Anderson, L. 2011. Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. Foreign Affairs, 90(3): 2–7.
Awate, S., Larsen, M. M., & Mudambi, R. 2012. EMNE catch-up strategies in the wind turbine industry: Is there a trade-off between output and innovation capabilities? Global Strategy Journal, 2(3): 205–223.
Barnard, H. 2014. Migrating EMNCs and the theory of the multinational. In Cuervo-Cazurra, A. & Ramamurti, R. (Eds.), Understanding multinationals from emerging markets: 195–223. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barnard, H., Cuervo-Cazurra, A., & Manning, S. 2017. Africa business research as a laboratory for theory-building: Extreme conditions, new phenomena, and alternative paradigms of social relationships. Management and Organization Review, 13(3): 467–495.
Barnard, H., & Luiz, J. M. 2018. Escape FDI and the dynamics of a cumulative process of misalignment and contestation: Stress, strain and failure. Journal of World Business, 53(5): 605–619.
Barnard, H., & Pendock, C. 2013. To share or not to share: The role of affect in knowledge sharing by individuals in a diáspora. Journal of International Management, 19(1): 47–65.
Beugelsdijk, S., & Mudambi, R. 2013. MNEs as border-crossing multilocation enterprises: The role of discontinuites in geographic space. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(5): 413–426.
Bezuidenhout, H., & van Rensberg, J. 2016. An original ranking of South Africa's global players for 2013–2015. New York: Columbia Center for Sustainable Development.
Birkinshaw, J., Brannen, M. Y., & Tung, R. L. 2011. From a distance and generalizable to up close and grounded: Reclaiming a place for qualitative methods in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5): 573–581.
Bitektine, A. 2011. Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status. Academy of Management Review, 36(1): 151–179.
Boddewyn, J. J. 1995. The legitimacy of international-business political behavior. The International Trade Journal, 9(1): 143–161.
Boisot, M., & Meyer, M. 2008. Which way through the open door? Reflections on the internationalization of Chinese firms. Management and Organization Review, 4(3): 349–365.
Buckley, P. J. 2018. Internationalisation theory and outward direct investment by emerging market multinationals. Management International Review, 58: 195–224.
Buckley, P. J., Clegg, J., Cross, A., Liu, X., Voss, H., & Zheng, P. 2007. The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(4): 499518.
Cantwell, J., & Mudambi, R. 2011. Physical attraction and the geography of knowledge sourcing in multinational enterprises. Global Strategy Journal, 1(3–4): 206–232.
Claasen, C., & Roloff, J. 2012. The link between responsibility and legitimacy: The case of DeBeers in Namibia. Journal of Business Ethics, 107: 379–398.
Crowder, M. 1964. Indirect rule - British and French style. Africa - Journal of the International African Institute, 34(3): 197–205.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A., & Genc, M. 2011. Obligating, pressuring, and supporting dimensions of the environment and the non-market advantages of developing-country multinational companies. Journal of Management Studies, 48: 441–455.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A., & Narula, R. 2015. A set of motives to unite them all? Revisiting the principles and typology of internationalization motives. Multinational Business Review, 23(1): 2–14.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A., Narula, R., & Un, C. A. 2015. Internationalization motives: Sell more, buy better, upgrade and escape. Multinational Business Review, 23(1): 25–35.
Darendeli, I. S., & Hill, TL (2016). Uncovering the complex relationships between political risk and MNE firm legitimacy: Insights from Libya. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(1): 68–92.
De Soto, H. 2000. The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.
Dia, M. 1996. Africa's management in the 1990s and beyond: Reconciling indigenous and transplanted institutions. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Dunning, J. H. 1993. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. 2007. Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 25–32.
Ekeh, P. 1975. Colonialism and the two ‘publics’ in Africa: A theoretical statement. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 17(1): 91–112.
Ford, N. 2014. Africa's top 250 companies. African Business, April 29.
Fujita, M., & Mori, T. 1998. On the dynamics of frontier economies: Endogenous growth or the self-organization of a dissipative system? Annals of Regional Science, 32(1): 39–62.
Gann, L. H., & Duignan, P. 1967. The burden of empire: An appraisal of Western colonialism in Africa south of the Sahara. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
George, G. 2015. Expanding context to redefine theories: Africa in management research. Management and Organization Review, 11(1): 5–10.
George, G., Corbishley, C., Khayesi, J. N. O, Haas, M. R., & Tihanyi, L. 2016. Bringing Africa in: Promising directions for management research. Academy of Management Journal, 59(2): 377–394.
Henisz, W. J., Dorobantu, S., & Nartey, L. J. 2014. Spinning gold: The financial returns to stakeholder engagement. Strategic Management Journal, 35: 1727–1748.
Ipemed. 2016. Monograph of co-production companies: Misfat. Institut de Prospective Economique du Monde Mediterraneen, 16 February.
IMF. 2012. Direction of Trade Statistics. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1977. The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1): 23–32.
Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 2009. The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9): 1411–1431.
Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. 2013. Winning in emerging markets: A road map for strategy and execution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
Kimenyi, M., Lewis, Z., & Routman, B. 2016. Introduction: Intra-African trade in context. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.
Kostova, T., Roth, K., & Dacin, M. T. 2008. Institutional theory in the study of multinational corporations: A critique and new directions. Academy of Management Review, 33(4): 994–1006.
Kothari, T., Kotabe, M., & Murphy, P. 2013. Rules of the game for emerging market multinational companies. Journal of International Management, 19: 276–299.
Kumaraswamy, A., Mudambi, R., Saranga, H., & Tripathy, A. 2012. Catch-up strategies in the Indian auto components industry: Domestic firms’ responses to market liberalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(4): 368–395.
Kuznetsov, Y. 2006. Diaspora networks and the international migration of skills: How countries can draw on their talent abroad. WBI Development Studies. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Lee, A., & Schultz, K. 2012. Comparing British and French Colonial legacies: A discontinuity analysis of Cameroon. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 7: 1–46.
Levin, D. Z., & Barnard, H. 2013. Connections to distant knowledge: Interpersonal ties between more- and less-developed countries. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(7): 676-698.
Lewin, A. Y., Massini, S., & Peeters, C. 2009. Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(6): 901–925.
Lorenzen, M., & Mudambi, R. 2013. Clusters, connectivity and catch-up: Bangalore and Bollywood in the global economy. Journal of Economic Geography, 13(3): 501–534.
Lundan, S., & Jones, G. 2001. The Commonwealth Effect and the process of internationalization. The World Economy, 24(1): 99–118.
Luo, Y., & Tung, R. L. 2018. A general theory of springboard MNEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 49(2): 129–152.
Makino, S., & Tsang, E. W. K. 2011. Historical ties and foreign direct investment: An exploratory study. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(4): 545–557.
Mayer, S. D., Harima, A., & Freiling, J. 2015. Network benefits for Ghanaian diaspora and returnee entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(3): 95–122.
Meyer, K. E., Mudambi, R., & Narula, R. 2011. Multinational enterprises and local contexts: The opportunities and costs of multiple embeddedness. Journal of Management Studies, 48(2): 235–252.
Mody, A. 2004. What is an emerging market? Working Paper 04/177, IMF : Washington DC.
Moghaddam, K., Sethi, D., Weber, T., & Wu, J. 2014. The smirk of emerging market firms: A modification of the Dunning's typology of internationalization motivations. Journal of International Management, 20(3): 359–374.
Mudambi, R. 1998. Review of international financial management. Journal of Finance, 53(3): 1194–1197.
Mudambi, R. 2008. Location, control and innovation in knowledge intensive firms. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(5): 699–725.
Osborn, E. 2003. Circle of iron: African colonial employees and the interpretation of colonial rule in French West Africa. Journal of African History, 44(1): 29–50.
Pant, A., & Ramachandran, J. 2012. Legitimacy beyond borders: Indian software services firms in the United States, 1984 to 2004. Global Strategy Journal, 2(3): 224–243.
Peng, M. W., Wang, D., & Jiang, Y. 2008. An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on emerging economies. Journal of International Business, 39(5): 920–936.
Ramamurti, R. 2012. Competing with emerging market multinationals. Business Horizons, 55, 241–249.
Rangan, S., & Drummond, A. 2004. Explaining outcomes in competition among foreign multinationals in a focal host market. Strategic Management Journal, 25(3): 285–293.
Riddle, L., Hrivnak, G. A., & Nielsen, T. M. 2010. Transnational diaspora entrepreneurship in emerging markets: Bridging institutional divides. Journal of International Management, 16: 398–411.
S&P Global. 2017. S&P Global BMI, S&P/IFCI Methodology. New York: Standard & Poor's.
Sarasvathy, S., Kumar, K., York, J. G., & Bhagavatula, S. 2014. An effectual approach to international entrepreneurship: Overlaps, challenges, and provocative possibilities. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 38(1): 71–93.
Saxenian, A. 2005. From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(2): 35–61.
Saxenian, A. 2007. The new Argonauts: Regional advantage in a global economy. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Scherer, A. G., Palazzo, G., & Seidl, D. 2013. Managing legitimacy in complex and heterogeneous environments: Sustainable development in a globalized world. Journal of Management Studies, 50(2): 259–284.
Schotter, A., & Abdelzaher, D. 2013. The boundary spanning effects of the Muslim diaspora on the internationalization processes of firms from organization of Islamic conference countries. Journal of International Management, 19: 82–98.
Schotter, A., Mudambi, R., Doz, Y., & Gaur, A. 2017. Boundary spanning in global organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 54(4): 403–421.
Shinn, D. H., & Eisenman, J. 2012. China and Africa: A century of engagement. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Stasavage, D. 1997. The CFA franc zone and fiscal discipline. Journal of African Economies, 6(1): 132–167.
Stevens, C., & Newenham-Kahindi, A. 2017. Legitimacy spillovers and political risk: The case of FDI in the East African community. Global Strategy Journal, 7(1): 10–35.
Suchman, M. C. 1995. Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3): 571–610.
Suddaby, R., & Greenwood, R. 2005. Rhetorical strategies of legitimacy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(1): 35–67.
Thomas, D. 2007. Black France: Colonialism, immigration and transnationalism. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
UNCTAD. 2016. World Investment Report. UNCTAD: Geneva.
Vahlne, J.-E., & Johanson, J. 2017. From internationalization to evolution: The Uppsala model at 40 years. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(10): 1087–1102.
Wang, S., & Cuervo-Cazurra, A. 2017. Overcoming human capital voids in underdeveloped countries. Global Strategy Journal, 7(1): 36–57.
Whittlesey, D. 1937. British and French colonial technique in West Africa. Foreign Affairs, 15(2): 362–373.
Williams, D., & Grégoire, D. 2013. Seeking commonalities or avoiding differences? Re-conceptualizing distance and its effect on internationalization decisions. Journal of International Business Studies, 46: 253–284.
Witt, M., de Castro, L., Amaeshi, K., Mahroum, S., Bohle, D., & Saez, L. 2018. Mapping the business systems of 61 major economies: A taxonomy and implications for varieties of capitalism and business systems research. Socio-Economic Review, 16(1): 5–38.
WTO. 2016. World Trade Statistical Review. Geneva: World Trade Organization.
Xu, D., & Meyer, K. E. 2013. Linking theory and context: ‘Strategy research in emerging economies’ after Wright et al. (2005). Journal of Management Studies, 50(7): 1322–1346.
Yin, R. K. 2002. Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Zook, M., & Brunn, S. 2005. Hierarchies, regions, and legacies: European cities and global commercial passenger air travel. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 13(2): 203–220.