Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Racial Winners and Losers in American Party Politics

  • Zoltan L. Hajnal and Jeremy D. Horowitz

Abstract

The Democratic and Republican Parties both make strong claims that their policies benefit racial and ethnic minorities. These claims have, however, received little systematic empirical assessment. This is an important omission, because democracy rests on the ability of the electorate to evaluate the responsiveness of those who govern. We assess Democrats’ and Republicans’ claims by compiling census data on annual changes in income, poverty, and unemployment over the last half century for each of America’s racial and ethnic groups. Judged by the empirical record, it is clear which party truly benefits America’s communities of color. When the nation is governed by Democrats, racial and ethnic minority well-being improves dramatically. By contrast, under Republican administrations, blacks, Latinos, and Asian Americans generally suffer losses.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abramowitz, Alan I. 1994. “Issue Evolution Reconsidered: Racial Attitudes and Partisanship in the US Electorate.” American Journal of Political Science 38(1): 124.
Almaguer, Tomas. 1994. Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
American Political Science Association. 2004. “American Democracy in an Age of Rising Inequality.” American Political Science Association.
Bailey, Michael A. 2007. “Comparable Preference Estimates Across Time and Institutions for the Court, Congress and Presidency.” American Journal of Political Science 51(3): 433–48.
Barreto, Matt A. 2011. Ethnic Cues: The Role of Shared Ethnicity in Latino Political Participation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bartels, Larry M. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bertrand, Marianne, and Mullainathan, Sendhil. 2004. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal?American Economic Review 94(4): 9911013.
Black, Merle, and Black, Earle. 2002. The Rise of Southern Republicans. New York: Belknap.
Blank, Rebecca M. 2001. “An Overview of Trends in Social and Economic Well-Being, By Race.” In America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, ed. Smelser, N., Wilson, W. J. and Mitchell, F.. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Bobo, Lawrence, Oliver, Melvin, Johnson, James, and Valenzuela, Abel, eds. 2000. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Browning, Rufus R., Marshall, Dale Rogers, and Tabb, David H.. 1984. Protest Is Not Enough. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Butler, Daniel M., and Broockman, David E.. 2011. “Do Politicians Racially Discriminate against Constituents? A Field Experiment on State Legislators.” American Journal of Political Science 55(3): 463–77.
Cameron, Charles. 2001. Veto Bargaining: Presidents and the Politics of Negative Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carmines, Edward G., and Stimson, James A.. 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carpenter, Daniel. 2010. “Institutional Strangulation: Bureaucratic Politics and Financial Reform in the Obama Administration.”Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 825–46.
Casellas, Jason P. 2011. Latino Representation in State Houses and Congress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clinton, Bill. 2012. Speech at the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC, September 5.
Dade, Corey. 2011. “New Poll Suggests Latino Voters See ‘Hostile' GOP.” It’s All Politics December 13. Available from http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/2011/12/12/143601214/new-poll-suggests-latino-voters-see-hostile-gop (accessed December 11, 2013).
Davidson, Chandler, and Grofman, Bernard, eds. 1994.Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Democratic National Committee. 2004. The Democratic National Platform for America: Strong at Home, Respected in the World .
Donahue, John J, and Heckman, James. 1990. Continuous versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks. Journal of Economic Literature 29: 1603–43.
Edsall, Thomas Byrne, and Edsall, Mary D.. 1991. Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Edwards, George C. 2003. On Deaf Ears: The Limits of the Bully Pulpit. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Epstein, Lee, Martin, Andrew D., Segal, Jeffrey A. and Westerland, Chad. 2007. “The Judicial Common Space.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 23(2): 303–25.
Erikson, Robert S., Mackuen, Michael B., and Stimson, James A.. 2002. The Macro Polity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fiorina, Morris P. 1996. Divided Government. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fraga, , Ricardo, Luis, and Leal, David L.. 2004. “Playing the ‘Latino Card’:Race, Ethnicity, and National Party Politics.” Du Bois Review 1(2): 297317.
Frymer, Paul. 1999. Uneasy Alliances: Race and Party Competition in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Garcia-Bedolla, Lisa. 2005. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gerber, Elisabeth R., and Hopkins, Daniel J.. 2011. “When Mayors Matter: Estimating the Impact of Mayoral Partisanship on City Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 55(2): 326–39.
Gilens, Martin. 2012. Affluence & Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gillion, Daniel. 2012. “Protest and Congressional Behavior: Assessing Racial and Ethnic Minority Protests in the District.” Journal of Politics 74(4): 950–62.
Greenberg, Stanley B. 1996. Middle Class Dreams: The Politics and Power of the New American Majority. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Griffin, John D., and Newman, Brian. 2008. Minority Report: Evaluating Political Equality in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Grose, Christian R. 2011. Congress in Black and White. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gurr, , Robert, Ted. 2000. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Hacker, Jacob S. 2010. “The Road to Somewhere: Why Health Reform Happened.”Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 861–76.
Hacker, Jacob S., and Pierson, Paul. 2010. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—and Turned Its Back on the Middle Class. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hajnal, Zoltan L. 2009. “Who Loses in American Democracy? A Count of Votes Demonstrates the Limited Representation of African Americans.”American Political Science Review 103(1): 3757.
Hajnal, Zoltan L. 2010. America's Uneven Democracy: Turnout, Race, and Representation in City Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hayek, F. A., and Hamowy, Ronald. 2011. The Constitution of Liberty: The Definitive Edition (The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hero, Rodney. 1998. Faces of Inequality: Social Diversity in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hibbs, Douglas A. 1987. The American Political Economy: Macroeconomics and Electoral Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hibbs, Douglas A., and Dennis, Christopher. 1988. “Income Distribution in the United States.” American Political Science Review 82(2): 467–90.
Holmberg, Soren, Rothstein, Bo, and Nasiritous, Naghmeh. 2009. “Quality of Government: What You Get.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 135161.
Hood, M. V., Kidd, Quentin, and Morris, Irwin L.. 2012. The Rational Southerner: Black Mobilization, Republican Growth, and the Partisan Transformation of the American South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jacobs, Lawrence, and King, Desmond. 2010. “Varieties of Obamaism: Structure, Agency, and the Obama Presidency.”Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 739802.
Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Page, Benjamin I.. 2005. “Who Influences U.S. Foreign Policy?American Political Science Review 99(1): 107–23.
Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Skocpol, Theda. 2005. “American Democracy in an Era of Rising Inequality.” In Inequality and American Democracy: What We Know and What We Need to Learn, ed. Jacobs, Lawrence R. and Skocpol, Theda. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Skocpol, Theda. 2006. “Restoring the Tradition of Rigor and Relevance to Political Science.” PS: Political Science and Politics 39(1): 2731.
Katznelson, Ira. 2005. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W.W. Norton.
Kernell, Samuel. 1997. Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Kerr, Brinck, and Miller, Will. 1997. “Latino Representation, It’s Direct and Indirect.”American Journal of Political Science 41(3): 1066–71.
Kerr, Brinck, and Mladenka, Kenneth R.. 1994. “Does Politics Matter? A Time-Series Analysis of Minority Employment Patterns.” American Journal of Political Science 38(4): 918–43.
Keynes, John Maynard. 2007 [1936]. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1985. “Appropriations Decisions as a Bilateral Bargaining Game between President and Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 10(2): 181201.
Kim, Claire Jean. 1999. “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans.” Politics and Society 27(1): 105–38.
King, Desmond S., and Smith, Rogers M.. 2005. “Racial Orders in American Political Development.” American Political Science Review 99(1): 7592.
Kirschenman, Joleen, and Neckerman, Kathryn M.. 1991. “‘We'd Love to Hire Them, But… ’: The Meaning of Race for Employers.” In The Urban Underclass, ed. Jenks, Christopher and Peterson., Paul E. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press.
