Skip to main content
×
×
Home

From Moore's Law to More's Utopia: The Candy Crushing of Internet Law

  • CARL LANDAUER
Copyright
References
Hide All

1 www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-33269533 (accessed 24 April 2016).

2 ‘German Internet-Angst’, www.sueddeutsche.de/digital/studie-zum-netz-german-internet-angst-1.3365 (accessed 24 April 2016).

3 R. Cohen-Almagor, Confronting the Internet's Dark Side: Moral and Social Responsibility on the Free Highway (2015), 91.

4 Ibid., at 139.

5 Ibid., at 121.

6 R. MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (2012), 96.

7 L. Lessig, Code: Version 2.0 (2006), 252.

8 A. Chander, The Electronic Silk Road (2013), 174.

9 Email dated 18 September 2014.

10 M. McClure, Meat Science Essays (1966), 7. McClure told me he no longer worries about the need to save that word but worries about other forms of censorship (discussion with author, 29 September 2015).

11 M.L. Mueller, Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance (2010), 207.

12 The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is a private non-profit corporation initiated by US government responsible for much of the broad structural elements of the Internet, such as Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management.

13 See MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 55, where she describes the Iranian move in 2011.

14 Ibid., at 31–50.

15 See, e.g., L. DeNardis, The Global War for Internet Governance (2014), 213 and MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 35.

16 DeNardis, supra note 15, at 213.

17 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 35.

18 Ibid., at 44.

19 Ibid., at 56.

20 Chander, supra note 8, at 199.

21 Ibid., at 48–50.

22 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 22.

23 DeNardis, supra note 15, at 237.

24 Chander, supra note 8, at 52.

25 Ibid., at 206.

26 Now set at 1.6 billion. ‘Facebook's Plan for Cheap, Global Access’, New York Times, 24 April 2016.

27 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 144.

28 Ibid., at 154.

29 Chander, supra note 8, at 56.

30 M. Castells, The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society (2001), 93.

32 European Court of Justice Case C-362/14, Maximilan Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner, Judgment of 6 October 2015.

34 The Financial Times found Google's restructuring of its venture fund newsworthy, ‘Google abandons European venture fund’, 11 December 2016. Regarding ‘disruption’, it ran a special section on 7 December 2015 on ‘Disruption & Technology’, if only four pages.

35 I. Brown and C.T. Marsden, Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age (2013), 174.

36 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 151.

37 Chander, supra note 8, at 104.

38 Ibid., at 105.

39 Ibid.

40 Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 135.

41 Ibid., at 133, citing Jillian C. York, ‘Policing Content in the Quasi-Public Square’ (2010), available at opennet.net/policing-content-quasi-public-sphere (accessed 24 April 2016). For a thoughtful analysis of free speech and the Internet, see A. Chander and U.P. Lê, ‘Free Speech’, (2015) 100 Iowa Law Review 501.

42 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at xxii.

43 D. Koukiadis, Reconstituting Internet Normativity: The Role of State, Private Actors, Global Online Community in the Production of Legal Norms (2015), 292.

44 Lessig, supra note 7, at 226.

46 DeNardis, supra note 15, at 16.

47 MacKinnon, supra note 6, at 106.

48 Ibid.

49 Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 81.

50 Ibid., at 90.

51 Y. Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (2006), 2.

52 See, e.g., P. Samuelson, ‘Preliminary Thoughts on Copyright Reform’, (2007) Utah Law Review 551.

53 Boyle, J., ‘The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain’, (2003) 66 Law & Contemporary Problems 33 .

54 See, e.g., Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 77.

55 Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 72–3.

56 Yoo, S., ‘Internet, Internet Culture, and Internet Communities of Korea: Overview and Research Directions’, in Goggin, G. and McLelland, M. (eds.), Internationalizing Internet Studies: Beyond Anglophone Paradigms (2009) 217, at 223.

57 Lessig, supra note 7, at 223.

58 Castells, supra note 30, at 180.

59 Ibid.

60 Brown and Marsden observe about US privacy law: ‘At the other end of the scale, there is clearly less protection for individual privacy in the US legal system than in most other advanced economies. Outside the federal government, regulation is patchy, sector specific, and state-by-state, with limited individual rights and enforcement only under very specific circumstances by the FTC.’, Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 64. Nevertheless, they could have added that certain areas of key concern, such as medical, financial services, and educational records, come under specific federal rules. For a good overview of US privacy law, see T.J. Toohey, Understanding Privacy and Data Protection: What You Need to Know (2014).

61 Cohen-Almagor, supra note 3, at 222. Search engine optimization involves working algorithms used by search engines to order results, and businesses use specialists to enhance their sites’ moving up among the results.

62 Ibid.

63 Koukiadis, supra note 43, at 124, citing J. Habermas, Between Facts and Norms – Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (1995), 350.

64 Koukiadis, supra note 43, at 124–5.

65 R. Falk, Predatory Globalization: A Critique (1999).

66 Brown and Marsden, supra note 35, at 3.

67 Ibid.

68 Ibid., at 84.

69 Mueller, supra note 11, at 265.

70 Ibid., at 68.

71 Lessig, supra note 7, at 324.

72 Mueller, supra note 11, at 67.

73 See, e.g., Chander, supra note 8, at 110. ‘Thus far, ICANN has chosen to apply its authority as a choke-point only on behalf of trademark holders.’ Few seem to note that trademarks are identified by specific classifications of goods and services. DeNardis is rare in acknowledging that ‘[i]n trademark law, it is possible for two registered trademarks to be identical, just registered as different classes of goods or services’. DeNardis, supra note 15, at 192. The classifications generally follow the 1957 Nice Agreement for the Classification of Goods and Services.

74 Lessig, supra note 7, at 308.

75 Ibid., at 309.

76 Chander, supra note 8, at 179.

77 Ibid., at 191.

78 Mueller, supra note 11, at 186–7.

79 Cohen-Almagor, supra note 3, at 10.

81 T. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (2005).

82 Chander, supra note 8, at 72.

83 Ibid., at 210.

84 Castells, supra note 30, at 207.

85 Ibid.

86 Chander, supra note 8, at 146.

87 Ibid., at 40.

88 24 July 2014 Interview on ResetDOC site: www.resetdoc.org/story/00000022437 (accessed 24 April 2016).

89 Froomkin, A. Michael, ‘Habermas@Discourse.Net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace’, (2003) 116 Harvard Law Review 749, at 759–60.

90 Cohen-Almagor, supra note 3, at 320.

91 Ibid., at 174.

92 Ibid., at 175.

93 Ibid.

94 Ibid., at 320.

95 Ibid.

96 Koukiadis, supra note 43, at 126.

97 Ibid.

98 Ibid., at 288–9.

99 Ibid., at 312.

100 Solnit, R., ‘Diary’, (2013) 35 London Review of Books 32 .

101 E.G. Coleman, Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking (2013).

102 Castells, supra note 30, at 9.

103 Ibid., at 180.

104 M. Castells, The Rise of the Network Society (1996), 434.

105 Ibid., at 446 (bolded in original).

106 Ibid., at 92 (bolded in original).

107 Landauer, C., ‘Regionalism, Geography, and the International Legal Imagination’, (2011) 11 Chicago Journal of International Law 557, at 579.

108 Castells, supra note 30, at 89.

109 Ibid., at 85.

110 Castells, supra note 104, at 329.

111 M. McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962).

112 Ibid.

113 Ibid., at 106.

114 Ibid., at 5.

115 G. Debord, Society of the Spectacle, thesis 2 (1977; originally, La societé du spectacle, 1967).

116 Ibid., at thesis 30.

117 G. Debord, Comments on the Society of the Spectacle (trans. M, Imrie, 1990; originally Commentaires sur la societé du spectacle, 1988), 48. Debord on McLuhan is particularly interesting: ‘McLuhan himself, the spectacle's first apologist, who had seemed to be the most convinced imbecile of the century, changed his mind when he finally discovered in 1976 that “the pressure of the mass media leads to irrationality”, and it was becoming urgent to modify their usage.’ Ibid., at 33.

118 M. Poster, The Second Media Age (1995), at 70–1.

119 Ibid., at 36–7.

120 N. Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains (2010); S. Greenfield, Mind Change: How Digital Technologies are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains (2015).

121 DeNardis, supra note 15, at 107.

122 See, e.g., Landauer, R., ‘The Physical Nature of Information’, (1996) 217 Physics Letters A 188 .

123 See M. Zuckerberg's Facebook post: www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102329188394581 (accessed 24 April 2016). Interestingly, he exclaimed, ‘On Monday, 1 in 7 people on Earth used Facebook to connect with their friends and family’, which uses the past tense – there is no telling how many have left Facebook and also how many ‘users’ are entities.

124 Castells, supra note 104, at 34.

125 The Financial Times spoke in ‘Laying the Foundations’, of an online population of 400 million in 2015 projected to reach 600 million by 2020 in its article on Narenda Modi's proposed initiatives (15 January 2015); it analyzed the opportunities for smartphone expansion in sub-Saharan Africa (27 January 2016); and the New York Times reported Facebook's goal of tripling the size of its 1.6 billion user base, which envisioned revolutionizing the cost of technology (25 April 2016).

126 Goggin and McLellan (eds.), supra note 56.

127 See, e.g., Chander, supra note 8, at 179, 189.

128 Castells, supra note 104, at 3.

129 J.L. Micó and P. Masip, ‘The Fight of a Minority Language Against the Force of Globalization: The Case of Catalan on the Internet’, in Goggin and McLellan (eds.), supra note 56, at 112–27.

130 As Castells notes, ‘most countries are creating a deeper digital divide’, Castells, supra note 30, at 262.

131 S. Kendzior, ‘Worlds Unknown: The Regions Ignored by Google Translate’, The Atlantic, 1 May 2012.

132 Goggin and McLelland (eds.), supra note 56, at 8.

133 Ibid., at 12.

134 Although there are Chinese keyboards developed in the 1980s that provide for the elements of characters, they are not used in mobile devices.

135 Kendzior, supra note 131.

136 Landauer, supra note 107, at 571–81 (‘Globalization without the Globe’).

137 Chander, supra note 8, at 59–86 (‘Eastern Entrepôt’).

* Carl Landauer, an e-commerce, securities, and financial services lawyer, taught history at Yale, Stanford, and McGill Universities, and international legal theory at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law []. This essay does not reflect the views of any of his current or past clients/employers.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Leiden Journal of International Law
  • ISSN: 0922-1565
  • EISSN: 1478-9698
  • URL: /core/journals/leiden-journal-of-international-law
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed