Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6f6fcd54b-vzm8p Total loading time: 0.374 Render date: 2021-05-12T09:29:44.236Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: {}

Disease, Demography, and Diet in Early Colonial New Spain: Investigation of a Sixteenth-Century Mixtec Cemetery at Teposcolula Yucundaa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Christina Warinner
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (warinner@post.harvard.edu)1
Nelly Robles García
Affiliation:
National Institute of Anthropology and History, Monte Albán Archaeological Zone, Oaxaca, Mexico 68140 (nellym_robles@yahoo.com.mx)
Ronald Spores
Affiliation:
Professor Emeritus, Vanderbilt University, Depoe Bay, OR 97341 (ronoaxaca@hotmail.com)
Noreen Tuross
Affiliation:
Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (tuross@fas.harvard.edu)

Abstract

A mid-sixteenth-century cemetery was investigated at the colonial Mixtec site of Teposcolula Yucundaa and is shown to be related to the cocoliztli pandemic of 1544–1550. This is the earliest colonial epidemic cemetery to be identified in Mexico. Through archaeogenetic and oxygen stable isotope analysis it is demonstrated that the interred individuals were local Mixtecs, and mortuary analysis sheds light on both Christian and traditional religious practices at the site. Mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies support long-term genetic continuity in the region, and carbon stable isotopes of bone collagen and enamel carbonates suggest no decrease in maize consumption during the early colonial period, despite historical evidence for a changing agricultural economy and increased wheat production at the site. The Teposcolula cemetery provides a rich and complex perspective on early colonial life in the Mixteca Alta and reaffirms the importance of archaeological and bioarchaeological evidence in investigating complex social and biological processes of the past.

Se investigó un cementerio mixteco de mediados del siglo diciseis en el sitio arqueológico de PuebloViejo de Teposcolula Yucundaa, el cual está aparentemente relacionado con la pandemia de cocoliztli de 1544–1550. Se demuestra mediante el análisis de ADNmt antiguo y de isótopos de oxígeno estable que los individuos enterrados son mixtecos locales. El análisis del tratamiento mortuorio de los entierros nos informa sobre las prácticas religiosas tanto cristianas como prehispánicas del lugar. El análisis de las frecuencias relativas de haplogrupos mitocondriales demuestra la continuidad genética que tuvo lugar en esta región. Los isótopos estables de carbono indican que no hubo un descenso en el consumo de maíz durante la primera parte de la época colonial, a pesar de que las evidencias históricas sugieren un cambio en la economía agrícola y un aumento de la producción de trigo. El cementerio de Teposcolula proporciona una rica y compleja perspectiva sobre la vida al comienzo de la época colonial en la Mixteca Alta y reafirma la importancia de la evidencia arqueológica y bioarqueológica en la investigación de procesos sociales y biológicos ocurridos en el pasado.

Type
Themed Section: Diet, Disease, and Social Change
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 by the Society for American Archaeology.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acosta, Jorge R. 1992 Tipo físico. In Exploraciones en Monte Negro, Oaxaca, edited by Jorge R. Acosta and Javier Romero, pp. 137153. Antologías, Serie Arqueología. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Acuña, René 1984 Relaciones geográficas del siglo XVI, Vols. 2–3. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Acuña-Soto, Rodolfo, Romero, Leticia Calderón, and Maguire, James H. 2000 Large Epidemics of Hemorrhagic Fevers in Mexico 1545–1815. American Journal of Tropical Medicine 62(6):733739.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Acuña-Soto, Rodolfo, Stahle, David W., Cleaveland, Malcolm K., and Therrell, Matthew D. 2002 Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8:360362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alavez, Raúl 1988 Toponimia mixteca. Centra de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Alavez Chávez, Raúl Gabriel 2006 Toponimia mixteca II: Mixteca Alta, comunidades del distrito de Tlaxiaco. Centra de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Sociale: Instituto Estatal de Educación Pública de Oaxaca, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Balkansky, Andrew, Kowalewski, Stephen, Pérez, Verónica, Pluckhahn, Thomas, Smith, C., Stiver, Laura, Beliaev, Dmitri, Chamblee, John, Heredia, Verenice, and Santos, Roberto 2000 Archaeological Survey in the Mixteca Alta of Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 27(4):365é369.Google Scholar
Bell, Lynne S., Lee-Thorp, Julia, and Dobney, Keith 2006 Mapping Human Movement Using Stable Oxygen Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science 39(2):4754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berdan, Frances, and Anawalt, Patricia 1997 The Essential Codex Mendoza. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Blitz, Jennifer 1995 Dietary Variability and Social Inequality at Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
Blomster, Jeffrey P. 2004 Etlatongo: Social Complexity, Interaction, and Village Life in the Mixteca Alta of Oaxaca, Mexico. Case Studies in Archaeology. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
Boles, T. Christian, Snow, Clyde C., and Stover, Eric 1995 Forensic DNA Testing on Skeletal Remains from Mass Graves: A Pilot Project in Guatemala. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40:349355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borah, Woodrow 1963 El origen de la sericultura en la Mixteca Alta. Historial Mexicana 13(1):117.Google Scholar
Buikstra, Jane, and Ubelaker, Douglas (editors) 1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville.Google Scholar
Calderón Galván, Enriqueta 1988 Teposcolula: breve ensayo monográfico. Secretaría Desarrollo Económico y Social, Dirección General de Educación, Cultura y Bienestar Social del Gobierno del Estado de Oaxaca, Oaxaca de Juárez.Google Scholar
Castro Morales, Efraín, and Moll, Roberto García 1972 Un entierro colectivo en la ciudad de Cholula, Puebla. In Religión en Mesoamérica, XII Mesa Redonda, edited by Jaime Litvak King and Noemí Castillo Tejero, pp. 381384. Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Chamberlain, Andrew 2006 Demography in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chance, John 1978 Race and Class in Colonial Oaxaca. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
Charlton, Thomas H., Otis Charlton, Cynthia L., and García, Patricia Fournier 2005 The Basin of Mexico A.D. 1450–1620. In The Post-classic to Spanish Era Transition in Mesoamerica: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Susan Kepecs and Rani T. Alexander, pp. 4964. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Chimalpahin, de San Antón Muñón, Domingo Francisco 1997 [ca. 1621] Codex Chimalpahin, Vol. 2: Society and Politics in Mexico Tenochtitlan, Tlateloco, Texcoco, Culhuacan, and Other Nahua Altepetl in Central Mexico. Translated and edited by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Susan Schroeder. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Cohen, Mark N., O’Connor, Kathleen, Danforth, Marie, Jacobi, Keith, and Armstrong, Carl 1994 Health and Death at Tipu. In In the Wake of Contact, edited by Clark Spencer Larsen and George R. Milner, pp. 121134. Wiley-Liss, New York.Google Scholar
Cook, Noble David 1998 Born to Die. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Cook, Sherburne F., and Borah, Woodrow 1968 The Population of the Mixteca Alta: 1520–1960. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Crosby, Alfred W. 1976 Epidemic and Peace, 1918. Greenwood Press, Westport.Google Scholar
Cuevas, Mariano 1975 Documentos inéditos del sigh XVI para la historia de Mexico. Porrúa, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Danforth, Marie Elaine, Jacobi, Keith P., and Cohen, Mark N. 1997 Gender and Health Among the Colonial Maya of Tipu, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 8:1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Burgoa, Francisco 1934 [1674] Geográfica descripción. Publicaciones del Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City.Google Scholar
De la Cruz, Isabel, González-Oliver, Angélica, Kemp, Brian M., Roman, Juan A., Smith, David Glenn, and Torre-Bianco, Alfonso 2008 Sex Identification of Children Sacrificed to the Ancient Aztec Rain Gods in Tlateloco. Current Anthropology 493:519526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de la Peña, Moisés T. 1950 Problemas sociales y económicos de las Mixtecas. Memorias del Instituto Nacional Indigenista, Vol. 2, No. 1. Mexico City.Google Scholar
de Mendieta, Jerónimo 1945 Historia eclesiástica indiana. Editorial Salvador Chávez Hayhoe, Mexico City.Google Scholar
DeNiro, Michael 1985 Postmortem Preservation and Alteration of In Vivo Bone-Collagen Isotope Ratios in Relation to Paleodietary Reconstruction. Nature 317(6040):806809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Sahagún, Bernardino 1956 Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España, Vol. 3. Editorial Porrúa, Mexico City.Google Scholar
DeWitte, Sharon N., and Wood, James W. 2008 Selectivity of Black Death Mortality with Respect to Preexisting Health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1055:14361441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diamond, Jared 1997 Guns, Germs, and Steel. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
Dickinson, Martin F. 1989 Delineating a Site Through Limited Research: The Mission of San Juan del Puerto (8DU53), Fort George Island, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 42(4):396409.Google Scholar
Duncan, William N., Balkansky, Andrew K., Crawford, Kimberly, Lapham, Heather A., and Meissner, Nathan J. 2008 Human Cremation in Mexico 3,000 Years Ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:53155320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eire, Carlos 1995 From Madrid to Purgatory. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Fields, Sherry Lee 2008 Pestilence and Headcolds. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Foster, George M. 1960 Culture and Conquest. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, New York.Google Scholar
Friedman, Irving, and O’Neil, James R. 1977 Compilation of Stable Isotope Fractionation Factors of Geochemical Interest. In Data of Geochemistry, 6th ed., edited by M. Fleischer. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers, 440-KK. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Gaxiola González, Margarita 1984 Huamelulpan: Un centro urbano de la Mixteca Alta. Colección Científica No. 114. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Gerhard, Peter 1977 Congregaciones de indios en la Nueva España antes de 1570. Historia Mexicana 26:347395.Google Scholar
Gerhard, Peter 1993 A Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
González-Oliver, Angélica, Márquez-Morfín, Jóse C. Jiménez, Lourdes, and Torre-Bianco, Alfonso 2001 Founding Amerindian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Ancient Maya from Xcaret, Quintana Roo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 116:230235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gowland, Rebecca L., and Chamberlain, Andrew 2005 Detecting Plague: Palaeodemographic Characterization of a Catastrophic Death Assemblage. Antiquity 79:146157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Elizabeth, Pendergast, David M., and Jones, Grant D. 1989 On the Fringes of Conquest: Maya–Spanish Contact in Colonial Belize. Science 246(4935):12541259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodges, Denise C. 1987 Health and Agricultural Intensification in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 73(3):323332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hollingsworth, Mary F., and Hollingsworth, Thomas Henry 1971 Plague Mortality Rates by Age and Sex in the Parish of St. Boltolph’s Without Bishopgate. Population Studies 251:131146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoppa, Robert D., and Vaupel, James W. (editors) 2002 Paleodemography. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humboldt, Alexander von 1811 Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London.Google Scholar
Jacobi, Keith 2000 Last Rites for the Tipu Maya. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Jiménez Moreno, Wigberto, and Higuera, Salvador Mateos 1940 Codice de Yanhuitlán. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Kemp, Brian M. 2006 Mesoamerica and Southwest Prehistory, and the Entrance of Humans into the Americas. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
Kemp, Brian M., González-Oliver, Angélica, Malhi, Ripan S., Monroe, Cara, Schroeder, Kari Britt, McDonough, John, Rhett, Gillian, Reséndez, Andrés, Peñalosa Espinosa, Rosenda I., Malo, Leonor Buentello, Gorodesky, Clara, and Smith, David Glenn 2010 Evaluating the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis with Genetic Variation Exhibited by Populations in the Southwest and Mesoamerica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10715:67596764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, Brian M., Reséndez, Andrés, Berrelleze, Juan Alberto Román, Malhi, Ripan S., and Smith, David Glenn 2005 An Analysis of Ancient Aztec mtDNA from Tlatelolco. In Biomolecular Archaeology, edited by David M. Reed, pp. 3246. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
Koch, Joan K. 1983 Mortuary Behavior Patterning and Physical Anthropology in Colonial St. Augustine. In Spanish St. Augustine, edited by Kathleen Deagan, pp. 187227. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
Koch, Paul, Tuross, Noreen, and Fogel, Marilyn 1997 The Effects of Sample Treatment and Diagenesis on the Isotopic Integrity of Carbonate in Biogenic Hydroxylapatite. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:417429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolman, Connie, and Tuross, Noreen 2000 Ancient DNAAnalysis of Human Populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 111:523.3.0.CO;2-3>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krogman, Wilton Manon, and Iscan, Mehmet Yasar 1986 The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. C. C. Thomas Publications, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
Lalueza Fox, Carles, Calderón, Francisco Luna, Calafell, Francesc, Morera, Bernal, and Bertranpetit, Jaume 2001 MtDNA from Extinct Tainos and the Peopling of the Caribbean. Annals of Human Genetics 65:137151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lalueza Fox, Carles, Gilbert, M. Thomas P., Martínez Fuentes, Antonio J., Calafell, Francesc, and Bertranpetit, Jaume 2003 Mitochondrial DNA from Pre-Columbian Ciboneys from Cuba and the Prehistoric Colonization of the Caribbean. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121:97108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, Clark Spencer 1990 The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Gaule: 2. Biocultural Interpretations of a Population in Transition. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 68. New York.Google Scholar
Larsen, Clark Spencer 1993 On the Frontier of Contact. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 322356. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Larsen, Clark Spencer, Schoeninger, Margaret J., Hutchinson, Dale L., Russell, Katherine F., and Ruff, Christopher B. 1990 Beyond Demographic Collapse: Biological Adaptation and Change in Native Populations of La Florida. In Columbian Consequences, Vol. 2: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East, edited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 409428. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
LeBlanc, Steven, Cobb Kreisman, Lori S., Kemp, Brian M., Smiley, Francis E., Carlyle, Shawn W., Dhody, Anna N., and Benjamin, Thomas 2007 Quids and Aprons. Journal of Field Archaeology 32:161175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Thomas A. 1979 Coapa, Chiapas: A Sixteenth-Century Coxoh Maya Village on the Camino Real. In Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by Norman Hammond and Gordon R.Willey, pp. 208222. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Longinelli, Antonio 1984 Oxygen Isotopes in Mammal Bone Phosphate: A New Research Tool for Paleohydrological and Paleoclimatological Research? Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48:385390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lorenz, Joseph G., and Smith, David Glenn 1996 Distribution of Four Founding mtDNA Haplogroups Among Native North Americans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101:307323.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovejoy, C. Owen, Meindl, Richard S., Pryzbeck, Thomas R., and Mensforth, Robert P. 1985 Chronological Metamorphosis of the Auricular Surface of the Ilium. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68:1528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lovell, W. George 1992 Disease and Depopulation in Early Colonial Guatemala. In Secret Judgments of God, edited by Noble David Cook and George Lovell, pp. 4983. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Luz, Boaz, and Kolodny, Yehoshua 1989 Oxygen Isotope Variations in Bone Phosphate. Applied Geochemistry 4:317323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLeod, Murdo J. 1973 Spanish Central America: A Socioeconomic History, 1520–1720. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Malhi, Ripan S., Eshleman, Jason A., Greenberg, Jonathan A., Weiss, Deborah A., Shook, Beth Schultz, Kaestle, Frederika A., Lorenz, Joseph G., Kemp, Brian M., Johnson, John R., and Smith, David Glenn 2002 The Structure of Diversity Within New World Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups. American Journal of Human Genetics 70:905919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malhi, Ripan S., Mortensen, Holly M., Eshleman, Jason A., Kemp, Brian M., Lorenz, Joseph G., Kaestle, Frederika, Johnson, John R., Gorodezky, Clara, and Smith, David Glenn 2003 Native American mtDNA Prehistory in the American Southwest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120:108124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malvido, Elsa 1997 Civilizados o salvajes. In El cuerpo humano y su tratamiento morturorio, edited by Elsa Malvido, Grégory Pareira, and Vera Tiesler, pp. 2949. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malvido, Elsa, Mansilla, Josefina, and Pompa, José A. 1986 Un cementerio indígena del siglo XVI en Huexotla, Estado de México. Trace 10:3951.Google Scholar
Malvido, Elsa, and Viesca, Carlos 1985 La epidemia de cocoliztli de 1576. Historias México. D.F. 11:2733.Google Scholar
Mansell, Eugenia B., Tykot, Robert H., Friedel, David A., Dahlin, Bruce H., and Arden, Traci 2006 Early to Terminal Classic Maya Diet in the Northern Lowlands of the Yucatan (Mexico). In Histories of Maize. edited by John Staller, Robert Tykot, and Bruce Benz, pp. 173185. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
Mansilla, Josefina, Pijoan, Carmen Maréa, Pompa, José A., and Villegas, Delia 1992 Los entierros primarios del Templo de San Jerónimo, Ciudad de México (Temporada 1976): estudio de los indicadores de las agresiones ambientales. In Antropología Física Anuario 1991, edited by María Teresa Jáen, José Luis Fernández Torres, and Antonio Pompa y Padilla, pp. 121149. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Mansilla, Josefina, and Pompa, José 1992 Un cementerio indigena del siglo XVI en Huexotla. In Antropología Física Anuario 1991, edited by María Teresa Jáen, José Luis Fernández Torres, and Antonio Pompa y Padilla, pp. 93119. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Margerison, Beverley J., and Knüsel, Christopher 2002 Paleodemographic Comparison of a Catastrophic and an Attritional Death Assemblage. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119:134143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marr, John S., and Kiracofe, James B. 2000 Was the Huey Cocoliztli a Haemorrhagic Fever? Medical History 44:341362.Google ScholarPubMed
McCafferty, Geoffrey G. 2000 The Cholula Massacre: Factional Histories and Archaeology of the Spanish Conquest. In The Entangled Past: Integrating History and Archaeology, edited by M. Boyd, J. C. Erwin, and M. Hendrickson, pp. 347359. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Chacmool Conference, Calgary.Google Scholar
Melville, Elinor G.K. 1994 A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Cambridge University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Arthur G., and Farriss, Nancy 1979 Religious Syncretism in Colonial Yucatan: The Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Evidence from Tancah, Quintana Roo. In Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by Norman Hammond and Gordon R. Willey, pp. 223240. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
Miranda, José 1958 Orígens de la ganadería en la Mixteca. In Miscellanea, Paul Rivet octogenario dictata, Vol. 2. Mexico City.Google Scholar
Motolinía (aka Benavente, Toribio de) 1971 Memoriales o libro de las cosas de la Nueva España y de los naturales della. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Mullen, Robert James 1975 Dominican Architecture in Sixteenth Century Oaxaca. Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
Newson, Linda A. 1992 Old World Epidemics in Early Colonial Ecuador. In Secret Judgments of God, edited by Noble David Cook and W. George Lovell, pp. 84112. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Ocaña del Río, Bertha 1985 Estudio del material óseo procedente del Convento de San Gabriel, Cholula, Puebla. In Avances en Antropología Física, Cuaderno de Trabajo 2, edited by Zaíd Lagunas Rodríguez, pp. 7380. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City..Google Scholar
Orellana, Sandra L. 1987 Indian Medicine in Highland Guatemala. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
Oudijk, Michael R., and Restall, Matthew 2007 Mesoamerican Conquistadors in the Sixteenth Century. In Indian Conquistadors, edited by Laura E. Matthew and Michael R. Oudijk, pp. 2864. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Paso y Troncoso, Francisco del 1981 Relaciones geográficas de Oaxaca. Editorial Innovatión, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Pellicer, Sergio Navarrete 1990 Las transformaciones de la economía indígena en Michoacán. In Agricultura indígena, edited by Teresa Rojas Rabiela, pp. 109127. Centra de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I., Arenas-Aranda, Diego, Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M., Buentello-Malo, Leonor, González-Valencia, Gerardo, Torres, Javier, Álvarez, Berenice, Mendoza, Irma, Flores, Mario, Sandoval, Lucila, Loeza, Francisco, Ramos, Irma, Muñoz, Leopoldo, and Salamanca, Fabio 2007 Characterization of mtDNA Haplogroups in 14 Mexican Indigenous Populations. Human Biology 793:313320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pendergast, David M. 1991 The Southern Maya Lowlands Contact Experience: The View from Lamanai, Belize. In Columbian Consequences, Vol. 3: The Spanish Borderlands in Pan-American Perspective, edited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 337354. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Pérez Ortiz, Alfonso 2003 Tierra de brumas. Plaza y Valdés, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Pérez Rodríguez, Verónica 2006 States and Households: The Social Organization of Terrace Agriculture in Postclassic Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 17(1):322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez Rodríguez, Verónica, Anderson, Kirk C., and Neff, Margaret K. 2011 The Cerro Jazmín Archaeological Project: Investigating Prehispanic Urbanism and Its Environmental Impact in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 36(2):8399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prem, Hanns 1992 Disease Outbreaks in Central Mexico During the Sixteenth Century. In Secret Judgments of God, edited by Noble David Cook and W. George Lovell, pp. 2048. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Price, T. Douglas, Burton, James H., Sharer, Robert, Buikstra, Jane, Wright, Lori, Traxler, Loa P., and Miller, Katherine A. 2010 Kings and Commoners at Copan. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29:1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, Rhonda L., Tucker, Bryan D., and Krigbaum, John 2008 Diet and Mobility in Middle Archaic Florida: Stable Isotopic and Faunal Evidence from the Harris Creek Archaeological Site 8Vo24, Tick Island. Journal of Archaeological Science 358:23462356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Restall, Matthew, Sousa, Lisa, and Terraciano, Kevin 2001 Mesoamerican Voices: Colonial Mexico, Oaxaca, Yucatan, and Guatemala. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Riquer, Jorge Silva 1990 La agricultura indígena en el Valle de Nochixtlan en el siglo XVI. In Agricultura indígena, edited by Theresa Rojas Rabiela, pp. 187196. Centra de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Robles García, Nelly 1988 Las Unidades Domésticas del Preclásico Superior en la Mixteca Alta. BAR International Series 407. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
Robles García, Nelly, and Spores, Ronald 2004 Pueblo Viejo de Teposcolula Yucundaa, proyecto arqueológico: primera temporada. Cuadernos de Teposcolula 3. Report submitted to Consejo de Arqueologia del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de Mexico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Robles García, Nelly, and Spores, Ronald 2005 Pueblo Viejo de Teposcolula Yucundaa, proyecto arqueológico: primera temporada. Report submitted to Consejo de Arqueología del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de Mexico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Robles García, Nelly, and Spores, Ronald 2006 Pueblo Viejo de Teposcolula Yucundaa, proyecto arqueológico: primera temporada. Report submitted to Consejo de Arqueología del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de Mexico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Romano Pacheco, Arturo, and Esquivel, María Teresa Jaén 1985 Proyecto: Ex-convento de San Jerónimo: éstudio de una muestra de la población de la Ciudad de México, siglos XVI a XIX. In Avances en antropología física. Cuaderno de Trabajo 2, pp. 8793. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Romero Frizzi, Maria de los Ángeles 1990 Economía y vida de los Españoles en la Mixteca Alta. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Rush, Alfred C. 1941 Death and Burial in Christian Antiquity. Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Salas Cuesta, María Elena 1982 La población de Máxico Tenochtitlan. Colección Cientifica-Antropología Física No. 126. Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Schroeder, Hannes, O’Connell, Tamsin C., Evans, Jane E., Shuler, Kristrina A., and Hedges, Robert E. M. 2009 Trans-Atlantic Slavery. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139:547557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schurr, Theodore G. 2004 The Peopling of the New World. Annual Review of Anthropology 33:551583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, G. Richard, and Turner, Christy G. II 1997 The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Signoli, Michel 2006 Etude anthropologique de crises démographiques en contexte epidémique. Archaeopress, Oxford.Google Scholar
Signoli, Michel, Seguy, Isabelle, Biraben, Jean-Noel, Dutour, Olivier, and Belle, Paul 2002 Paleodemography and Historical Demography in the Context of an Epidemic Plague in Provence in the Eighteenth Century. Population 576:829854.Google Scholar
Smith, David Glenn, Malhi, Ripan S., Eshleman, Jason, Lorenz, Joseph G., and Kaestle, Frederika 1999 Distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup X Among Native North Americans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 110:271284.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soren, David 2003 Can Archaeologists Excavate Evidence of Malaria? World Archaeology 352:193209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spores, Ronald 1967 The Mixtec Kings and Their Peoples. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Spores, Ronald, and García, Nelly Robles 2007 A Prehispanic Postclassic Capital Center in Colonial Transition. Latin American Antiquity 183:333353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stiver, Laura 2001 Prehispanic Mixtec Settlement and State in the Teposcolula Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.Google Scholar
Terraciano, Kevin 2001 The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
Tiesler, Vera, Cucina, Andrea, and Pacheco, Arturo Romero 2004 Who Was the Red Queen? Identity of the Female Maya Dignitary from the Sarcophagus Tomb of Temple XIII, Palenque, Mexico. Journal of Comparative Human Biology 55(1–2):6576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiesler, Viera, and Zabala, Pilar 2010 Dying in the Colonies: Death, Burial, and Mortuary Patterning in Campeche’s Main Plaza. In Natives, Europeans, and Africans in Colonial Campeche, edited by Vera Tiesler, Pilar Zabala, and Andrea Cucina, pp. 7094. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torroni, Antonio, Chen, Yu-Shen, Semino, Ornella, Santachiara-Beneceretti, Augusta Silvana, Ronald Scott, C., Lott, Marie T., Winter, Marcus, and Wallace, Douglas C. 1994 MtDNA and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms in Four Native American Populations from Southern Mexico. American Journal of Human Genetics 54:303318.Google ScholarPubMed
Torroni, Antonio, Schurr, Theodore G., Cabell, Margaret F., Brown, Michael D., Neel, James V., Larsen, Merethe, Smith, David Glenn, Vullo, Carlos M., and Wallace, Douglas C. 1993 Asian Affinities and Continental Radiation of the Four Founding Native American mtDNAs. American Journal of Human Genetics 533:563590.Google Scholar
Torroni, Antonio, Schurr, Theodore G., Yang, Chi-Chuan, Szathmary, Emöke, Williams, Robert C., Schanfield, Moses S., Troup, Gary A., Knowler, William C., Lawrence, Dale N., Weiss, Kenneth M., and Wallace, Douglas C. 1992 Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates that the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations. Genetics 130:153162.Google ScholarPubMed
Trueman, Clive, Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Tuross, Noreen, and Weiner, Steve 2004 Mineralogical and Compositional Changes in Bones Exposed on Soil Surfaces in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:721739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ubelaker, Douglas 1989 Human Skeletal Remains. 2nd ed. Taraxacum, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Vences Vidal, Magdalena 2000 Evangelización y arquitectura dominicana en Coixtlahuaca Oaxaca Mèxico. Editorial San Esteban, Salamanca.Google Scholar
Waldron, H.A. 2001 Are Plague Pits of Particular Use to Palaeoepidemiologists? International Journal of Epidemiology 30:104108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warinner, Christina 2010 Life and Death at Teposcolula Yucundaa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Warinner, Christina, García, Nelly Robles, and Tuross, Noreen 2012 Maize, Beans and the Floral Isotopic Diversity of Highland Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science, forthcoming.Google Scholar
Warinner, Christina, and Tuross, Noreen 2009 Alkaline Cooking and Stable Isotope Diet-Tissue Discrimination in Swine. Journal of Archaeological Science 368:16901697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warinner, Christina, and Tuross, Noreen 2010 Tissue Isotopic Enrichment Associated with Growth Depression in a Pig. American Journal ofPhysical Anthropology 141:486493.Google Scholar
Werner, Roland A., and Brand, Willi 2001 Referencing Strategies and Techniques in Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 15:501519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, Christine D., Spence, Michael W., Longstaffe, Fred J., and Law, Kimberley 2000 Testing the Nature of Teotihuacan Imperialism at Kaminaljuyu Using Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Ratios. Journal of Anthropological Research 564:535558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, Christine D., Wright, Lori E., and Pendergast, David M. 1994 Biological Disruption in the Early Colonial Period at Lamanai. In In the Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest, edited by Clark Spencer Larsen and George R. Milner, pp. 135146. Wiley-Liss, New York.Google Scholar
Whittington, Stephen L. 1989 Characteristics of Demography and Disease in Low-Status Maya from Classic Period Copan, Honduras. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.Google Scholar
Wright, Lori, and Schwarcz, Henry P. 1998 Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Human Tooth Enamel. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 106:118.3.0.CO;2-W>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zavala, Silvio 1982 Asientos de la gobernación de la Nueva España. Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Zinsser, Hans 1934 Rats, Lice, and History. Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Disease, Demography, and Diet in Early Colonial New Spain: Investigation of a Sixteenth-Century Mixtec Cemetery at Teposcolula Yucundaa
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Disease, Demography, and Diet in Early Colonial New Spain: Investigation of a Sixteenth-Century Mixtec Cemetery at Teposcolula Yucundaa
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Disease, Demography, and Diet in Early Colonial New Spain: Investigation of a Sixteenth-Century Mixtec Cemetery at Teposcolula Yucundaa
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *