Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Inching Toward Universal Coverage: State-Federal Health-Care Programs in Historical Perspective

  • Simon F. Haeder (a1) and David L. Weimer (a1)
Copyright
References
Hide All

NOTES

1. See, for example, Amenta Edwin et al., “Bring Back the WPA: Work, Relief, and the Origins of American Social Policy in Welfare Reform,” Studies in American Political Development 12, no. 1 (1998): 156; Glenn Brian J., “Fraternal Rhetoric and the Development of the U.S. Welfare State,” Studies in American Political Development 15, no. 2 (2001): 220–33; Johnson Kimberley S. “Racial Orders, Congress, and the Agricultural Welfare State, 1865–1940,” Studies in American Political Development 25 (2011): 143–61; Skocpol Theda and Ritter Gretchen, “Gender and the Origins of Modern Social Policies in Britain and the United States,” Studies in American Political Development 5, no. 1 (1991): 3693; Mettler Suzanne, Dividing Citizens: Gender and Federalism in New Deal Policy (Ithaca, 1998); Skocpol Theda, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, Mass., 1992).

2. Johnson Kimberley S., Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877–1929 (Princeton, 2007).

3. Haeder Simon F. and Weimer David L., “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded: A Federalism Perspective on the Affordable Care Act,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law (forthcoming).

4. Mountin Joseph W. and Greve Clifford H., “The Role of Grants-in-Aid in Financing Public Health Programs,” in Public Health Bulletin (Washington, D.C., 1949); Brooke Graves W., American Intergovernmetal Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development, and Current Status (New York, 1964).

5. Bittermann Henry J., State and Federal Grants-in-Aid (New York, 1938); Graves, American Intergovernmetal Relations.

6. The Council of State Governments, Federal Grants-in-Aid: Report to the Committee on Federal Grants-in-Aid (1949).

7. Key V. O. Jr., The Administration of Federal Grants to States (Chicago, 1937).

8. Ibid.

9. Lapp John A., “Federal Grants in Aid,” American Political Science Review 10, no. 4 (1916): 738–43.

10. Johnson, “Racial Orders, Congress, and the Agricultural Welfare State, 1865–1940.”

11. Lapp, “Federal Grants in Aid”; Mountin and Greve, “The Role of Grants-in-Aid in Financing Public Health Programs.”

12. Maxwell James A., The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States (Cambridge, Mass., 1946).

13. Johnson, Governing the American State.

14. Mountin and Greve, “The Role of Grants-in-Aid in Financing Public Health Programs.”

15. Clark Jane Perry, The Rise of a New Federalism: Federal-State Cooperation in the United States (New York, 1938).

16. Douglas Paul H., “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid I,” Political Science Quarterly 35, no. 2 (1920): 255–71; Douglas, “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid II,” Political Science Quarterly 35, no. 4 (1920): 522–44.

17. The Council of State Governments, Federal Grants-in-Aid: Report to the Committee on Federal Grants-in-Aid.

18. Douglas, “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid I”; Douglas, “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid II.”

19. Withdrawal occurred in 1934 for Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 1938 for Massachusetts, and again in 1940 for Georgia. New Jersey did not restore diversions. See Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States.

20. Douglas, “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid I”; “The Development of a System of Federal Grants-in-Aid II.”

21. Chapman Carleton B. and Talmadge John M., “Historical and Political Background of Federal Health Care Legislation,” Law and Contemporary Problems 35, no. 2 (1970): 334–47.

22. Davis Michael M., Public Medical Services: A Survey of Tax-Supported Medical Care in the United States (Chicago, 1937).

23. Furman Bess, A Profile of the United States Public Health Service 1798–1948 (Washington, D.C., 1974); Mullan Fitzhugh, Plagues and Politics: The Story of the United States Public Health Service (New York, 1989); Duffy John, The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health (Urbana, 1990).

24. Falk I. S., “National Health Insurance for the United States,” Public Health Reports 92, no. 5 (1977): 399406. It was replaced with direct governmental relief in 1884. See Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States. This program later developed in the U.S. Public Health Service.

25. Chapman and Talmadge, “Historical and Political Background of Federal Health Care Legislation.”

26. Howard Oliver O., Report of the Commissioner, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands (Washington, D.C., 1869); Peirce Paul S., The Freedmen’s Bureau: A Chapter in the History of Reconstruction (Iowa City, 1904); Bentley George R., A History of the Freedmen’s Bureau (Philadelphia, 1955); Downs Jim, Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering During the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York, 2012).

27. Perkins John A., “Grants-in-Aid Reappraised,” Public Health Reports (1896–1970) 73, no. 1 (1958): 2730; Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States.

28. Gordon Linda, “Social Insurance and Public Assistance: The Influence of Gender in Welfare Thought in the United States, 1890–1935,” American Historical Review 97, no. 1 (1992): 1954; Link Arthur S., “What Happened to the Progressive Movement in the 1920’s?” American Historical Review 64, no. 4 (1959): 833–51; Stanley Lemons J., “The Sheppard-Towner Act: Progressivism in the 1920s,” Journal of American History 55, no. 4 (1969): 776–86; Ladd-Taylor Molly, “‘Grannies’ and ‘Spinsters’: Midwife Education under the Sheppard-Towner Act,” Journal of Social History 22, no. 2 (1988): 255–75; Moehling Carolyn M. and Thomasson Melissa A., “The Political Economy of Saving Mothers and Babies: The Politics of State Participation in the Sheppard-Towner Program,” Journal of Economic History 72, no. 1 (2012): 75103.

29. Velsor-Friedrich Barbara, “Health and Welfare Reform, Part 1: The Origins,” Journal of Pediatric Nursing 11, no. 1 (1996): 6263 at 62.

30. Chepaitis Joseph B., “Federal Social Welfare Progressivism in the 1920s,” Social Service Review 46, no. 2 (1972): 213–29.

31. Ladd-Taylor Molly, “‘Why Does Congress Wish Women and Children to Die?’: The Rise and Fall of Public Maternal and Infant Health Care in the United States, 1921–1929,” in Women and Children First: International Maternal and Infant Welfare 1870– 1945, ed. Fildes Valerie, Marks Lara, and Marland Hilary (London, 1992).

32. Macdonald Austin F., Federal Aid: A Study of the American Subsidy System (New York, 1928). Lemons, “The Sheppard-Towner Act: Progressivism in the 1920s.” Ironically, Massachusetts received funding from a total of twenty-two federal grant programs at the time of the lawsuit.

33. Siefert Kristine, “An Exemplar of Primary Prevention in Social Work: The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921,” Social Work in Health Care 90, no. 1 (1983): 87103. Chepaitis, “Federal Social Welfare Progressivism in the 1920s.”

34. Children’s Bureau, Four Decades of Action for Children: Short History of the Children’s Bureau (Washington, D.C., 1956).

35. Lenroot Katharine F., “Maternal and Child Welfare Provisions of the Social Security Act,” Law and Contemporary Problems 3, no. 2 (1936): 253–62.

36. Meckel Richard A., Save the Babies: American Public Health Reform and the Prevention of Infant Mortality 1850–1929 (Baltimore, 1990).

37. Bittermann, State and Federal Grants-in-Aid.

38. Meckel, Save the Babies.

39. Macdonald Austin F., “Recent Trends in Federal Aid to the States,” American Political Science Review 25, no. 3 (1931): 628–34.

40. Chepaitis, “Federal Social Welfare Progressivism in the 1920s.”

41. Macdonald, “Recent Trends in Federal Aid to the States.”

42. Highway funding accounted for $150 million of this. See Harris Joseph P., “The Future of Federal Grants-in-Aid,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 207 (1940): 1426.

43. American Public Welfare Association, Medical Care for the Unemployed and Their Families under the Plan of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (Chicago, 1934); Chapin Brown Josephine, Public Relief, 1929–1939 (New York, 1940); Macmahon Arthur W., Millett John D., and Ogden Gladys, The Administration of Federal Work Relief (New York, 1941; 1971).

44. Greenfield Margaret, Medical Care for Welfare Recipients: Basic Problems (Berkeley, 1958).

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid., 25; American Public Welfare Association, Medical Care for the Unemployed and Their Families under the Plan of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

47. Greenfield, Medical Care for Welfare Recipients, 25.

48. Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States; American Public Welfare Association, Medical Care for the Unemployed and Their Families under the Plan of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

49. Terris Milton, “Medical Care, the Needy, and the Medically Needy,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 273 (1951): 8492 at 86.

50. Greenfield, Medical Care for Welfare Recipients, 25.

51. Kerwin Williams J. and Williams Edward A., “New Techniques in Federal Aid,” American Political Science Review 34, no. 5 (1940): 947–54.

52. Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States. Clark, The Rise of a New Federalism, 250–53.

53. Maxwell, The Fiscal Impact of Federalism in the United States.

54. Clark, The Rise of a New Federalism, 258.

55. Bittermann, State and Federal Grants-in-Aid, 435.

56. Gaer Joseph, Toward Farm Security: The Problem of Rural Poverty and the Work of the Farm Security Administration (Washington, D.C., 1941).

57. Mertz Paul E., New Deal and Southern Rural Poverty (Baton Rouge, 1978); Summers Mary, “The New Deal Farm Programs: Looking for Reconstruction in American Agriculture,” Agricultural History 74, no. 2 (2000): 241–57.

58. Grey Michael R., New Deal Medicine: The Rural Health Programs of the Farm Security Administration (Baltimore, 1999); Grey, “The Medical Care Programs of the Farm Security Administration, 1932 through 1947: A Rehearsal for National Health Insurance?” American Journal of Public Health 84, no. 10 (1994): 1678–87; Gaer, Toward Farm Security; U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Rural Relief and Rehabilitation under the Farm Security Administration (Washington, D.C., 1942); Farm Security Administration, Report of the Administrator of the Farm Security Administration 1939 (Washington, D.C., 1939); Report of the Administrator of the Farm Security Administration 1940 (Washington, D.C., 1940); Resettlement Administration, Report of the Administrator of the Resettlement Administration, 1937 (Washington, D.C., 1937); Maddox James G., “The Farm Security Administration” (Cambridge, Mass., 1950).

59. Grey, “The Medical Care Programs of the Farm Security Administration; Williams Ralph C., “The Medical Care Program for Farm Security Administration Borrowers,” Law and Contemporary Problems 6, no. 4 (1939): 583–94.

60. “The Medical Care Program for Farm Security Administration Borrowers.”

61. Lubbell Samuel and Everett Walter, “Rehearsal for State Medicine,” Saturday Evening Post, 17 December 1938.

62. Grey, New Deal Medicine.

63. Dutton Paul V., Differential Diagnoses: A Comparative History of Health Care Problems and Solutions in the United States and France (Ithaca, 2007).

64. Williams, “The Medical Care Program for Farm Security Administration Borrowers”; Grey, “The Medical Care Programs of the Farm Security Administration.”

65. Williams, “The Medical Care Program of the Farm Security Administration.”

66. Farm Security Administration, Greenbelt Communities (Washington, D.C., 1940).

67. Mott Frederick D. and Roemer Milton I., “A Federal Program of Public Health and Medical Services for Migratory Farm Workers,” Public Health Reports (1896–1970) 60, no. 9 (1945): 229–49; Williams Ralph C., “Nursing Care for Migrant Families,” American Journal of Nursing 41, no. 9 (1941): 1028–32; Grey, “The Medical Care Programs of the Farm Security Administration”; Grey Michael R., “Dustbowls, Disease, and the New Deal:The Farm Security Administration Migrant Health Programs, 1935–1947,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 48, no. 1 (1993): 339.

68. Williams, “Nursing Care for Migrant Families”; Mott and Roemer, “A Federal Program of Public Health and Medical Services for Migratory Farm Workers.”

69. Rasmussen Wayne D., A History of the Emergency Farm Labor Supply Program, 1943–1947 (Washington, D.C., 1951).

70. Mott and Roemer, “A Federal Program of Public Health and Medical Services for Migratory Farm Workers”; McConnell Grant, The Decline of Agrarian Democracy (Berkeley, 1959).

71. For an overview, see Witte Edwin E., “Old Age Security in the Social Security Act,” Journal of Political Economy 45, no. 1 (1937): 144.

72. Greenfield, Medical Care for Welfare Recipients, 2532.

73. Stuart Harold C., “Progress of Public Health as It Relates to the Child,” Journal of Pediatrics 6, no. 6 (1935): 839–49.

74. Lenroot, “Maternal and Child Welfare Provisions of the Social Security Act.”

75. Mushkin Selma J., “Medical Services and the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950,” Public Health Reports 66, no. 4 (1951): 98114.

76. Derthick Martha, The Influence of Federal Grants: Public Assistance in Massachusetts (Cambridge, Mass., 1970).

77. Mitchell W. L., “Social Security and Public Health,” Public Health Reports (1896–1970) 73, no. 1 (1958): 3438. Moore Judith D. and Smith David G., “Legislating Medicaid: Considering Medicaid and Its Origins,” Health Care Financing Review 27, no. 2 (2005): 4552.

78. Kramer Lucy M., “Highlights of the Social Security Amendments of 1958,” Public Health Reports (1896–1970) 74, no. 1 (1959): 6776.

79. Reed Kathlyn L., “History of Federal Legislation for Persons with Disabilities,” American Journal of Occupational Therapy 46, no. 5 (1992): 397408.

80. Berkowitz Edward D., “The American Disability System in Historical Perspective,” in Disability Policies and Government Programs, ed. Berkowitz Edward D. (New York, 1979); Berkowitz, Rehabilitation: The Federal Government’s Response to Disability, 1935–1954 (New York, 1980).

81. “The American Disability System in Historical Perspective.”

82. Sherry Mark, “Barden–La Follette Act,” in Encyclopedia of American Disability History, ed. Burch Susan (New York, 2009); McCahill William P., “Placement of Handicapped Workers,” Monthly Labor Review 67, no. 3 (1948): 282–85; Reed, “History of Federal Legislation for Persons with Disabilities”; Howard Rusk A., “Rehabilitation in Operation,” Southern Medical Journal 41, no. 1 (1948): 5762; Mott Frederick D. and Roemer Milton I., Rural Health and Medical Care (New York, 1948); MacDonald Mary, Federal Grants for Vocational Rehabilitation (Chicago, 1944); Berkowitz Edward D., “The Federal Government and the Emergence of Rehabilitation Medicine,” Historian 43, no. 4 (1981): 530–45.

83. Kimberly John R., “Environmental Constraints and Organizational Structure: A Comparative Analysis of Rehabilitation Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 20, no. 1 (1975): 19.

84. Sherry, “Barden–La Follette Act”; Reed, “History of Federal Legislation for Persons with Disabilities”; Berkowitz, “The American Disability System in Historical Perspective.”

85. Sinai Nathan and Anderson Odin W., EMIC (Emergency Maternity and Infant Care): A Study of Administrative Experience (Ann Arbor, 1948).

86. Dutton, Differential Diagnoses; Sinai and Anderson, EMIC (Emergency Maternity and Infant Care).

87. Berger Harriet F., “Contract Care for Indigent Mothers in Philadelphia,” Public Health Reports (1896–1970) 75, no. 4 (1960): 365–68; Sinai and Anderson, EMIC (Emergency Maternity and Infant Care).

88. Velsor-Friedrich, “Health and Welfare Reform, Part 1: The Origins”; Dutton, Differential Diagnoses; Sinai and Anderson, EMIC (Emergency Maternity and Infant Care).

89. Brewster Agnes W., Health Insurance and Related Proposals for Financing Personal Health Services: A Digest of Major Legislation and Proposals for Federal Action, 1935–1957 (Washington, D.C., 1958).

90. Richard Brown E., Public Medicine in Crisis: Public Hospitals in California (Berkeley, 1981), 11.

91. Ibid.

92. Mott and Roemer, Rural Health and Medical Care.

93. Peterson Chris L., “Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)” (Washington, D.C., 2010); U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging, State Action to Implement Medical Programs for the Aged (Washington, D.C., 1961); Performance of the States: Eighteen Months of Experience with the Medical Assistance for the Aged (Kerr-Mills) Program (Washington, D.C., 1962).

94. Richard Brown E., “Medicare and Medicaid: The Process, Value, and Limits of Health Care Reforms,” Journal of Public Health Policy 4, no. 3 (1983): 335–66.

95. Fine Sidney, “The Kerr-Mills Act: Medical Care for the Indigent in Michigan, 1960–1965,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 53, no. 3 (1998): 285316.

96. Ibid.

97. Moore and Smith, “Legislating Medicaid: Considering Medicaid and Its Origins.”U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Health of the Elderly, “Medical Assistance for the Aged: The Kerr-Mills Program 1960–1963” (Washington, D.C., 1963).97U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Health of the Elderly, “Medical Assistance for the Aged”; Haeder and Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded.”

98. Moore and Smith, “Legislating Medicaid.”

99. Medicaid covers more than fifty distinct populations, although generally income criteria have supplanted categorical links. See Herz Elicia J. “Medicaid: A Primer” (Washington, D.C., 2010). States continue to have to cover individuals eligible under the guidelines of the former Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program.

100. Moore and Smith, “Legislating Medicaid.”

101. Thompson Frank J., Health Policy and the Bureaucracy: Politics and Implementation (Cambridge, Mass., 1981).

102. Moore and Smith, “Legislating Medicaid.”

103. Peterson, “Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP).”

104. Katz Olson Laura, The Politics of Medicaid (New York, 2010).

105. Mitchell Allison, “Medicaid Financing and Expenditures” (Washington, D.C., 2012); Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, “A Historical Review of How States Have Responded to the Availability of Federal Funds for Health Coverage” (Washington, D.C., 2012).

106. Johnson Judy, “What Are the Common Characteristics of MIAs?” (M.A. thesis, San Jose State University, 1986).

107. Social Security Act Section 1902(a)(13)(A).

108. Peters Christie P., “Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments: The Basics” (Washington, D.C., 2009), 6.

109. Mechanic Robert E., “Medicaid’s Disproportionate Share Hospital Program: Complex Structure, Critical Payments” (Washington, D.C., 2004).

110. Coughlin Teresa A. et al., “State Responses to the Medicaid Spending Crisis: 1988 to 1992,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 19, no. 4 (1994): 837–64.

111. Hearne Jean, “Medicaid Disproportionate Share Payments” (Washington, D.C., 2005). Ku Leighton and Coughlin Teresa A., “Medicaid Disproportionate Share and Other Special Financing Programs: A Fiscal Dilemma for States and the Federal Government” (Menlo Park, Calif., 1994).

112. Mitchell Allison, “Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments” (Washington, D.C., 2012). Coughlin Teresa A. and Liska David, “The Medicaid Dispropotionate Share Hospital Payment Program: Background and Issues” (Los Angeles, 1997).

113. Hearne, “Medicaid Disproportionate Share Payments.” Mechanic, “Medicaid’s Disproportionate Share Hospital Program.”

114. Herz, “Medicaid: A Primer.” Mitchell, “Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments.”

115. Starr Paul, The Logic of Health Care Reform: Why and How the President’s Plan Will Work (New York, 1994).

116. Skocpol Theda, Boomerang: Health Care Reform and the Turn against Government (New York, 1997); Steinmo Sven and Watts Jon, “It’s the Institutions, Stupid! Why Comprehensive National Health Insurance Always Fails in America,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 20, no. 2 (1995): 329–72; Brady David W. and Buckley Kara M., “Health Care Reform in the 103d Congress: A Predictable Failure,”Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 20, no. 2 (1995): 447–54.

117. Hacker Jacob S., The Road to Nowhere: The Genesis of President Clinton’s Plan for Health Security (Princeton, 1997).

118. Ladenheim Kala, “Health Insurance in Transition: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996,” Publius 27, no. 2 (1997): 3351; Chaikind Hinda R. et al., “The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996: Overview and Guidance on Frequently Asked Questions” (Washington, D.C., 2005).

119. Atchinson Brian K. and Fox Daniel M., “The Politics of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act,” Health Affairs 16, no. 3 (1997): 146–50.

120. Ladenheim, “Health Insurance in Transition”; Pollitz Karen et al., “Early Experience with ‘New Federalism’ in Health Insurance Regulation,” Health Affairs 19, no. 4 (2000): 722.

121. Chaikind et al., “The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.”

122. Haeder Simon F., “Making the Affordable Care Act Work: High-Risk Pools and Health Insurance Marketplaces,” The Forum 11, no. 3 (2013): 499511.

123. Peterson, “Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP).”

124. Stone Julie et al., “Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Provisions in PPACA” (Washington, D.C., 2010).

125. Herz Elicia J., Peterson Chris L., and Baumrucker Evelyne P., “State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP): A Brief Overview” (Washington, D.C., 2009); Haeder and Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded”; U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Children’s Health Insurance: State Experiences in Implementing SCHIP and Considerations for Reauthorization” (Washington, D.C., 2007).

126. Eligible individuals may receive a Trade Readjustment Assistance allowance, an Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance allowance, or a Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation pension payment.

127. This means that individuals can obtain the tax credit at the time of purchase instead of waiting until filing their taxes and being reimbursed retrospectively.

128. Dorn Stan and Kutyla Todd, “Health Coverage Tax Credits under the Trade Act of 2002: A Preliminary Analysis of Program Operation” (New York, 2004).

129. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) offers individuals who have lost insurance coverage provided by their employer the opportunity to continue this coverage under certain conditions for a limited period of time. These conditions include voluntary or involuntary job loss, reduction in the hours worked, transition between jobs, death, divorce, and other life events.

130. Stone-Axelrad Julie and Lyke Bob, “Health Coverage Tax Credit Authorized by the Trade Act” (Washington, D.C., 2005).

131. U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Health Coverage Tax Credit: Simplified and More Timely Enrollment Process Could Increase Participation” (Washington, D.C., 2004).

132. Meier Kenneth J., The Political Economy of Regulation: The Case of Insurance (Albany, N.Y., 1988); Grace Martin F. and Klein Robert W., The Future of Insurance Regulation in the United States (Washington, D.C., 2009).

133. For details about the implementation of these programs, see Haeder, “Making the Affordable Care Act Work: High-Risk Pools and Health Insurance Marketplaces”; Simon F. Haeder and David L. Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It: State Implementation of Insurance Exchanges under the Affordable Care Act,” Public Administration Review 73, no. s1 (2013): S34–S47; Haeder and Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded.”

134. Béland Daniel, Rocco Philip, and Waddan Alex, “Implementing Health Care Reform in the United States: Intergovernmental Politics and the Dilemmas of Institutional Design,” Health Policy 116, no. 1 (2014): 5160; Thompson Frank J. and Gusmano Michael K., “The Administrative Presidency and Fractious Federalism: The Case of Obamacare,” Publius: The Journal of Federalism (2014); Haeder and Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It,” and “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded”; Dinan John, “Implementing Health Reform: Intergovernmental Bargaining and the Affordable Care Act,” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 44, no. 3 (2014): 399425; Rigby Elizabeth, “State Resistance to ‘Obamacare,’” The Forum 10, no. 2 (2012); Rigby Elizabeth and Haselswerdt Jake, “Hybrid Federalism, Partisan Politics, and Early Implementation of State Health Insurance Exchanges,” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43, no. 3 (2013): 368–91.

135. Dinan, “Implementing Health Reform,” 399–425; Haeder and Weimer, “You Can’t Make Me Do It, but I Could Be Persuaded”; Rigby, “State Resistance to ‘Obamacare’”; Rigby and Haselswerdt, “Hybrid Federalism, Partisan Politics, and Early Implementation of State Health Insurance Exchanges.”

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Policy History
  • ISSN: 0898-0306
  • EISSN: 1528-4190
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-policy-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 37 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1948 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.