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    Chapman, Michael E. 2014. A Companion to Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.

    DuBois, Thomas David 2010. Inauthentic Sovereignty: Law and Legal Institutions in Manchukuo. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 69, Issue. 03, p. 749.

    MASAFUMI, ASADA 2010. The China-Russia-Japan Military Balance in Manchuria, 1906–1918. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 44, Issue. 06, p. 1283.

    Dubois, Thomas David 2008. Rule of Law in a Brave New Empire: Legal Rhetoric and Practice in Manchukuo. Law and History Review, Vol. 26, Issue. 02, p. 285.


Rethinking the Colonial Conquest of Manchuria: The Japanese Consular Police in Jiandao, 1909–1937

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2005

Historians often characterize Japan's foreign policy regarding China during the 1920s as dominated by economic priorities and a commitment to peaceful cooperation within a collaborative system of treaty port imperialism. In that narrative, the Manchurian Incident of 1931 thus stands as a watershed moment in modern East Asian history when Japan returned to a policy of acquiring formal colonial territory. Akira Iriye made this thesis famous with his groundbreaking international history of East Asia during the 1920s. More recently, Peter Duus has reinforced this paradigm in his summary of Japan's informal empire, pondering why it was that ‘just when Japan appeared to be emerging as the paramount foreign economic power in China within the framework of the treaty system, it embarked on a new policy of establishing direct political control over Manchuria’ in the autumn of 1931. Similarly, Mark Peattie has also suggested that ‘in the overheated atmosphere of the 1930s, the Japanese empire once more became expansive,’ clearly emphasizing the notion that a return to previously abandoned patterns of colonial conquest was underway.

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A generous fellowship from the Fulbright Program and the Japan-United States Education Commission made the research for this article possible. The author also wishes to thank Professor Hirano Ken'ichirō of Waseda University and Professor Mizuno Naoki of the Institute for Reseach in Humanities at Kyōto University for their support.
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Modern Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0026-749X
  • EISSN: 1469-8099
  • URL: /core/journals/modern-asian-studies
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