Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-kw98b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-03T13:11:51.168Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Production Methods for Metallic Foams

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2011

J. Banhart
Affiliation:
Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Materials Research (IFAM), Lesumer Heerstraße 36, 28717 Bremen, Germany, ban@ifam.fhg.de
J. Baumeister
Affiliation:
Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Materials Research (IFAM), Lesumer Heerstraße 36, 28717 Bremen, Germany, ban@ifam.fhg.de
Get access

Abstract

The possibilities for making metallic foams or similar porous metal structures are reviewed. The various processes are classified according to the state of the starting metal - liquid, powdered, ionised. Liquid metal can be foamed directly by injecting gas, gas-releasing foaming agents or by producing supersaturated metal-gas solutions. Indirect methods include investment casting and usage of filler materials. Metal powders can also be used as starting materials for metallic foams: mixtures of such powders with foaming agents are compacted to foamable precursor materials that can be foamed in a second step. Instead of foaming agents inert gas can be directly entrapped in the precursor. Metal foams can also be made from metal powder slurries or by using polymer/powder mixtures. Finally, galvanic electro-deposition also allows to make highly porous metallic structures with open pores.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

[1] Niebylski, L. M., Jarema, C. P., Immethun, P. A., US Patent 3 794 481 (1974)Google Scholar
[2] Jin, I., Kenny, L. D., Sang, H., US Patent 4 973 358 (1990), PCT Patent WO 91/03578 (1991); PCT Patent WO 92/03582 (1992); US Patent 5 112 696 (1992)Google Scholar
[3] Thomas, M. and Kenny, L. D., PCT Patent WO 94/172218 (1994)Google Scholar
[4] Wood, J. T., in: “Metal Foams”,Proc. Fraunhofer USA Metal Foam Symposium, 7.- 8.10.1997, Stanton, Delaware. Eds.: Banhart, J. and Eifert, H., MIT Verlag/Publishing Bremen (1998), p. 31 Google Scholar
[5] Ruch, W. and Kirkevag, B., International Patent Application PCT/NO90/00115 (1990); WO 91/01387 (1991)Google Scholar
[6] Lloyd, D. J., McLeod, A. D., Morris, P. L., Jin, I., PCT Patent WO 91/19823 (1991)Google Scholar
[7] Kenny, L. D. and Thomas, M., PCT Patent WO 94/09931 (1994)Google Scholar
[8] Sang, H., Kenny, L. D., Jin, I., PCT Patent WO 92/21457 (1992)Google Scholar
[9] Prakash, O., Sang, H., Embury, J. D., Mat. Sci. Eng. A199, 195 (1995)Google Scholar
[10] Product data sheets of Hydro Aluminium, Norway (1994)Google Scholar
[11] Akiyama, S. et al., European Patent Application EP 0 210803 Al (1986), US Patent 4 713 277 (1987)Google Scholar
[12] Itoh, M. and Miyoshi, T., this symposium, R3.2Google Scholar
[13] ALPORAS product information, Shinko Wire Co. Ltd., Japan (1998)Google Scholar
[14] Otsuka, M., Kojima, A., Itoh, M., Ishii, E., in “Science and Engineering of Light Metals” Proc. Conf. RASELM ′91, Tokyo, Oct. 1991, Ed.: Japan Institute of Light Metals, p. 999 (1991)Google Scholar
[15] Ishii, E., Itoh, M., Morisawa, Y., Kobe Steel Engineering Reports, 41, 59 (1991), (in Japanese)Google Scholar
[16] Shapovalov, V. I., US Patent 5 181 549 (1991); MRS-Bulletin, April 1994, p. 24–28; this symposium, R8.1Google Scholar
[17] Zheng, Y., Sridhar, S., Russell, K. C., in “Advances in Porous Materials”, eds: S., Komareni et al., MRS Society Bull. Vol.371, p. 365, (1995)Google Scholar
[18] Pattnaik, A., Sanday, S. C., Void, C. L., Aaronson, H. I., in “Advances in Porous Materials”, eds: S., Komareni et al., MRS Society Bull. Vol.371, p. 371 Google Scholar
[19] Wolla, J. M. and Provenzano, V., in “Advances in Porous Materials”, eds: S., Komareni et al., MRS Society Bull. Vol.371, p. 377 Google Scholar
[20] Provenzano, V., Wolla, J., Matic, P., Geltmacher, A., Kee, A., MRS Society Bull. Vol.371, p. 383 Google Scholar
[21] Simone, A. E. and Gibson, L. J., Acta Met. 44, 1437 (1996); J. Mat. Sci., 32, 451 (1997)Google Scholar
[22] DUOCELL product information, ERG Inc., Oakland Ca., USA (1996)Google Scholar
[23] Yosida, Y. and Hayashi, C., Proc. Conf. Casting Science and Technology, Sept. 1990, p.103 Google Scholar
[24] Wagner, I. et al., DGM Hauptversammlung 20.-23.5.1997, Braunschweig, Germany, (abstract)Google Scholar
[25] Thiele, W., German Patent, 1 933 321 (1971); Metals and Materials, Aug. 1972, p. 349 Google Scholar
[26] Hartmann, M., Singer, R. F., in “Metallschäumd”, Proc. Symp. Metal Foams, 6.- 7.3.1997, Bremen, Germany. Ed.: Banhart, J., MIT-Verlag/Publishing Bremen (1997), p. 39, (in German); this symposium R5.5Google Scholar
[27] Baumeister, J., German Patent 40 18 360 (1990); US Patent 5 151 246 (1992); European Patent EP 0460392A1 (1996)Google Scholar
[28] Baumeister, J. and Schrader, H., German Patent DE 41 01 630 (1991)Google Scholar
[29] Baumeister, J., Banhart, J., Weber, M., German Patent DE 44 26 627 (1997)Google Scholar
[30] Simancik, F., F. Schörghuber, this symposium, R3.7Google Scholar
[31] Banhart, J. and Weigand, P., Proc. cited in [4], p. 15Google Scholar
[32] Banhart, J., Baumeister, J., Weber, M., Proc. Euro. Conf. Advanced PM Materials (PM ′95), Birmingham (UK), 23.-25. Oct. 1995, p. 201 Google Scholar
[33] Simancfk, F., Kovácik, J., F. Schörghuber, Proc. cited in [26], p. 171Google Scholar
[34] Banhart, J. and Baumeister, J., J. Mat. Sci., in press, (1998)Google Scholar
[35] Degischer, H. P., Galovski, U., Gradinger, R., Kretz, R., Simancfk, F., Proc. cited in [26], p. 79, (in German)Google Scholar
[36] Yu, C. J. and Banhart, J., Proc. cited in [4], p.37Google Scholar
[37] Kriszt, B., Falahati, A., Degischer, H. P., Proc. cited in [26], p. 59, (in German)Google Scholar
[38] Weber, M., Knüwer, M., ibid., p. 73, (in German)Google Scholar
[39] Yu, C. J., Eifert, H., KnOwer, M., Weber, M., this symposium, R3.4Google Scholar
[40] Martin, R. L. and Lederich, R. J., Metal Powder Report, Oct. 1992, p.30Google Scholar
[41] Kearns, M. W., Blenkinshop, P. A., Barber, A. C., Farthing, T. W., Int. J. Powder Met. 24, 59 (1988)Google Scholar
[42] Shih, D. S. et al., this symposium R7.3Google Scholar
[43] this symposium, session R6Google Scholar
[44] Drolet, J. P., Int. J. Powder Met., 13,223 (1977)Google Scholar
[45] Kulkarni, S. B. and Ramakrishnan, P., Int. J. Powder Met. 9, 41 (1973)Google Scholar
[46] Tuchinskiy, L. and Loutfy, R., Proc. cited in [4], p. 23Google Scholar
[47] Hurysz, K. M. et al., this symposium, R5.3Google Scholar
[48] Product data sheet of SEAC B.V., Netherlands (1986)Google Scholar
[49] Product data sheet of Sumitomo Electric, Japan (1986)Google Scholar
[50] Product data sheet of Ecosot, Belorussia (1996)Google Scholar