Klarman, Michael J. 2006. From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Klinkner, Philip A., and Smith, Rogers M.. 1999. The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kousser, J. Morgan. 1999. Colorblind Injustice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lee, Taeku. 2000. “Racial Attitudes and the Color Line(s) at the Close of the Twentieth Century.” In The State of Asian Pacific Americans: Race Relations, ed. Ong, P.. Los Angeles: LEAP/UCLA Asian Pacific American Public Policy Institute.
Lee, Taeku. 2002. Mobilizing Public Opinion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lee, Taeku. 2008. “Race, Immigration, and the Identity-to-Politics Link.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 457–78.
Lieberman, Robert C. 1998. Shifting the Color Line: Race and the American Welfare State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lien, Pei-te, M. Margaret Conway, and Wong, Janelle. 2004. The Politics of Asian Americans: Diversity and Community. New York: Routledge.
Lijphart, Arendt. 1999. Patterns of Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Loury, Glenn C., Karlan, Pamela, Shelby, Tommie, and Wacquant, Loïc, eds. 2008. Race, Incarceration, and American Values. Boston: MIT Press.
Lublin, David. 1997. The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’.” Journal of Politics. 61(3): 627657.
Manza, Jeff, and Uggen, Christopher. 2006. Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Martin, Andrew D., and Quinn, Kevin M.. 2002. “Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953–1999.” Political Analysis 10(2): 134–53.
Mayhew, David. 1991. Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946–1990. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2007. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Boston: MIT Press.
Meier, Kenneth J., and Stewart, Joseph R.. 1991. The Politics of Hispanic Education. New York City: SUNY Press.
Myrdall, Gunnar. 1944. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Neustadt, Richard E. 1980. Presidential Power: Politics of Leadership from F.D.R. to Carter. New York: Wiley and Sons.
Niskanen, William A. 2003. “A Case for Divided Government.” Cato Policy Report March/April 2003: 2.
Page, Benjamin I. 1983. Who Gets What from Government. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Page, Benjamin I., and Simmons, James R.. 2000. What Government Can Do: Dealing with Poverty and Inequality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Parker, Frank R. 1990. Black Votes Count: Political Empowerment in Mississippi after 1965. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Poole, Keith, Carroll, Royce, Lewis, Jeff, Lo, James, McCarty, Nolan, and Rosenthal, Howard. 2012. Vote View. Available at http://voteview.com/dwnomin.htm (accessed December 11, 2013).
Reagan, Ronald. 1981. Remarks in Denver, Colorado, at the Annual Convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, June 29.
Republican National Committee. 2004. 2004 Republican Party Platform: A Safer World and a More Hopeful America.
Rosenberg, Gerald N. 1991. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Schattschneider, E. E. 1942. Party Government. New York: Praeger.
Shafer, Byron E., and Johnston, Richard. 2005. The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Stepan, Alfred, and Linz, Juan J.. 2011. “Comparative Perspectives on Inequality and the Quality of Democracy in the United States.” Perspectives on Politics 9(4): 841–56.
Teixeira, Ruy, and Rogers, Joel. 2000. America’s Forgotten Majority: Why the White Working Class Still Matters. New York: Basic Books.
Tesler, Michael, and Sears, David O.. 2010. Obama's Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-Racial America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Thernstrom, Stephan, and Thernstrom, Abigail. 1997. America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Trounstine, Jessica, and Valdini, Melody E.. 2008. “The Context Matters: The Effects of Single-Member versus At-Large Districts on City Council Diversity.” American Journal of Political Science 52(3): 554–69.
United States Census Bureau. 2012. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Census Bureau.
Valentino, Nicholas A., and Sears, David O.. 2005. “Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South.” American Journal of Political Science 49(3): 672–88.
Valelly, Richard. 2004. The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Verba, Sidney, Lehman Schlozman, Kay, and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Whitby, Kenny J. 1998. The Color of Representation: Congressional Behavior and Black Interests. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Hajnal et al. supplementary material
Supplementary tables and figures

 PDF (97 KB)
97 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed