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Art. XV.—Moksha, or the Vedántic Release

  • Dvijadas Datta

Extract

Nothing could be more important for a student of Indian thought than to have a correct notion of the Moksha of the Vedánta, which is so curiously allied to the Buddistic Nievána. And as there are some methods of translation which seem to me to give an inaccurate tone to some of the most scholarly treatises in Europe on the subject, I venture to submit a few remarks on one or two points of importance. Is it quite correct to treat Moksha as more a matter of metaphysical knowledge than the reward of moral improvement, as Dr. Deussen does in the following passage?

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page 513 note 1 DrDeussen's, “Das System des Vedánta,” p. 433.

page 513 note 2 “Jánámi na ća me pravrittir

Jánámy na ća me nivrittih ‖

page 514 note 1 Anyać ćhreyo(a)nyad ut aiva preya ste ubhe nánárthe sinítah | Tayoh S'reya ádadánasya sadhu bhayati, híyate rthát ya u Preyo briníte ‖ etc. (Kaṭha, Adhyáya I. Vallí II. verses 1 and 2, p. 93, of Jivánanda Vidyásagara's edition).

page 514 note 2 Yá príti vishayeshvanapáyiní |

Tvá manusmaratah sá me hridayán má pasarpatu ‖

(, chap. VII. p. 202).

page 514 note 3 “Asatomá sad gamaya, tamaso má Jyotir gamaya, mrityor má gamaya”; on this S'aiikara remarks: Asato(a)sat kannano (a)jñánáć ဗa má sać ćhástríya-karma-vijñáne gamaya, devabháva-sadhan-átma-bbávamápádaya” (p, 119, Jivánanda Vidyásagara's edition).

page 515 note 1 Yadá paśyah paśyate karttára

Tadá vidván puṇya-pápe vidhúya nirañjanah sámyatn upaiti ‖

page 515 note 2 Átma-kríḍa átmaratih kriyáván esha varishṭhah.

page 515 note 3 Kurvan nev eha karmáṇi Jijívisheć samáh |

page 515 note 4 Arᕫva iva romáṇi vidhúya ćandra iva Káhor mukhát pramućya, dhútvá ŋaríram kritátmá, Brahmalokam abhisaṃbhávámī tyabhisaṃbhavámi ‖

page 516 note 1 Even in the Bengali, ‘kriyá’ and ‘kriyákarma’ are technical names for rites and ceremonies, like the Śráddha, etc.

page 516 note 2 Arthasya nićáayo dṛisto vićáreṇa hito ktitah |

Na sṇánena, na dánena pránáyáma-śatena vá ‖

page 517 note 1 “Ná virato dusćaritan ná śánto ná samáhitah |

Ná śanta-mánaso vá pi prajñánen ainam ápnuyát” ‖

page 517 note 2 “Nai shá tarkena matir ápaneyáá ‖

page 517 note 3 Avidvad anusárena vrittir buddhasya yujyate |

Stanandhay-ánusáreṇa vartate tat-pitá yatah ‖

Adhikshipta stáḍito vá bálena sva-pitá tadá

Na klishyati na kupyeć ća pratyuta lálayet ‖

Ninditah stúyamáno vá vidván ajñair na nindati |

Na stauti kintu syád yathá bodha stathá ćaret ‖

Yenáyan natanená tra budhyate káryam eva tat |

Ajña-prabodhan naivá nyat káryam asty atra tadvidah ‖

page 517 note 4 Karmaṇy evá dhikára ste má phaleshu káćana ‖ etc.

Má karma-phala-hetur bhúr má te stv akarmaṇi ‖

page 517 note 5 Na karmaṇá manáraṃbnán naishkarmyaṇ purusho śnute ṇ ṇ

page 517 note 6 Niyataṇ kuru karma tvaṇ karma Jyáyo hy akarmaṇah ‖

page 517 note 7 Yajñá-rthát karmaṇo nyatra loko karma-bandhanah |

karma kaunteya mukta-sangah samáćara ‖

page 520 note 1 Kriyá hi náma yatra vastu-svarúpa-nirapekshyai va ćodyate, purusha-ćitta-vyápár-ádhīná ća | yathá “yasmai devatáyai havir dhyáyed vashaṭ karishyan” |

page 523 note 1 Tasmát lokát punar aity asmai lokáya karmaṇah: i.e. “Returns from that world to this world of works” (Brihadáraṇyaka, chap. VI. Bráhmana IV. verse 6).

page 524 note 1 “Vijñán-átmá saha devaiś ća sarvaih práṇá bhútáni saṃpratishṭhanti yatra| Tad vedayate yas tu saumya sa sarvajñah sarva ṃev áviveśa” ‖ Cf. also Te sarvatan sarvatah prápya dhīrá yuktá-tmánah sarva mevá viśanti (Muṇḍaka, III. II. 5).

page 524 note 2 Yo kámo nishkáma áptakáma átmakámah ‖

page 524 note 3 Yadá sarve pramućyante kámá ye sya hṛidi sthiták ‖

page 524 note 4 Athá yaṃ aśarīro mṛitah práṇo Brahm aiva ‖

page 524 note 5 Sa tu loka eva ‖

page 524 note 6 Sa na sádhuná karmaṇá bhúyán no ev ásádhuná kanīyán.

page 525 note 1 bhavishyanto manushyā manyante.” “Etat paśyan nṛishir Bámadevah pratipede Manur súryaśéa | Tad idam apy etar hi ya evan vedá Brahm ásmî ti sa bhavati.”

page 525 note 2 “ Yastu sarváṇi bhútan yátman yevá nupashyati |

Sarvabhúteshu é tato na vijugupsate ‖ “

page 526 note 1 “Ne ha náná sti kinéana mrityoh sa mrityum ápnoti ya iha nane va paśyati” (p. 887, J. Vidyáságara's edition).

page 526 note 2 “Svaṃ asya Bráhmaṃ apahata-pápmatvá-di-satya-sankalpatvá-va tathá sarve-śvaratva ñéa, tena svena rúpeṇá bhinishpadyate.”

page 528 note 1 Pravrittau vá nivrittau vá dehe-ndriya- |

Na api vaishamyam asty ajñáni-vibuddhayoh ‖

Na hyáhárádi santajya Bharatá dyah sthitáh kvaćit | 267

Káshtha-páshánavat kintu sanga-bhítá udásate ‖ 2731.

And again: Ek'aiva drisbtih kákasya báma-daksbina-netrayoh | Yáty áyáty evam ánanda-dvaye tattvavido matin ‖ Bhuñiáno vishayá Brahmánandañ ća tattvavit | Dvi-bháshá bhijñavat Vidyád ubhau laukika-vaidikau ‖

page 530 note 1 “ Sa yathá saindhava-khilya udake prásta udakam evá nuvilíyate ná há syo dagrahanáya eva syát.”

page 537 note 1 Sulabhá is a lady-sage in the S'ánti-Parva of the Mahábhárata, who discomfited, in a very interesting controversy, the self-righteous king, Janaka Kusha-Dhvaja.

page 539 note 1 Iśvarát tad-anujñayá … siddhih; tad anugraha-hetuken aiva vijñánena Moksha-siddhir bhavitu marhati ‖—Brahma Sútra, II. III. 41.

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