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Comparison of traditional and optical grain-size field measurements with SNOWPACK simulations in a taiga snowpack

  • L. Leppänen (a1), A. Kontu (a1), J. Vehviläinen (a1), J. Lemmetyinen (a1) and J. Pulliainen (a1)...

Abstract

Knowledge of snow microstructure is relevant for modelling the physical properties of snow cover and for simulating the propagation of electromagnetic waves in remote-sensing applications. Characterization of the microstructure in field conditions is, however, a challenging task due to the complex, sintered and variable nature of natural snow cover. A traditional measure applied as a proxy of snow microstructure, which can also be determined in field conditions, is the visually estimated snow grain size. Developing techniques also allow measurement, for example, of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow, from which the optical-equivalent grain size can be derived. The physical snow model SNOWPACK simulates evolution of snow parameters from meteorological forcing data. In this study we compare an extensive experimental dataset of measurements of traditional grain size and SSA-derived optical grain size with SNOWPACK simulations of grain-size parameters. On average, a scaling factor of 1.2 is required to match traditional grain-size observations with the corresponding SNOWPACK simulation; a scaling factor of 2.1 was required for the optical equivalent grain size. Standard deviations of scaling factors for the winters of 2011/12 and 2012/13 were 0.36 and 0.42, respectively. The largest scaling factor was needed in early winter and under melting conditions.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence: L. Leppänen <leena.leppanen@fmi.fi>

References

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