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The years of Lennox Browne (1874–1902)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 June 2007


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Copyright © JLO (1984) Limited 1998

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15Lennox Browne belonged to the Grand Lodge of Freemasons and was a Grand Officer of England. This was in common with many in the medical profession during this period as can be seen from their entries in Plarr's Lives (surgeons) and Munk's Roll (physicians).Google Scholar
16Charles Booth's Descriptive Map of London Poverty 1889, London Topographical Society, 1984.Google Scholar
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20Lennox Browne was one of the oldest members of the Savage Club which was set up in 1857 to be a meeting place for artists, actors and scientists (Not So Savage, Norgate, M., Wykes, A., 1976, Jupiter Books, pp 10–11). There is an illustration by Isaac Brown (Lennox Browne) entitled 'Vision in t he Wood' on p 120 of the second volume of Savage Club Papers published to raise funds for a widow of a former member. Lennox Browne was also remembered for having brought Henry Stanley to lunch (Watson, A. (1907) The Savage Club. Fisher Unwin, p 210).Google Scholar
21Central London Throat and Ear Hospital, Minutes of Finance Committee, 4th January, 1883.Google Scholar
22All the Year Round was a weekly magazine compiled by Charles Dickens in 1859 in which he serialized 'A Tale of Two Cities' and other novels. It was willed to his son in 1870.Google Scholar
23Minutes, op. cit., note 5, 2nd April 1874.Google Scholar
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25Scott Stevenson, op. cit., note 2. says that Morell Mackenzie had the first hospital in which payment by patients was made but does not give a date although he attributes this fact to the withdrawal of the Hospital Sunday Committee grant, rather than that recorded in the Golden Square minutes which linked it to their not being granted a royal charter.Google Scholar
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29In 1901 68 Masonic lodges contributed amounts from eight guineas to 15s. O.d Annual Report, 1902.Google Scholar
30Performances were by the Pandora Dramatic Society (1878), The Philothespian Club (1880) and t he Busy Bees (1888).Google Scholar
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38 MissLofty, joined in 1877 and remained with the Hospital until Lennox Browne's death in 1902 although there are no personal details about her on the Hospital files. She was presumably the eldest, unmarried daughter of the family and referred to just with the courtesy title of ‘Miss’. This appears to be the practice with all unmarried female employees of the Hospital with the exception of Miss Dora Jackson who was presumably a younger daughter.Google Scholar
39Minutes, op. cit., note 33, 6th March 1879. He died in 1882 but the incoming Archbishop of Canterbury accepted the Presidency.Google Scholar
40Minutes, op. cit., note 33, 12th July 1877. Decision taken not to take steps to retrieve money. Similar incidents happened at Golden Square Hospital (Ormerod, op. cit., note 3, p 4), St Mark's Hospital (Granshaw, L. (1985) St Mark's Hospital, King's Fund, London, p 53) and Moorfields (Collins, op. cit., note 10, p 138).Google Scholar
41Ormerod, op. cit., note 4, p 3.Google Scholar
42Mercier had problems with the press over the management of St John's Hospital. He went to law which exonerated him from all charges of dishonesty but it was said that he had acted in an irregular and unbusinesslike manner. Russell, B. (1963) St John's Hospital for Diseases of the Skin, 1863–1963, Lederle Laboratories, London, pp 29–30.Google Scholar
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46In the Journal of Laryngology and Otology obituary to Richard Kershaw tribute is paid to his great ability to work for the good of the specialism in spite of the enmity between early laryngologists. During his 50 years at the Central London Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital he published details on t he specialisms to counter the attitude of the medical press.Google Scholar
47Kershaw, op. cit., note 43, p 39.Google Scholar
48Minute Book of the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat and Chest, Golden Square 1886, p 225. This includes copy of a letter of resignation of Drs Semple, Prosser James, Whistler, Woakes, Stoker and Fenton Jones. This had followed a year long dispute regarding the attendance book and t he manipulated resignation of Prosser James, whose attitude had been attacked 10 years previously.Google Scholar
49Minutes, op. cit., note 34, 6th July 1882.Google Scholar
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55Minutes of special meeting held on 10th April 1885 to which medical staff, management and architect all attended.Google Scholar
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57Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1888.Google Scholar
58The previous Sunday, 13th November 1887, known as Bloody Sunday, had seen a riot of the unemployed against the police and army at Trafalgar Square resulting in one dead and 150 injured.Google Scholar
59Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1888.Google Scholar
60Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1886.Google Scholar
61British Medical Journal, 28th November 1885.Google Scholar
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67Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1891.Google Scholar
68Robert, Koch (1843–1910) shared with Pasteur the title ‘Founder of Microbiology’. Published ‘postulates’ 1881, discovered the tubercle bacillus in 1882 and the cholera vibrio in 1884, (Weir, N. (1990) Otolaryngology. An Illustrated History, Butterworths, London, p 2.) His improvements in staining techniques, followed by his development of a method to achieve pure cultivations of bacteria, led to many other methodological advances in bacteriology (Brand J.L. (1965) Doctors and the State, John Hopkins, Maryland, p 39).Google Scholar
69Butterworth, Lady. (1925) The Story of a City Hospital 1848–1925. City of London Hospital for Diseases of Heart and Lungs Centenary booklet. (Pamphlet prepared by Lady Butterworth to raise funds).Google Scholar
70Lennox Browne, (1881) Koch's Remedy in Relation Specially to Throat Consumption.Google Scholar
71Browne, LWingrave, N. (1898) Notes of Three Cases of Lupus in which the new Tuberculin was employed. Journal of Laryngology, Rhinology and Otology 359362 and Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1891, p 17.Google Scholar
72Collins, op. cit., note 10, p 162.Google Scholar
73The Select Committee of the House of Lords of Metropolitan Hospitals was set up to collect evidence respecting the general management of Metropolitan medical charities. Lennox Browne attended on 18th July 1890. Annual Report, op. cit. note 13, 1891, p 10.Google Scholar
74Annual Report, op. cit., note 13, 1891, p 11.Google Scholar
75Medical report in Annual Report 1894, p 15Google Scholar
76Anaesthetist's report in the Annual Report, 1901, p 21.Google Scholar
77The provision of food for out-patients regarded as being undernourished was started by Miss Lofty in 1877 using the Convalescent funds.Google Scholar
78In the Annual Report, 1895 diphtheria is given prominence.Google Scholar
79Office of Population Censuses and Survey, Spotlight No. 8 Infectious Diseases. HMSO, London, 1981. 5,500 deaths from diphtheria were reported in England and Wales in 1889, rose to 9,500 in 1899 and returned to 5,500 in 1909.Google Scholar
80Browne, L. (1896) Diphtheria and its Associates, Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, London.Google Scholar
81Annual Report, 1896, p 7.Google Scholar
82Holmes, op. cit., note 52, p 13; Law, F. (1975) History of Moorfields Eye Hospital, vol. II, H. K. Lewis, London, p 10.Google Scholar
83Scott Stevenson, op. cit., note 2, p 114.Google Scholar
84Annual Report, 1896, p 13.Google Scholar
85Annual Report, 1897, p 19.Google Scholar
86Lennox, Brown (1878) Diseases of the Throat and Nose, Bailiere, Tindall and Cox, London. Lennox Browne, like many other Victorian surgeons such as Dalrymple of Moorfields, Morell Mackenzie of Golden Square, and Bonney of Chelsea, was an accomplished artist. Lennox Browne exhibited this watercolours for 30 years and had two landscape pictures hung at the Royal Academy. His illustration of the throat and its conditions were used by Morell Mackenzie and others (Obituary in the Journal of Laryngology, Rhinology and Otology, vol. 18, No. 12, December 1902).Google Scholar
87Prochaska, op. cit., note 31, p 21.Google Scholar
88Annual Report, 1899, p 11.Google Scholar
89Sir Henry Burdett (18471920) combined a medical and financial background. He founded The Hospital, a weekly journal, supported the Hospital Sunday movement and initiated the Prince Edward's Hospital Fund for London which he organized. (Rivett, G. (1986) The Development of the London Hospital System, 1823–1982. King Edward's Hospital Fund for London, pp 373–374).Google Scholar
90Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary, 5th April 1898 published in Annual Report, 1898. p p 1–18.Google Scholar
91Hospital Reform Association. No knowledge at Wellcome or Guildhall libraries but this association was referred to in The British Medical Journal, 30th October, 1897, pp 1272–1277 where the proceedings of the Hospital Reform Association Conference at St Martin's was reported.Google Scholar
92OPCS, op. cit., note 79, 63,000 deaths from tuberculosis reported in England and Wales in 1889 drops to 60,000 in 1899 and to 55,000 in 1909.Google Scholar
93A Mr Vassie (ex Poor Law Officer) was employed on a seven per cent commission and £5 per quarter travelling expenses for any patients introduced into the Hospital by him. There was also an offer of 15 per cent to anyone who brought money forward for the Hospital.Google Scholar
94Annual Report, 1902, p 16.Google Scholar
95Annual Report, 1901, p 16.Google Scholar
96Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught (18501942) was reputed to be a favourite of Queen Victoria. He was commissioned to the Royal Engineers and was patron to several hospitals.Google Scholar
97Letter from Lennox Browne dated 4th October 1902 in RNTNE Hospital archives.Google Scholar
98An interesting account of this is given in Dr Daily's book Women Under the Knife, Hutchinson Radius, London, 1991, pp 163–173. She refers to Baker Brown's book The Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females, published in 1866, as leading to ‘one of the biggest rows the medical profession has ever experienced.’Google Scholar
99Obituary, British Medical Journal (1902), I, pp 1565–1566.Google Scholar
100Obituary, Journal of Laryngology, Otology and Rhinology, 18: No. 12. December 1902.Google Scholar
101Scott Stevenson, R., op. cit., note 2, p 42.Google Scholar
102Personal communication, The Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, August 1991.Google Scholar
103Weir, N. (1990) Otolaryngology, An Illustrated History, Butterworths, London, p 126.Google Scholar
104Granshaw, op. cit., note 44, p 10.Google Scholar
105British Medical Journal, (1875) op. cit., note 24, II, p 49. Charges ranged from one shilling to two shillings a fortnight, but most agreed to pay one shilling a week (wages averaged seven to 13 shillings a week).Google Scholar