Skip to main content Accessibility help

Serum levels of interleukins 4 and 10 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

  • Z Mojtahedi (a1), B Khademi (a1), A Yehya (a1), A Talebi (a1), M J Fattahi (a1) and A Ghaderi (a1)...



There is currently controversy over the association between serum interleukin-4 and -10 levels and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in patients of different ethnicity. This study aimed to investigate serum levels of these cytokines in Iranian patients with this pathology, and to analyse correlations with tumour location and tumour stage at diagnosis.


Serum cytokines levels were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.


Study groups comprised 93 untreated patients and 53 healthy donors.


Serum interleukin-4 levels were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (p < 0.000), but were not significantly associated with tumour stage. Serum interleukin-10 levels were not raised in patients, nor associated with tumour stage.


Serum levels of interleukin-4, but not -10, were increased in Iranian head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. These data do not support an association of these cytokines with tumour progression; this is consistent with previous findings.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Abbas Ghaderi, Professor of Immunology, Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Fax: 0098 711 2304952 E-mail:


Hide All
1Hardisson, D. Molecular pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2003;260:502–8
2Li, Z, Chen, L, Qin, Z. Paradoxical roles of IL-4 in tumor immunity. Cell Mol Immunol 2009;6:415–22
3Salazar-Onfray, F, López, MN, Mendoza-Naranjo, A. Paradoxical effects of cytokines in tumor immune surveillance and tumor immune escape. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2007;18:171–82
4Samsami Dehaghani, A, Shahriary, K, Kashef, MA, Naeimi, S, Fattahi, MJ, Mojtahedi, Z et al. Interleukin-18 gene promoter and serum level in women with ovarian cancer. Mol Biol Rep 2009;36:2393–7
5Jebreel, A, Mistry, D, Loke, D, Dunn, G, Hough, V, Oliver, K et al. Investigation of interleukin 10, 12 and 18 levels in patients with head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol 2007;121:246–52
6Yamamoto, T, Yoneda, K, Ueta, E, Osaki, T. Serum cytokines, interleukin-2 receptor, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in oral disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:727–35
7Karcher, J, Reisser, C, Daniel, V, Herold-Mende, C. Cytokine expression of transforming growth factor-beta2 and interleukin-10 in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Comparison of tissue expression and serum levels [in German]. HNO 1999;47:879–84
8Lathers, DM, Young, MR. Increased aberrance of cytokine expression in plasma of patients with more advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cytokine 2004;25:220–8
9Lathers, DM, Achille, NJ, Young, MR. Incomplete Th2 skewing of cytokines in plasma of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Hum Immunol 2003;64:1160–6
10Hoffmann, TK, Sonkoly, E, Homey, B, Scheckenbach, K, Gwosdz, C, Bas, M et al. Aberrant cytokine expression in serum of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 2007;29:472–8
11Prokopchuk, O, Liu, Y, Henne-Bruns, D, Kornmann, M. Interleukin-4 enhances proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells: evidence for autocrine and paracrine actions. Br J Cancer 2005;92:921–8
12Mojtahedi, Z, Khademi, B, Hashemi, SB, Abtahi, SMB, Ghasemi, MA, Fattahi, MJ et al. Serum interleukine-6 concentration, but not interleukine-18, is associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression. Pathol Oncol Res 2011;17:710
13Duffy, SA, Taylor, JM, Terrell, JE, Islam, M, Li, Y, Fowler, KE et al. Interleukin-6 predicts recurrence and survival among head and neck cancer patients. Cancer 2008;113:750–7
14Fauci, AS, Braunwald, E, Kasper, DL, Hauser, SL, Longo, DL, Jameson, JL. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. In: Vokes, EE. Head and Neck Cancer, 17th edn.New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008;549–50
15Satyam, A, Singh, P, Badjatia, N, Seth, A, Sharma, A. A disproportion of T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokines with predominance of T(H)2, in urothelial carcinoma of bladder. Urol Oncol 2011;29:5865
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed