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction. Springer Press, London, pp. 110.
Alesina, A., Develeeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Sergio, K. & Romain, W. (2003) Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth 8, 155194.
Alkema, A., Kantorova, V., Menozzi, C. & Biddlecom, A. (2012) National, regional, and global rates and trends in contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning between 1990 and 2015: a systematic and comprehensive analysis. The Lancet 381, 1642–1352. URL:
Bayer, A. (2002) Unmet Need For Contraception in the 21th Century. Population Resource Center, Washington DC. URL:
Belachew, A. (2007) Determinants of contraceptive use among rural married women of reproductive age (15–49) in Amhara Region: the case of Mecha Woreda. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Bhushan, I. (1997) Understanding Unmet Need. Working Paper No. 4, November. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs.
Bongaarts, J. & Bruce, J. (1995) The causes of unmet need for contraception and the social context of services. Studies in Family Planning 26(2), 5775.
Bradley, S. E. K., Schwandt, H. M. & Khan, S. (2009) Levels, trends, and reasons for contraceptive discontinuation. DHS Analytical Studies, No. 20.
Bulatao, R. (1989) Toward a framework for understanding contraceptive method choice. In Bulatao, R. A., Palmore, J. A. & Ward, S. E. (eds) Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 277304.
Dalton, C., McCord, G. C. & Sachs, J. D. (2007) Africa's lagging demographic transition: evidence from exogenous impacts of malaria ecology and agricultural technology. Working Paper 12892. URL:
Davidson, A. R. (1989) Psychosocial aspects of contraceptive method choice. In Bulatao, R. A., Palmore, J. A. & Ward, S. E. (eds) Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 2739.
Erfani, A. (2012) Factors associated with the use of withdrawal in Iran: do fertility intentions matter? Journal of Comparative Family Studies 43(2), 301312.
Fathizadeh, N., Tashi, S., Abedi, H. A. & Kazemi, A. (2006) Experiences of young women about contraceptive methods in the first years of common life [in Persian]. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research 2(31), 2532.
Freedman, R. & Berelson, B. (1976) The record of family planning programs. Studies in Family Planning 7(l), l40.
Haile, A. (2009) Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, East Shoa Zone, Batu town, Ethiopia. Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Hassanzadeh, A. (2008) Unwanted pregnancies in Iran [in Persian]. Health Weekly 192, 3.
Hosseini, H. (2012) Socioeconomic Demography and Family Planning. Second Edition. Fourth Publication, Bu-Ali Sina University Press, Hamedan.
Hosseini, H. & Abbasi-Shavazi, M. J. (2010) Proximate determinants of fertility of Kurd and Turk Women in Orumieh district: application of Bongaarts decomposition method. Journal of Iranian Social Studies 4(2), 2348.
Hosseini, H., Amir, E., Soleiman, P. & Belal, B. (2012) Unmet need for pregnancy health and its determinants among Kurdish women in Mahabad. Quarterly Journal of Women in Development and Politics 10(2), 6586.
International Planned Parenthood Federation (2010) Facts on Satisfying the Need for Contraception in Developing Countries. In Brief, Guttmacher Institute. URL:
McDonald, P. (2002) Low fertility: unifying the theory and the demography. Paper presented at the Future of Fertility in Low Fertility Countries, 2002, Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Mihret, N. (2008) Determinants of unmet need for contraception among currently married couples in West Belessa Woreda, North Gondar of Amhara. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Mizanur, R., Tilahun, G., Mengistu, A. & Jennifer, W. (2007) Enhanced Access to Reproductive Health and Family Planning: Pathfinder International in Ethiopia 2002–2007. Working paper, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, December 2007. URL:
Robey, B. R., Rutsein, S. O. & Morris, L. (1992) The Reproductive Revolution: New Survey Findings. Population Reports. Baltimore Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Series M, No. 11.
US Agency for International Development (2007) Long-Acting and Permanent Methods: Addressing Unmet Need for Family Planning in Africa. Issue Brief. USAID, Washington, DC.
World Health Organization (2012) Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2010. WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank, Geneva.
World Health Organization (2010) Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2008, 6th edition. WHO, Geneva.
Zanjani, H., Mirzaei, M., Mehryar, A. M. & Shadpoor, K. (1999) Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. First Publication, Boshra Press, Tehran.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Biosocial Science
  • ISSN: 0021-9320
  • EISSN: 1469-7599
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed