Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-dnltx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-19T05:39:35.228Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century China, Russia, and Mongolia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 November 2008

Peter C. Perdue
Affiliation:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Extract

From the mid-seventeenth to the late eighteenth centuries three agrarian states—Chinese, Mongolian, and Russian—struggled for power over the heartland of the Eurasian continent. Each had dynamic central leaders mobilizing agrarian surpluses based on drastically different ecologies, institutions, and military structures. When the dust cleared, by 1760, only two survived.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Sources Cited

Anderson, Perry, Lineages of the Absolutist State, Verso, 1979Google Scholar
Aston, Trevor, ed., Crisis in Europe 1560–1660, Doubleday, NY, 1967Google Scholar
Atwell, William S., ‘International bullion flows and the Chinese economy’, Past and Present, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atwell, William S., ‘Some observations on the “Seventeenth-century crisis” in China and Japan’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1986/02CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atwell, William S., ‘Ming observers of Ming decline: some Chinese views on the seventeenth-century crisis’, JRAS, 1988/2Google Scholar
Bannister, Judith, China's Changing Population, Stanford, 1987Google Scholar
Barfield, Thomas J., ‘The Hsiung-nu imperial confederacy: organization and foreign policy’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1981/11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barfield, Thomas J., The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Basil Blackwell, 1989Google Scholar
Bartlett, Beatrice S., Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Qing China, 1723–1820, University of California Press, 1991Google Scholar
Bergholz, Fred W., The Partition of the Steppe: The Struggle of the Russians, Manchus, and the Zunghar Mongols for Empire in Central Asia, 1619–1758, Peter Lang, New York, 1993Google Scholar
Blum, Jerome, Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century, Princeton, 1961Google Scholar
Bunge, Mario, ‘A critical examination of the new sociology of science’, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, vol. 21, no. 4 (12 1991) pp. 524–60; vol. 22, no. 1 (March 1992), pp. 4677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chartier, Roger, Cultural History: Between Practices and Representations, Cornell, 1988Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, K. N., Asia Before Europe: Economy and Civilization of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750, Cambridge University Press, 1990Google Scholar
Chiba, Muneo, Kara Buran, 2 vols, Tokyo, 1986Google Scholar
Christian, David, ‘Inner Eurasia as a unit of world history’, Journal of World History, Fall, 1994, vol. 5, 2, 173213Google Scholar
Cimeddorji, Jaqa, Die Briefe des K'ang-hsi Kaisers aus 1696–7 den Kronprinzen Yinch'eng: Ein Beitrag zum ersten Dzungarenkrieg der Ch'ing, 1690–1697, Wiesbaden, 1991Google Scholar
Clifford, JamesMarcus, George, Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, University of California Press, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Courant, Maurice, L'Asie centrale aux 17ème et 18ème siècles: empire Kalmouk ou empire Mantchou? Paris, 1912Google Scholar
Crossley, Pamela, Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World, Princeton, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crossley, Pamela Kyle, ‘Thinking about ethnicity in early modern China’, Late Imperial China 1990/06CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, Yi, Jianming Qingshi (A General History of Qing China), Beijing, 1981Google Scholar
Elvin, Mark, The Pattern of the Chinese Past, Stanford, 1973Google Scholar
Esherick, Joseph W., ‘Ten theses on the Chinese revolution’, Modern China, 01 1995, vol. 21/1, 4576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fletcher, Joseph, ‘Ch'ing Inner Asia ca. 1800’, in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge University Press, 1978, vol. 10, Late Ch'ing, 1800–1911. Part I, 35–106Google Scholar
Fletcher, Joseph, ‘The heyday of the Ch'ing order in Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet’, in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, 351408Google Scholar
Fletcher, Joseph, ‘Integrative history: parallels and interconnections in the early modern period, 1500–1800’, Journal of Turkish Studies, 1985Google Scholar
Foust, Clifford M., Muscovite and Mandarin: Russia's Trade with China and its Setting, 1727–1805, University of North Carolina Press, 1969Google Scholar
Wolfgang, Franke, ‘Yunglo's Mongolei-Feldzuge’, Sinologische Arbeiten, 1945, vol. 3/154Google Scholar
Gladney, Dru C., Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic, Harvard, 1991Google Scholar
Goldstone, Jack A., ‘East and West in the seventeenth century: political crises in Stuart England, Ottoman Turkey, and Ming China’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1988/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstone, Jack A., Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World, Berkeley, 1991Google Scholar
Gould, Stephen Jay, The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History, Norton, New York, 1980Google Scholar
Hellie, Richard, Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy, Chicago, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ho, Pingti, Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953, Harvard, 1959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jagchid, Sechin Van Jay Symons, Peace, War, and Trade Along the Great Wall: Nomadic–Chinese Interaction Through Two Millennia, Indiana, 1989Google Scholar
Kessler, Lawrence D., K'ang-hsi and the Consolidation of Ch'ing Rule, 1661–1684, Chicago, 1976Google Scholar
Kuhn, Philip A., ‘The Taiping Rebellion’, in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge University Press, 1978, vol. 10, 264317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fushun, Lai, Qianlong Zhongyao Zhanzheng zhi Junxu Yanjiu (Studies on Military Supply in Qianlong's Major Campaigns), Taipei, 1984Google Scholar
Latour, Bruno, Science in Action, Harvard, 1987Google Scholar
Latour, Bruno, and Woolgar, Steve, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts Princeton, 1986Google Scholar
Lattimore, Owen, Inner Asian Frontiers of China, Beacon, 1962Google Scholar
Lattimore, Owen, Studies in Frontier History: Collected Papers, 1928–1958, Oxford, 1962Google Scholar
Lindner, Rudi Paul, ‘Nomadism, Horses, and Huns’, Past and Present, vol. 92 (1981) 319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yunzhi, Luo, Qing Gaozong Tongzhi Xinjiang Zhengce di Tantao (Investigations of Policy toward Xinjiang under the Qianlong Emperor), Taipei, 1983Google Scholar
Ruheng, Ma, Dazheng, Ma, Elute Menggushi Lunji (Essays on the History of the Oirat Mongols), Qinghai, 1984Google Scholar
Mancall, Mark, Russia and China: Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728, Harvard 1971Google Scholar
McCants, Anne, ‘Internal migration in Friesland, 1750–1805’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Winter 1992, vol. 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDermott, Joseph P., ‘Bondservants in the Ming: a case of mistaken identities’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1981/8 vol. 40/4, 675701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDermott, Joseph P., ‘Charting blank spaces and disputed regions: the problem of Sung land tenure’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1984/11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNeill, William H., The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society since A.D. 1000, Chicago, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNeill, William H., Europe's Steppe Frontier, 1500–1800, Chicago, 1964Google Scholar
Mote, Frederic, ‘The Tu-Mu Incident of 1449’, in Kierman, Frank and Fairbank, John K., Chinese Ways in Warfare, Hardvard University Press, 1974, pp. 243–72Google Scholar
Okada, Hidehiro, ed., Kōkitei no Tegami (The Kangxi Emperor's letters), Chuko Shinsho, 1979Google Scholar
Ostrowski, Donald, ‘The Mongol origins of Muscovite political institutions’, Slavic Review, Winter 1990, vol. 49/4, 525–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perdue, Peter C., ‘Vagrancy and famine relief in eighteenth-century China’, unpub., 1987Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter C., ‘The west route army and the Silk Road: grain supply and Qianlong's military campaigns in northwest China (17551760)’ (1989), Paper presented at Columbia Modern China SeminarGoogle Scholar
Perdue, Peter C., ‘The uses of massacre: Qianlong's northwest campaign 1755–60’, Paper presented at Fairbank Center, Harvard University, March, 1990Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter C., ‘Three Qing emperors and the northwest’, Paper presented at annual meeting of Association of Asian Studies, New Orleans, April, 1991Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter C., ‘The Qing state and the Gansu grain market, 1739–1864’, in Rawski, Thomas and Li, Lillian, eds. Chinese History in Economic Perspective, University of California Press, 1992, p. 100–25Google Scholar
Rowe, William T., Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1796–1889, Stanford, 1984Google Scholar
Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts, Yale, 1990Google Scholar
Shepherd, John Robert, Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, 1600–1800, Stanford University Press, 1993Google Scholar
Silber, Cathy, ‘From daughter to daughter-in-law in the women's script (Nüshu) of Southern Hunan’, in Gilmartin, , Hershatter, , Rofel, & White, , eds., Engendering China: Women, Culture, and the State, Harvard University Press, 1994, 4768Google Scholar
Sinor, Denis, ‘Horse and pasture in Inner Asian history’, Oriens Extremus, vol. 19 (1972), 171–83.Google Scholar
Sinor, Denis, Introduction à l'étude de l'Asie Centrale, Wiesbaden, 1963Google Scholar
Slezkine, Yuri, Arctic Mirrors: Russia and the Small Peoples of the North, Cornell, 1994Google Scholar
Smith, John Masson Jr, ‘Mongol campaign rations: milk, marmots, and blood’, paper presented at the 1982Conference of Middle Eastern Studies Association,Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
Smith, Paul J., Taxing Heaven's Storehouse: Horses, Bureaucrats, and the Destruction of the Sichuan Tea Industry 1074–1224, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991Google Scholar
Smith, Merritt Roe, Marx, Leo, eds., Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1994Google Scholar
Spence, Jonathan D., Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of K'ang-hsi, Knopf, 1974Google Scholar
Jonathan, Spence, and Wills, John E. Jr, eds., From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China, Yale, 1979Google Scholar
Staudenmaier, S. J., John, M., Technology's Storytellers: Reweaving the Human Fabric, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1985Google Scholar
Stevens, Carol B., Soldiers on the Steppe: Army Reform and Social Change in Early Modern Russia, Northern Illinois University Press, 1995Google Scholar
Struve, Lynn A., The Southern Ming, 1644–1662, Yale, 1984Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles, Coercion, Capital, and European States, A.D. 990–1990, Basil Blackwell, 1990Google Scholar
Van Creveld, Martin, Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton, Cambridge, 1977Google Scholar
Vernadsky, George, The Mongols and Russia, Yale University Press, 1953Google Scholar
Vladimirtsov, V. Ia., ‘Mongol'skie skazaniia ob Amursane (Mongolian tales of Amursana)’, Vostochnye Zapiski, vol. 1, Leningrad, 1927Google Scholar
Wakeman, Jr, Frederic, , The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China, University of California Press, 1985Google Scholar
Wakeman, Jr, Frederic, , ‘China and the seventeenth-century crisis’, Late Imperial China, 1986/06CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waldron, Arthur, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth, Cambridge, 1990Google Scholar
Wallerstein, Immanuel, The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century, Academic Press, 1974Google Scholar
Wei, Yuan, Shengwuji (Record of Sacred Military Victories), Beijing, 1984Google Scholar
Wiens, Mi Chu, ‘Lord and peasant: The sixteenth to the eighteenth century’, Modern China, 1980/01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Will, Pierre-Etienne, Bureaucracy and Famine in Eighteenth-Century China, trans. by Forster, Elberg, Stanford University Press, 1990Google Scholar
Wills, John, ‘Maritime China from Wang Chih to Shih Lang’, in Spence, and Wills, , From Ming to Ch'ing, Yale, 1979Google Scholar
Wong, R. Bin and Perdue, Peter C., ‘Famine's foes in Ch'ing China’, Harvard Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 43, no. 1 (06 1983), 291332CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, R. BinWill, Pierre-Etienne, et al. Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System in China, 1650–1850, University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1991Google Scholar
Woolgar, Steve, Science: The Very Idea, Tavistock, 1988Google Scholar
Xiao, YishanQingdai Tongshi (orig. edition, Taipei, 1963; Beijing reprint, 1985)Google Scholar
Yu, Ying-Shih, Trade and Expansion in Han China, University of California Press, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianxiezu, Zhungeer Shilue, Qingshilu Zhungeer Shiliao Zhebian (Selection of Materials from the Qingshilu about the Zunghars), Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe, 1986Google Scholar
Bianxiezu, Zhungeer Shilue, Zhunge'er Shilue (Brief History of the Zunghars), Renmin Chubanshe, Beijing, 1985Google Scholar
Zlatkin, I. Ia., Istoriia Dzhungarskogo Khanstva (16351758) (History of the Zunghar Khanate), Moscow, 1964Google Scholar