Skip to main content
×
×
Home

HIGH FERTILITY REGIONS IN BANGLADESH: A MARRIAGE COHORT ANALYSIS

  • SABINA ISLAM (a1) (a2), MOHAMMAD AMIRUL ISLAM (a2) and SABU S. PADMADAS (a2) (a3)
Summary
Summary

Bangladesh represents one of the few countries in south Asia where the pace of fertility decline has been unprecedented over the last three decades. Although there has been significant reduction in fertility levels at the national level, regional variations continue to persist, especially in Sylhet and Chittagong where the total fertility rates are well above the country average. Using data from three consecutive Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) this paper assesses how fertility patterns in Sylhet and Chittagong differ from the rest of Bangladesh through a marriage cohort analysis of the parity progression ratios, and examines the factors determining the transition rates to higher parity in these two regions. Three cohorts of women are identified: those married during 1965–1974, 1975–84 and 1985–94. The results show that the probability that a woman from the recent cohort in Sylhet or Chittagong who had a third birth will have a fourth birth is nearly twice that of her counterpart in other regions. Social characteristics such as education, occupation, religion and residence have no effect on fertility in Sylhet and Chittagong. Additional period-specific analyses using the 2007 BDHS data show that women in Sylhet are considerably more likely to have a third or fourth birth sooner than those in other divisions, especially Khulna. The findings call for specific family planning policy interventions in Sylhet and Chittagong ensuring gender equity, promoting female education and delaying entry into marriage and childbearing.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alagarajan M. & Kulkarni P. M. (2006) Trends in Religious Differentials in Fertility, Kerala, India: An Analysis of Birth Intervals. Working Paper No. 167. Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad.
Arnold F. & Zhaoxiang L. (1986) Sex preference, fertility, and family planning in China. Population and Development Review 12, 221246.
Bairagi R. & Datta A. K. (2001) Demographic transition in Bangladesh: what happened in the twentieth century: what will happen next? Asia Pacific Population Journal 16, 316.
Bairagi R. & Langsten R. L. (1986) Sex preference for children and its implications for fertility in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning 17, 302307.
Bongaarts J. (2008) Fertility transitions in developing countries: progress or stagnation? Studies in Family Planning 39, 105110.
Bongaarts J. & Potter R. G. (1983) Fertility, Biology and Behavior: Analysis of Proximate Determinants of Fertility. Academic Press, New York.
Caldwell J. C., Khuda B. E., Caldwell B. C., Pieris I. & Caldwell P. (1999) The Bangladesh fertility decline: an interpretation. Population and Development Review 25, 6784.
Chowdhury M. K. & Bairagi R. (1990) Son preference and fertility in Bangladesh. Population and Development Review 16, 749757.
Cleland J., Phillips J. F., Amin S. & Kamal G. M. (1994) The Determinants of Reproductive Change in Bangladesh: Success in a Challenging Environment. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Dahal G. P., Padmadas S. S. & Hinde P. R. A (2008) Fertility-limiting behavior and contraceptive choice among men in Nepal. International Family Planning Perspectives 34, 614.
Government of Bangladesh (2004) Bangladesh Population Policy. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. URL: http://www.dgfp.gov.bd/population_policy_eng.pdf (accessed 5th March 2009).
Gray E. & Evans A. (2004) Parity progression in Australia: what role does sex of existing children play? Paper presented in the 12th Biennial Conference of the Australian Population Association15–17th SeptemberCanberra, Australia.
Hank K. (2007) Parental gender preferences and reproductive behaviour: a review of the recent literature. Journal of Biosocial Science 39, 759767.
Hoem J. & Hoem B. (1987) The Impact of Female Employment on Second and Third Births in Modern Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 36, University of Stockholm.
Islam M. (1995) Bangladeshi migration: an impact study. In Cohen R. (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press, pp. 360366.
Islam M. A., Islam M. M. & Chakraborty N. (2001) Achieving Replacement Level Fertility in Bangladesh: Challenges and Prospects. No. 18, CPD-UNFPA Programme on Population and Sustainable Development, CPD, Dhaka.
Islam M. A., Padmadas S. S. & Smith P. W. F. (2006) Men's approval of family planning in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science 38, 247259.
Islam M. M. & Islam M. N. (1993) Biological and behavioural determinants of fertility in Bangladesh: 1975–1989. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 8, 318.
Islam S., Yadava K. N. S. & Alam M. A. (2005) Level and trends of fertility in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences 42, 159166.
Kabir M., Amin R., Ahmed A. U. & Chowdhury J. (1994) Factors affecting desired family size in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science 26, 369375.
Karki Y. B. (1988) Sex preference and the value of sons and daughters in Nepal. Studies in Family Planning 19, 169178.
Keilman N. (2003) Demographic and Social Implications of Low Fertility for Family Structures in Europe. Population Studies No. 43, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.
Mamun A. A., Padmadas S. S. & Khatun M. (2006) Maternal health during pregnancy and perinatal mortality in Bangladesh: evidence from a large-scale community based clinical trial. Paediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology 20, 482490.
Mitra S. N., Al-Sabir A., Cross A. R. & Jamil K. (1997) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 1996–97. NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and Macro International Inc. Calverton, MD, and Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Nahar Q., Min H. & Macro International Inc. (2008) Trends and Determinants of Adolescent Childbearing in Bangladesh. DHS Working Paper No. 48. Demographic and Health Research, Calverton, MD.
Nesa M. K. (2008) Fertility in Bangladesh: level, trends and transition. MSc thesis, Department of Statistics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
NIPORT, Mitra and Associates & ORC Macro (2001) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 1999/2000. National Institute of Population Research and training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates and ORC Macro, Calverton, MD.
NIPORT, Mitra and Associates & ORC Macro (2005) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. National Institute of Population Research and training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates and ORC Macro, Calverton, MD.
NIPORT, Mitra and Associates & ORC Macro (2009) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007. National Institute of Population Research and training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates and ORC Macro, Calverton, MD.
Pollard M. S. & Morgan S. P. (2002) Emerging parental gender indifference? Sex composition of children and the third birth. American Sociological Review 67, 600613.
Rahman M. & DaVanzo J. (1993) Gender preference and birth spacing in Matlab, Bangladesh. Demography 30, 315332.
Rahman M., Da Vanzo J. & Razzaque A. (2004) When will Bangladesh reach replacement fertility? The role of education and family planning services. In Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility TransitionNew York11–14th March 2002. Compiled by United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, pp. 343357.
Razzaque A., Da Vanzo J., Rahman M., Gausia K., Hale L., Khan M. A. & Mustafa A. H. (2005) Pregnancy spacing and maternal morbidity in Matlab, Bangladesh. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 89, 4149.
Shafiq M. N. (2009) A reversal of educational fortune? Educational gender gaps in Bangladesh. Journal of International Development 21, 137155.
Siddiqui T. (2008) Migration and Gender in Asia. Report of the United Nations expert meeting on international migration and development in Asia and the Pacific. Population Division, United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and Pacific, Thailand. URL: http://un.org/esa/population/meetings/EGM_Ittmig_Asia/P06_Siddiqui.pdf (accessed 7th January 2009).
Williamson N. E. (1976) Sons or Daughters: A Cross-Cultural Survey of Parental Preferences, vol. 31. Sage Library of Social Research, Beverly Hills, CA.
Wood C. H. & Bean F. D. (1977) Offspring gender and family size: implications from a comparison of Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family 39, 129139.
Wright R. E., Ermisch J. F., Hinde P. R. A. & Joshi H. J. (1988) The third birth in Great Britain. Journal of Biosocial Science 20, 489496.
Yadava K. N. S & Islam S. (2000) Post-partum amenorrhoea in Bangladesh: levels and differentials. Journal of Population and Social Studies 9, 7595.
Zeitlyn B. (2006) Migration from Bangladesh to Italy and Spain. URL: http://www.samren.org/Fellowships/papers/Beji.pdf (accessed 18th February 2009).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Biosocial Science
  • ISSN: 0021-9320
  • EISSN: 1469-7599
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 23 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 164 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.