Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Contributions of Otto Scherzer (1909–1982) to the Development of the Electron Microscope

  • Michael Marko (a1) and Harald Rose (a2)

Otto Scherzer was one of the pioneers of theoretical electron optics. He was coauthor of the first comprehensive book on electron optics and was the first to understand that round electron lenses could not be combined to correct aberrations, as is the case in light optics. He subsequently was the first to describe several alternative means to correct spherical and chromatic aberration of electron lenses. These ideas were put into practice by his laboratory and students at Darmstadt and their successors, leading to the fully corrected electron microscopes now in operation.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author. E-mail:
Hide All
Archard, G.D. (1955). Two new simplified systems for the correction of spherical aberration in electron lenses. Proc Roy Soc B 68, 156164.
Beck, V.D. (1979). A hexapole spherical aberration corrector. Optik 53, 241255.
Bernhard, W. (1980). Erprobung eines sphaerisch korrigierten Elektronenmikroskops. Optik 57, 7394.
Bertein, F. (1947). Un système correcteur en optique électronique. C R Acad Sci Paris 225, 801803.
Brüche, E. & Scherzer, O. (1934). Geometrische Elektronenoptik: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Berlin: Springer.
Crewe, A.V. (2004). Some Chicago aberrations. Microsc Microanal 10, 414419.
Crewe, A.V. & Kopf, D. (1980). A sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration. Optik 5, 110.
Deltrap, J.H.M. (1964). Correction of spherical aberration with combined quadrupole-octopole units. Proc EUREM-3, pp. 4546. Prague: Czech Society for Electron Microscopy.
Gabor, D. (1948). A new microscopic principle. Nature 161, 777778.
Glaser, W. (1952). Grundlagen der Elektronenoptik. Wein: Springer.
Haider, M., Rose, H., Uhlemann, S., Schwan, E., Kabius, B. & Urban, K. (1998). Towards 0.1 nm resolution with the first spherically corrected transmission electron microscope. J Electron Microsc 47, 395405.
Hardy, D.F. (1967). Combined magnetic and electrostatic quadrupole electron lenses. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Hawkes, P.W. (1965). The geometrical aberrations of general electron optical systems I. The conditions imposed by symmetry. Phil Trans Royal Soc A 257, 479552.
Hawkes, P.W. (2001). The long road to spherical aberration correction. Biol Cell 93, 432439.
Hawkes, P.W. (2009). Aberration correction past and present. Phil Trans R Soc A 367, 36373664.
Hely, H. (1982a). Technologische Voraussetzungen fuer die Verbesserung der Korrektur von Elektronenlinsen. Optik 60, 307326.
Hely, H. (1982b). Messungen an einem verbesserten korrigierten Elektronenmikroskop. Optik 60, 353370.
Hillier, J. & Ramberg, E.G. (1947). The magnetic electron microscope objective; contour phenomena and the attainment of high resolving power. J Appl Phys 18, 4871.
Kabius, B., Hartl, P., Haider, M., Müller, H., Uhlemann, S., Loebau, U., Zach, J. & Rose, H. (2009). Aberration correction within the TEAM project. J Electron Microsc 58(3), 147155.
Koops, H., Kuck, G. & Scherzer, O. (1977). Erprobung eines elektronenoptischen Achromators. Optik 48, 225236.
Krivanek, O.L., Dellby, N. & Murfitt, M.F. (2009). Aberration correction in electron microscopy. In Handbook of Charged Particle Optics, 2nd ed., Orloff, J. (Ed.), pp. 601640. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Krivanek, O., Dellby, N., Spence, A.J., Camps, R.A. & Brown, L.M. (1997). Aberration correction in the STEM. In Proceedings of EMAG 1997, Cambridge, UK, Rodenburg, J.M. (Ed.), pp. 3539. Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics.
Möllenstedt, G. (1956). Elektronenmikroskopische Bilder mit einem nach O. Scherzer sphaerisch korrigierten Objektiv. Optik 13, 209215.
Myers, L.M. (1939). Electron Optics, Theoretical and Practical. New York: Van Nostrand.
Rang, O. (1949). Der elektrostatische Stigmator, ein Korrektiv für astigmatische Elektronenlinsen. Optik 5, 518530.
Riecke, W.D. & Ruska, E. (1966). A 100-kV transmission electron microscope with single-field condenser objective. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, 1, pp. 1920. Kyoto, Japan: Japanese Society for Electron Microscopy.
Rose, H. (1971). Elektronenoptische Aplanate. Optik 34, 285311.
Rose, H. (1981). Correction of aperture aberrations in magnetic systems with threefold symmetry. Nucl Instrum Meth 187, 187199.
Rose, H. (1990). Outline of a spherically corrected semi-aplanatic medium-voltage TEM. Optik 85, 1924.
Rose, H. (2008). History of direct aberration correction. In Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, 153: Aberration-Corrected Microscopy, Hawkes, P.W. (Ed.), pp. 140. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Rose, H. (2009). Historical aspects of aberration correction. J Electron Microsc 58, 8797.
Scherzer, O. (1932). Über die Ausstrahlung bei der Bremsung von Protonen und schnellen Elektronen. Annalen der Physik 405, 137160.
Scherzer, O. (1936). Über einige Fehler von Elektronenlinsen. Z Phys 101(9–10), 593603.
Scherzer, O. (1938a). Die Meßbarkeit des quadratischen Dopplereffekts. Ann Phys 424, 242244.
Scherzer, O. (1938b). Die imaginäre Einheit in der Diracgleichung. Ann Phys 425, 593595.
Scherzer, O. (1939a). Das Elektron im Strahlungsfeld. Ann Phys 426, 585602.
Scherzer, O. (1939b). Das Elektron im Strahlungsfeld II. Ann Phys 427, 665670.
Scherzer, O. (1947). Sphärische und chromatische Korrektur von Elektronenlinsen. Optik 2, 114132.
Scherzer, O. (1949). The theoretical resolution limit of the electron microscope. J Appl Phys 20(1), 2029.
Scherzer, O. (1965). Vorschläge zur Terminologie unrunder Elektronenlinsen. Optik 22, 314318.
Scherzer, O. (1970). Die Strahlenschädigung der Objekte als Grenze für die hochauflösende Elektronenmikroskopie. Berich Bunsen Gesell 74, 11541167.
Scherzer, O. (1978). Limitations for the resolving power of electron microscopes. Proceedings ICEM-9, 3, pp. 123129. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Press.
Scherzer, O. (1980). Eine sphärisch korrigierte Folien-Linse für the Phasenmikroskopie mit Elektronen. Optik 56(2), 133147.
Scherzer, O. (1982). Phase tomography in the corrected electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy 9, 916.
Seeliger, R. (1951). Die sphaerische Korrektur von Elektronenlinsen mittels nicht rotationssymmetrischer Abbildungselemente. Optik 8, 311317.
Sommerfeld, A. & Scherzer, O. (1934). Über das Elektronenmikroskop. Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 81, 18591860.
Tiemeijer, P.C., Bischoff, M., Freitag, B. & Kisielowski, C. (2008). Using a monochromator to improve the resolution in focal-series reconstructed TEM down to 0.5Å. In Proceedings of the European Microscopy Congress 2008, Luysberg, M., Tillmann, K. & Weirich, T. (Eds.), 1, pp. 5354. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Tretner, W. (1959). Existenzbereiche rotationssymmetrischer Elektronenlinsen. Optik 16, 155184.
Typke, D. (2010). Zernike phase contrast electron microscopy with a spherically corrected foil lens. Microsc Microanal 16, 441444.
Zach, J. (1989). Design of a high-resolution low-voltage scanning electron microscope. Optik 83, 3040.
Zach, J. & Haider, M. (1995). Correction of spherical and chromatic aberration in a low-voltage SEM. Optik 99, 112118.
Zworykin, V.K., Morton, G.A., Ramberg, E.G., Hillier, J. & Vance, A.W. (1945). Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope. New York: Wiley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • ISSN: 1431-9276
  • EISSN: 1435-8115
  • URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed