This paper combines a study of the rock debris and δD/δ18O isotopic characteristics of basal ice sequences in three representative glaciers in South Georgia and concludes that the debris and ice has been entrained mainly by basal freezing. The size distribution of the rock debris is typical of crushing and abrasion, and reflects transport at the ice–rock interface. The δD/δ18O relationships show that clear ice associated with the debris has accreted through freezing. The white bubbly glacier ice has δD/δ18O relationships typical of precipitation which demonstrates an altitudinal effect between glaciers.
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