Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-vcb8f Total loading time: 0.705 Render date: 2022-09-27T12:30:00.446Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2011

N. Haslam*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
E. Holland
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
P. Kuppens
Affiliation:
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium
*
*Address for correspondence: Professor N. Haslam, Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne, Redmond Barry Building, Parkville, VIC3010, Australia. (Email: nhaslam@unimelb.edu.au)

Abstract

Taxometric research methods were developed by Paul Meehl and colleagues to distinguish between categorical and dimensional models of latent variables. We have conducted a comprehensive review of published taxometric research that included 177 articles, 311 distinct findings and a combined sample of 533 377 participants. Multilevel logistic regression analyses have examined the methodological and substantive variables associated with taxonic (categorical) findings. Although 38.9% of findings were taxonic, these findings were much less frequent in more recent and methodologically stronger studies, and in those reporting comparative fit indices based on simulated comparison data. When these and other possible confounds were statistically controlled, the true prevalence of taxonic findings was estimated at 14%. The domains of normal personality, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, externalizing disorders, and personality disorders (PDs) other than schizotypal yielded little persuasive evidence of taxa. Promising but still not definitive evidence of psychological taxa was confined to the domains of schizotypy, substance use disorders and autism. This review indicates that most latent variables of interest to psychiatrists and personality and clinical psychologists are dimensional, and that many influential taxonic findings of early taxometric research are likely to be spurious.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

*Ahmed, AO, Green, BA, McCloskey, MS, Berman, ME (2010). Latent structure of intermittent explosive disorder in an epidemiological sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44, 663672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ambrosini, PJ, Bennett, DS, Cleland, CM, Haslam, N (2003). Taxonicity of adolescent melancholia: a categorical or dimensional construct? Journal of Psychiatric Research 36, 247256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Arnau, RC, Green, BA, Rosen, DH, Gleaves, DH, Melancon, JG (2003). Are Jungian preferences really categorical? An empirical investigation using taxometric analysis. Personality and Individual Differences 34, 233251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnau, RC, Thompson, RL, Cook, C (2001). Do different response formats change the latent structure of responses? An empirical investigation using taxometric analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement 61, 2344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Arntz, A, Bernstein, D, Gielen, D, van Nieuwenhuijzen, M, Penders, K, Haslam, N, Ruscio, J (2009). Taxometric evidence for the dimensional structure of cluster-C, paranoid and borderline personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders 23, 606628.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asendorpf, J (2002). Editorial: The puzzle of personality types. European Journal of Personality 16, S1S5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Asmundson, GJG, Collimore, KC, Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Hadjistavropoulos, HD (2007). Is the latent structure of fear of pain continuous or discontinuous among pain patients? Taxometric analysis of the pain anxiety symptoms scale. Journal of Pain 8, 387395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Asmundson, GJG, Hadjistavropoulos, HD, Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ (2009). Latent structure of fear of pain: an empirical test among a sample of community dwelling older adults. European Journal of Pain 13, 419425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Asmundson, GJG, Weeks, JW, Carleton, RN, Thibodeau, MA, Fetzner, MG (2011). Revisiting the latent structure of the anxiety sensitivity construct: more evidence of dimensionality. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25, 138147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Baldwin, G, Shean, GD (2006). A taxometric study of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 132, 101128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Beach, SRH, Amir, N (2003). Is depression taxonic, dimensional, or both? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112, 228236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beach, SRH, Amir, N, Bau, J (2005 a). Can sample specific simulations help detect low base rate taxonicity? Psychological Assessment 17, 446461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Beach, SRH, Fincham, FD, Amir, N, Leonard, KE (2005 b). The taxometrics of marriage: is marital discord categorical? Journal of Family Psychology 19, 276285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, TP, Waters, E (2003). Pseudotaxonicity in MAMBAC and MAXCOV analyses of rating-scale data: turning continua into classes by manipulating observers' expectations. Psychological Methods 8, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Feldner, MT, Lewis, SF, Leen-Feldner, EW (2005). Anxiety sensitivity taxonicity: a concurrent test of cognitive vulnerability for post-traumatic stress symptomatology among young adults. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 34, 229241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Kotov, R, Arrindell, WA, Taylor, S, Sandin, B, Cox, BJ, Stewart, SH, Bouvard, M, Cardenas, SJ, Eifert, GH, Schmidt, NB (2006). Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: a multi-national analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 20, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Norton, PJ, Schmidt, NB, Taylor, S, Forsyth, JP, Lewis, SF, Feldner, MT, Leen-Feldner, EW, Stewart, SH, Cox, B (2007). Taxometric and factor analytic models of anxiety sensitivity: integrating approaches to latent structural research. Psychological Assessment 19, 7487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Stewart, S, Comeau, N (2007). Taxometric and factor analytic models of anxiety sensitivity among youth: exploring the latent structure of anxiety psychopathology vulnerability. Behavior Therapy 38, 269283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Stewart, SH, Comeau, MN, Leen-Feldner, EW (2006). Anxiety sensitivity taxonicity across gender among youth. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44, 679698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Weems, C, Stickle, T, Leen-Feldner, EW (2005). Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: an empirical test among youth. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43, 11311155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Blanchard, JJ, Gangestad, SW, Brown, SA, Horan, WP (2000). Hedonic capacity and schizotypy revisited: a taxometric analysis of social anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109, 8795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Blanchard, JJ, Horan, WP, Collins, LM (2005). Examining the latent structure of negative symptoms: is there a distinct subtype of negative symptom schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 77, 151165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Braverman, J, LaBrie, RA, Shaffer, HJ (2011). A taxometric analysis of actual internet sports gambling behavior. Psychological Assessment 23, 234244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Broman-Fulks, JJ, Deacon, BJ, Olatunji, BO, Bondy, CL, Abramowitz, JS, Tolin, DF (2010). Categorical or dimensional: a reanalysis of the anxiety sensitivity. Behavior Therapy 41, 154171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Broman-Fulks, JJ, Green, BA, Berman, ME, Olatunji, BO, Arnau, RC, Deacon, BJ, Sawchuk, CN (2008). The latent structure of anxiety sensitivity – revisited. Assessment 15, 188203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Broman-Fulks, JJ, Hill, RW, Green, BA (2008). Is perfectionism categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment 90, 481490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Broman-Fulks, JJ, Ruggiero, KJ, Green, BA, Kilpatrick, DG, Danielson, KM, Resnick, HS, Saunders, BE (2006). Taxometric investigation of PTSD: data from two nationally representative samples. Behavior Therapy 37, 364380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Broman-Fulks, JJ, Ruggiero, KJ, Green, BA, Smith, DW, Hanson, RF, Kilpatrick, DG, Saunders, BE (2009). The latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress 22, 146152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryk, AS, Raudenbush, SW (1992). Hierarchical Linear Models for Social and Behavioral Research: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA.Google Scholar
Clark, LA (2007). Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization. Annual Review of Psychology 58, 227257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Crome, E, Baillie, A, Slade, T, Ruscio, AM (2010). Social phobia: further evidence of dimensional structure. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 44, 10121020.Google ScholarPubMed
*Cuesta, MJ, Ugarte, MD, Goicoa, T, Eraso, S, Peralta, V (2007). A taxometric analysis of schizophrenia symptoms. Psychiatry Research 150, 245253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Daneluzzo, E, Stratta, P, Di Tommaso, S, Pacifico, R, Riccardi, I, Rossi, A (2009). Dimensional, non-taxonic latent structure of psychotic symptoms in a student sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 44, 911916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Boeck, P, Wilson, M, Acton, GS (2005). A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions. Psychological Review 112, 129158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Denson, TF, Earleywine, M (2006). Pothead or pot smoker? A taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 1, 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Denson, TF, Iyer, R, Lickel, B (2010). Racist or racism? Taxometric support for a dimensional latent structure of explicit prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 13, 113128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Dollaghan, CA (2004). Taxometric analyses of specific language impairment in 3- and 4-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing 47, 464475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Dragovic, M, Milenkovic, S, Hammond, G (2008). The distribution of hand preference is discrete: a taxometric examination. British Journal of Psychology 99, 445459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eaton, NR, Krueger, RF, South, SC, Simms, LJ, Clark, LA (2011). Contrasting prototypes and dimensions in the classification of personality pathology: evidence that dimensions, but not prototypes, are robust. Psychological Medicine 41, 11511163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Edens, JF, Marcus, DK, Lilienfeld, SO, Poythress, NJ (2006). Psychopathic, not psychopath: taxometric evidence for the dimensional structure of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 131144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Edens, JF, Marcus, DK, Morey, LC (2009). Paranoid personality has a dimensional latent structure: taxometric analyses of community and clinical samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 545553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Edens, JF, Marcus, DK, Ruiz, MA (2008). Taxometric analyses of borderline personality features in a large-scale male and female offender sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117, 705711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Edens, JF, Marcus, DK, Vaughn, MG (2011). Exploring the taxometric status of psychopathy among youthful offenders: is there a juvenile psychopath taxon? Law and Human Behavior 35, 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enders, CK, Tofighi, D (2007). Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychological Methods 12, 121138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L, Golden, RR, Cornblatt, BA (1989). A taxonometric analysis of cognitive and neuromotor variables in children at risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98, 203208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ferguson, E (2009). A taxometric analysis of health anxiety. Psychological Medicine 39, 277285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ferguson, E, Williams, L, O'Connor, R, Howard, S, Hughes, B, Johnston, DW, Allan, JL, O'Connor, DB, Lewis, CA, Grealy, MA, O'Carroll, RE (2009). A taxometric analysis of type-D personality. Psychosomatic Medicine 71, 981986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Forbes, D, Haslam, N, Williams, B, Creamer, M (2005). Testing the latent structure of PTSD: a taxometric study of combat veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 647656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Fossati, A, Beauchaine, TP, Grazioli, F, Carretta, I, Cortinovis, F, Maffei, C (2005). A latent structure analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Narcissistic Personality Disorder criteria. Comprehensive Psychiatry 46, 361367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Fossati, A, Raine, A, Borroni, S, Maffei, C (2007). Taxonic structure of schizotypal personality in nonclinical subjects: issues of replicability and age consistency. Psychiatry Research 152, 103112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Foster, JD, Campbell, WK (2007). Are there such things as ‘narcissists’ in social psychology? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences 43, 13211332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Fraley, RC, Spieker, SJ (2003). Are infant attachment patterns continuously or categorically distributed? A taxometric analysis of strange situation behavior. Developmental Psychology 39, 387404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Franklin, CL, Strong, DR, Greene, RL (2002). A taxometric analysis of the MMPI-2 depression scales. Journal of Personality Assessment 79, 110121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Frazier, TW, Youngstrom, EA, Naugle, RI (2007). The latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a clinic-referred sample. Neuropsychology 21, 4564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Frazier, TW, Youngstrom, EA, Naugle, RI, Haggerty, KA, Busch, RM (2007). The latent structure of cognitive symptom exaggeration on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22, 197211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Frazier, TW, Youngstrom, EA, Sinclair, L, Kubu, CS, Law, P, Rezai, A, Constantino, JN, Eng, C (2010). Autism spectrum disorders as a qualitatively distinct category from typical behavior in a large, clinically ascertained sample. Assessment 17, 308320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gangestad, SW, Bailey, JM, Martin, NG (2000). Taxometric analyses of sexual orientation and gender identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78, 11091121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gangestad, SW, Snyder, M (1985). ‘To carve nature at its joints’: on the existence of discrete classes in personality. Psychological Review 92, 317349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gibb, BE, Alloy, LB, Abramson, LY, Beevers, CG, Miller, IW (2004). Cognitive vulnerability to depression: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 8189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ginestet, CE, Mitchell, K, Wellman, N (2008). Taxometric investigation of the latent structure of nicotine dependence: an epidemiological sample. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10, 833841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gleaves, DH, Lowe, MR, Green, BA, Cororve, MB, Williams, TL (2000). Do anorexia and bulimia nervosa occur on a continuum? A taxometric analysis. Behavior Therapy 31, 195219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Gleaves, DH, Lowe, MR, Snow, AC, Green, BA, Murphy-Eberenz, KP (2000). Continuity and discontinuity models of bulimia nervosa: a taxometric investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109, 5668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Goedeker, KC, Tiffany, ST (2008). On the nature of nicotine addiction: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117, 896909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Golden, RR (1982). A taxometric model for the detection of a conjectured latent taxon. Multivariate Behavioral Research 17, 389416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Golden, RR, Campbell, M, Perry, R (1987). A taxometric method for diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 21, 233241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Golden, RR, Meehl, PE (1979). Detection of the schizoid taxon with MMPI indicators. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88, 217233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Green, BA, Ahmed, AO, Marcus, DK, Walters, GD (2011). The latent structure of alcohol use pathology in an epidemiological sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, 225233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Grove, WM, Andreasen, NC, Young, M, Endicott, J, Keller, MB, Hirschfeld, RMA, Reich, T (1987). Isolation and characterization of a nuclear depressive syndrome. Psychological Medicine 17, 471484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Guay, J, Ruscio, J, Hare, R, Knight, RA (2007). A taxometric study of the latent structure of psychopathy: evidence for dimensionality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 701716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Hankin, BL, Fraley, RC, Lahey, BB, Waldman, ID (2005). Is depression best viewed as a continuum or discrete category? A taxometric analysis of childhood and adolescent depression in a population-based sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 96–110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Harris, GT, Rice, ME, Hilton, NZ, Lalumiere, ML, Quinsey, VL (2007). Coercive and precocious sexuality as a fundamental aspect of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders 21, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Harris, GT, Rice, ME, Quinsey, VL (1994). Psychopathy as a taxon: evidence that psychopaths are a discrete class. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62, 387397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasin, DS, Liu, X, Alderson, D, Grant, BF (2006). DSM-IV alcohol dependence: a categorical or dimensional phenotype? Psychological Medicine 36, 16951705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Haslam, N (1994). Categories of social relationship. Cognition 53, 5990.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Haslam, N (1997). Evidence that male sexual orientation is a matter of degree. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73, 862870.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Haslam, N (1999). Taxometric and related methods in relationships research. Personal Relationships 6, 519534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haslam, N (2003). The dimensional view of personality disorders: a review of the taxometric evidence. Clinical Psychology Review 23, 7593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haslam, N (2007). Do categories or dimensions underlie mental disorders? An update on the taxometric evidence. Current Psychiatry Reviews 3, 172177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Haslam, N, Beck, AT (1994). Subtyping major depression: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103, 686692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Haslam, N, Bornstein, BH (1996). Envy and jealousy as discrete emotions: a taxometric analysis. Motivation and Emotion 20, 255272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haslam, N, Kim, H (2002). Categories and continua: a review of taxometric research. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 128, 271320.Google ScholarPubMed
*Haslam, N, Williams, B, Prior, M, Haslam, R, Graetz, B, Sawyer, M (2006). Testing the latent structure of ADHD: a taxometric analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 40, 639647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Haslam, N, Williams, BJ, Kyrios, M, McKay, D, Taylor, S (2005). Subtyping obsessive-compulsive disorder: a taxometric analysis. Behavior Therapy 36, 381391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helzer, JE, Kraemer, HC, Krueger, RF (eds) (2008). Dimensional Approaches in Diagnostic Classification: Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
*Hilbert, A, Pike, KM, Wilfley, DE, Fairburn, CG, Dohm, F, Striegel-Moore, RH (2011). Clarifying boundaries of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity: a latent structure analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 49, 202211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Holland, JM, Neimeyer, RA, Boelen, PA, Prigerson, HG (2009). The underlying structure of grief: a taxometric investigation of prolonged and normal reactions to loss. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 31, 190201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Holland, JM, Schutte, KK, Brennan, PL, Moos, RH (2010). The structure of late-life depressive symptoms across a 20-year span: a taxometric investigation. Psychology and Aging 25, 142156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Holm-Denoma, JM, Richey, JA, Joiner, TA (2010). The latent structure of dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: a series of taxometric analyses. Psychological Assessment 22, 788797.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Horan, WP, Blanchard, JJ, Gangestad, SW, Kwapil, TR (2004). The psychometric detection of schizotypy: do putative schizotypy indicators identify the same latent class? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 339357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ingram, DG (2009). Is the metabolic syndrome a discrete diagnostic category or the end of a continuum? Taxometric evidence for dimensionality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Annals of Epidemiology 19, 143147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ingram, DG, Kattan, MW (2010). Risk grouping versus risk continuum in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a taxometric test. Journal of Urology 184, 19371941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ingram, DG, Takahashi, TN, Miles, JH (2008). Defining autism subgroups: a taxometric solution. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38, 950960.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Kollman, DM, Brown, TA, Liverant, GI, Hofmann, SG (2006). A taxometric investigation of the latent structure of social anxiety disorder in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. Depression and Anxiety 23, 190199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Korfine, L, Lenzenweger, MF (1995). The taxonicity of schizotypy: a replication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104, 2631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Kotov, R, Schmidt, NB, Lerew, DR, Joiner, TE, Ialongo, NS (2005). Latent structure of anxiety: taxometric exploration. Psychological Assessment 17, 369374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Lenzenweger, MF (1999). Deeper into the schizotypy taxon: on the robust nature of maximum covariance analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108, 182187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Lenzenweger, MF, Korfine, L (1992). Confirming the latent structure and base rate of schizotypy: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101, 567571.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Lenzenweger, MF, McLachlan, G, Rubin, DB (2007). Resolving the latent structure of schizophrenia endophenotypes using expectation-maximization-based finite mixture modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 1629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Linscott, RJ (2007). The latent structure and coincidence of hypohedonia and schizotypy and their validity as indices of psychometric risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Disorders 21, 225242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Linscott, RJ, Marie, D, Arnott, KL, Clarke, BL (2006). Over-representation of Maori New Zealanders among adolescents in a schizotypy taxon. Schizophrenia Research 84, 289296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Longley, SL, Broman-Fulks, JJ, Calamari, JE, Noyes, R, Wade, M, Orlando, CM (2010). A taxometric study of hypochondriasis symptoms. Behavior Therapy 41, 505514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Marcus, DK, Barry, TD (2011). Does attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a dimensional latent structure? A taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 120, 427442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Marcus, DK, Fulton, JJ, Turchik, JA (2011). Is risky sexual behavior continuous or categorical? A taxometric analysis of the Sexual Risk Survey. Psychological Assessment 23, 282286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Marcus, DK, John, S, Edens, JF (2004). A taxometric analysis of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 626635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Marcus, DK, Lilienfeld, SO, Edens, JF, Poythress, NG (2006). Is antisocial personality disorder continuous or categorical? A taxometric analysis. Psychological Medicine 36, 15711581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Marcus, DK, Poythress, NG, Edens, JF, Lilienfeld, SO (2010). Adjudicative competence: evidence that impairment in ‘rational understanding’ is taxonic. Psychological Assessment 22, 716722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Marcus, DK, Ruscio, J, Lilienfeld, SO, Hughes, KT (2008). Converging evidence for the latent structure of antisocial personality disorder: consistency of taxometric and latent class analyses. Criminal Justice and Behavior 35, 284293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markon, KE, Chmielewski, M, Miller, CJ (2011). The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: a quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin 137, 856879.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markon, KE, Krueger, RF (2006). Information-theoretic latent distribution modelling: distinguishing discrete and continuous latent variable models. Psychological Methods 11, 228243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Mattila, AK, Keefer, KV, Taylor, GJ, Joukamaa, M, Jula, A, Parker, JDA, Bagby, RM (2010). Taxometric analysis of alexithymia in a general population sample from Finland. Personality and Individual Differences 49, 216221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGrath, RE, Neubauer, J, Meyer, GJ, Tung, K (2009). Instructional set and the structure of responses to rating scales. Personality and Individual Differences 46, 116122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLachlan, G, Peel, D (2000). Finite Mixture Models. Wiley: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meehl, PE (1977). Specific etiology and other forms of strong influence: some quantitative meanings. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2, 3353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meehl, PE (1992). Factors and taxa, traits and types, difference of degree and differences in kind. Journal of Personality 60, 117174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meehl, PE (1995). Bootstraps taxometrics: solving the classification problem in psychopathology. American Psychologist 50, 266275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meehl, PE, Yonce, LJ (1994). Taxometric analysis: I. Detecting taxonicity with two quantitative indicators using means above and below a sliding cut (MAMBAC procedure). Psychological Reports 74, 10591274.Google Scholar
Meehl, PE, Yonce, LJ (1996). Taxometric analysis: II. Detecting taxonicity using covariance of two quantitative indicators in successive intervals of a third indicator (MAXCOV procedure). Psychological Reports 78, 10911227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Meyer, T, Keller, F (2001). Exploring the latent structure of the Perceptual Aberration, Magical Ideation and Physical Anhedonia Scales in a German sample: a partial replication. Journal of Personality Disorders 15, 521535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Meyer, T, Keller, F (2003). Is there evidence for a latent class called ‘hypomanic temperament’? Journal of Affective Disorders 75, 259267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Munson, J, Dawson, G, Sterling, L, Beauchaine, T, Zhou, A, Koehler, E, Lord, C, Rogers, S, Sigman, M, Estes, A, Abbott, R (2008). Evidence for latent classes of IQ in young children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation 113, 439452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Murrie, DC, Marcus, DK, Douglas, KS, Lee, Z, Salekin, RT, Vincent, G (2007). Youth with psychopathy features are not a discrete class: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48, 714723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Oakman, JM, Woody, EZ (1996). A taxometric analysis of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71, 980991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Okumura, Y, Sakamato, S, Ono, Y (2009). Latent structure of depression in a Japanese population sample: taxometric procedures. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43, 666673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Okumura, Y, Sakamato, S, Tomoda, A, Kijima, N (2009). Latent structure of self-reported depression in undergraduates: using taxometric procedures and information-theoretic latent variable modelling. Personality and Individual Differences 46, 166171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Olatunji, BO, Broman-Fulks, JJ (2007). A taxometric study of the latent structure of disgust sensitivity: converging evidence for dimensionality. Psychological Assessment 19, 437448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Olatunji, BO, Broman-Fulks, JJ (2009). Latent structure of aversion: taxometric exploration. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 23, 8792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Olatunji, BO, Broman-Fulks, JJ, Bergman, SM, Green, BA, Zlomke, KR (2010). A taxometric investigation of the latent structure of worry: dimensionality and associations with depression, anxiety, and stress. Behavior Therapy 41, 212228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Olatunji, BO, Williams, B, Haslam, N, Abramowitz, JS, Tolin, DF (2008). The latent structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a taxometric study. Depression and Anxiety 25, 956968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Parker, JDA, Keefer, KV, Taylor, GJ, Bagby, RM (2008). Latent structure of the alexithymia construct: a taxometric investigation. Psychological Assessment 20, 385396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Prisciandaro, JJ, Roberts, JE (2005). A taxometric investigation of unipolar depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 718728.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Prisciandaro, JJ, Roberts, JE (2011). Evidence for the continuous latent structure of mania in the Epidemiological Catchment Area from multiple latent structure and construct validation methodologies. Psychological Medicine 41, 575588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Rawlings, D, Williams, B, Haslam, N, Claridge, G (2008). Taxometric analysis supports a dimensional latent structure for schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences 44, 16401651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Rhudy, JL, Green, BA, Arnau, RC, France, CR (2008). Taxometric analysis of biceps femoris EMG following electrocutaneous stimulation over the sural nerve: determining the latent structure of the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR). International Journal of Psychophysiology 69, 1826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Richey, JA, Schmidt, NB, Lonigan, CJ, Philips, BM, Catanzaro, SJ, Laurent, J, Gerhardstein, RR, Kotov, R (2009). The latent structure of child depression: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology 50, 11471155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Roisman, GI, Fraley, RC, Belsky, J (2007). A taxometric study of the adult attachment interview. Developmental Psychology 43, 675686.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Rothschild, L, Cleland, C, Haslam, N, Zimmerman, M (2003). Taxometric analysis of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112, 657666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ruscio, AM (2010). The latent structure of social anxiety disorder: consequences of shifting to a dimensional diagnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119, 662671.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, AM, Borkovec, TD, Ruscio, JP (2001). A taxometric investigation of the latent structure of worry. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110, 413422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, AM, Ruscio, J (2002). The latent structure of analogue depression: should the BDI be used to classify groups? Psychological Assessment 14, 135145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, AM, Ruscio, J, Keane, TM (2002). The latent structure of post-traumatic stress disorder: a taxometric investigation of reactions to extreme stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 290301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruscio, J (2000). Taxometric analysis with dichotomous indicators: the modified MAXCOV procedure and a case-removal consistency test. Psychological Reports 87, 929939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ruscio, J, Brown, TA, Ruscio, AM (2009). A taxometric investigation of DSM-IV major depression in a large outpatient sample: interpretable structural results depend on the mode of assessment. Assessment 16, 127144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruscio, J, Haslam, N, Ruscio, AM (2006). Introduction to the Taxometric Method: A Practical Guide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
Ruscio, J, Kaczetow, W (2009). Differentiating categories and dimensions: evaluating the robustness of taxometric analyses. Multivariate Behavioral Research 44, 259280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruscio, J, Marcus, DK (2007). Detecting small taxa using simulated comparison data: a reanalysis of Beach, Amir, and Bau's (2005) data. Psychological Assessment 19, 241246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, J, Ruscio, AM (2000). Informing the continuity controversy: a taxometric analysis of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109, 473487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Ruscio, J, Ruscio, AM, Keane, TM (2004). Using taxometric analysis to distinguish a small latent taxon from a latent dimension with positively skewed indicators: the case of involuntary defeat syndrome. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 145154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruscio, J, Ruscio, AM, Meron, M (2007). Applying the bootstrap to taxometric analysis: generating empirical sampling distributions to help interpret results. Multivariate Behavioral Research 42, 349386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, J, Walters, GD (2009). Using comparison data to differentiate categorical and dimensional data by examining factor score distributions: resolving the mode problem. Psychological Assessment 21, 578594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, J, Walters, GD, Marcus, DK, Kaczetow, W (2010). Comparing the relative fit of categorical and dimensional latent variable models using consistency tests. Psychological Assessment 22, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Ruscio, J, Zimmerman, M, McGlinchey, JB, Chelminski, I, Young, D (2007). Diagnosing major depressive disorder XI: a taxometric investigation of the structure underlying DSM-IV symptoms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195, 1019.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Schmidt, NB, Kotov, R, Bernstein, A, Zvolensky, MJ, Joiner, TE, Lewinsohn, PM (2007). Mixed anxiety depression: taxometric exploration of the validity of a diagnostic category in youth. Journal of Affective Disorders 98, 8389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Schmidt, NB, Kotov, R, Lerew, DR, Joiner, TE, Ialongo, NS (2005). Evaluating latent discontinuity in cognitive vulnerability to panic: a taxometric investigation. Cognitive Therapy and Research 29, 673690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Silove, D, Slade, T, Marnane, C, Wagner, R, Brooks, R, Manicavasagar, V (2007). Separation anxiety in adulthood: dimensional or categorical? Comprehensive Psychiatry 48, 546553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Skilling, TA, Harris, GT, Rice, MT, Quinsey, VL (2001). Identifying persistently antisocial offenders using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist and DSM antisocial personality disorder criteria. Psychological Assessment 14, 2738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Skilling, TA, Quinsey, VL, Craig, WM (2001). Evidence of a taxon underlying serious antisocial behavior in boys. Criminal Justice and Behavior 28, 450470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Slade, T (2007). Taxometric investigation of depression: evidence of consistent latent structure across clinical and community samples. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41, 403410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Slade, T, Andrews, G (2005). Latent structure of depression in a community sample: a taxometric analysis. Psychological Medicine 35, 489497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Slade, T, Grisham, JR (2009). A taxometric investigation of agoraphobia in a clinical and community sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 23, 799805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Slade, T, Grove, R, Teeson, M (2009). A taxometric study of alcohol abuse and dependence in a general population sample: evidence of dimensional latent structure and implications for DSM-V. Addiction 104, 742751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snijders, TAB, Bosker, RJ (1999). Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. Sage: London.Google Scholar
*Solomon, A, Ruscio, J, Seeley, JR, Lewinsohn, PM (2006). A taxometric investigation of unipolar depression in a large community sample. Psychological Medicine 36, 973985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Strong, DR, Brown, RA, Kahler, CW, Lloyd-Richardson, EE, Niaura, R (2004). Depression proneness in treatment-seeking smokers: a taxometric analysis. Personality and Individual Differences 36, 11551170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Strong, DR, Glassmire, DM, Frederick, RI, Greene, RL (2006). Evaluating the latent structure of the MMPI-2 F(p) scale in a forensic sample: a taxometric analysis. Psychological Assessment 18, 250261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Strong, DR, Greene, RL, Hoppe, C, Johnston, T, Olesen, N (1999). Taxometric analysis of impression management and self-deception on the MMPI-2 in child-custody litigants. Journal of Personality Assessment 73, 118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Strong, DR, Greene, RL, Kordinak, ST (2002). Taxometric analysis of impression management and self-deception in college student and personnel evaluation settings. Journal of Personality Assessment 78, 161175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Strong, DR, Greene, RL, Schinka, JA (2000). A taxometric analysis of the MMPI-2 Infrequency scales [F and F(p)] in clinical settings. Psychological Assessment 12, 166173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Strube, MJ (1989). Evidence for the type in type A behavior: a taxometric analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56, 972987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Thomas, ML, Locke, DEC (2010). Psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale. Psychological Assessment 22, 492503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trull, TJ, Durrett, CA (2005). Categorical and dimensional models of personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 355380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Trull, TJ, Widiger, TA, Guthrie, P (1990). Categorical versus dimensional status of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 99, 4048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Tylka, TL, Subich, LM (2003). Revisiting the latent structure of eating disorders: taxometric analyses with nonbehavioral indicators. Journal of Counseling Psychology 50, 276286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Tyrka, A, Cannon, TD, Haslam, N, Mednick, SA, Schulsinger, F, Schulsinger, H, Parnas, J (1995). The latent structure of schizotypy: I. Premorbid indicators of a taxon of individuals at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104, 173183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*van Kampen, D (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on pre-schizophrenic personality: MAXCOV-HITMAX and LISREL analyses. European Journal of Personality 13, 6380.3.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Vasey, MW, Kotov, R, Frick, PJ, Loney, BR (2005). The latent structure of psychopathy in youth: a taxometric investigation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33, 411429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Waelde, LC, Silvern, L, Fairbank, JA (2005). A taxometric investigation of dissociation in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 359369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Waller, NG, Putnam, FW, Carlson, EB (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: a taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods 3, 300321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Waller, NG, Ross, CA (1997). The prevalence and biometric structure of pathological dissociation in the general population: taxometric and behavior genetic findings. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 499510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD (2007). The latent structure of the criminal lifestyle: a taxometric analysis of the lifestyle criminality screening form and psychological inventory of criminal thinking styles. Criminal Justice and Behavior 34, 16231637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD (2008). The latent structure of alcohol use disorders: a taxometric analysis of structured interview data obtained from male federal prison inmates. Alcohol and Alcoholism 43, 326333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD (2009 a). Taxometric analysis of alcohol dependence in male prisoners: measuring latent structure with indicators from DSM-IV. Addiction Research and Theory 17, 372380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD (2009 b). Latent structure of a two-dimensional model of antisocial personality disorder: construct validation and taxometric analysis. Journal of Personality Disorders 23, 647660.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD (2010). Dementia: continuum or distinct entity? Psychology and Aging 25, 534544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD (2011). The latent structure of life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour: is Moffitt's developmental taxonomy a true taxonomy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79, 96–105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD (2011). Childhood temperament: dimensions or types? Personality and Individual Differences 50, 11681173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Berry, DTR, Lanyon, RI, Murphy, MP (2009 a). Are exaggerated health complaints continuous or categorical? A taxometric analysis of the Health Problem Overstatement Scale. Psychological Assessment 21, 219226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Berry, DTR, Rogers, R, Payne, JW, Granacher, RP (2009 b). Feigned neurocognitive deficit: taxon or dimension? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 31, 584593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Brinkley, CA, Magaletta, PR, Diamond, PM (2008). Taxometric analysis of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale. Journal of Personality Assessment 90, 491498.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Diamond, PM, Magaletta, PR (2010 a). What is the latent structure of alcohol use disorders? A taxometric analysis of the Personality Assessment Inventory Alcohol Problems Scale in male and female prison inmates. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 24, 2637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Diamond, PM, Magaletta, PR, Geyer, MD, Duncan, SA (2007). Taxometric analysis of the antisocial features scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in federal prison inmates. Assessment 14, 351360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Duncan, SA, Mitchell-Perez, K (2007). The latent structure of psychopathy: a taxometric investigation of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a heterogeneous sample of male prison inmates. Assessment 14, 270278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Gray, NS, Jackson, RL, Sewell, KW, Rogers, R, Taylor, J, Snowden, RJ (2007). A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV): further evidence of dimensionality. Psychological Assessment 19, 330339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Hennig, CL, Negola, TD, Fricke, LA (2009 c). The latent structure of alcohol dependence in female federal prisoners. Addiction Research and Theory 17, 525537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Knight, RA, Langstrom, N (2011). Is hypersexuality dimensional? Evidence for the DSM-5 from general population and clinical samples. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Published online 3 February 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9719-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Knight, RA, Thornton, D (2009 d). The latent structure of sexual violence risk: a taxometric analysis of widely used sex offender actuarial risk measures. Criminal Justice and Behavior 36, 290306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Marcus, DK, Edens, JF, Knight, RA, Sanford, GM (2011). In search of the psychopathic sexuality taxon: indicator size does matter. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 29, 2339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, McCoy, K (2007). Taxometric analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles in incarcerated offenders and college students. Criminal Justice and Behavior 34, 781793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Walters, GD, Rogers, R, Berry, DTR, Miller, HA, Duncan, SA, McCusker, PJ, Payne, JW, Granacher, RP (2008). Malingering as a categorical or dimensional construct: the latent structure of feigned psychopathology as measured by the SIRS and MMPI-2. Psychological Assessment 20, 238247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Ronen, T, Rosenbaum, M (2010 b). The latent structure of childhood aggression: a taxometric study of self-reported and teacher-rated aggression in Israeli schoolchildren. Psychological Assessment 22, 628637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Ruscio, J (2009). To sum or not to sum: taxometric analysis with ordered categorical assessment items. Psychological Assessment 21, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Walters, GD, Ruscio, J (2010). Where do we draw the line? Assigning cases to subsamples for MAMBAC, MAXCOV, and MAXEIG taxometric analyses. Assessment 17, 321333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watson, D (2003). Investigating the construct validity of the dissociative taxon: stability analyses of normal and pathological dissociation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112, 298305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Weeks, JW, Carleton, RN, Asmundson, GJG, McCabe, RE, Anthony, MM (2010). ‘Social anxiety disorder carved at its joints’: evidence for the taxonicity of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 24, 734742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Weeks, JW, Norton, PJ, Heimberg, RG (2009). Exploring the latent structure of two cognitive components of social anxiety: taxometric analysis of fears of negative and positive evaluation. Depression and Anxiety 26, E40E48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Whisman, MA, Beach, SRH, Snyder, DK (2008). Is marital discord taxonic and can taxonic status be assessed reliably? Results from a national, representative sample of married couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 76, 745755.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Whisman, MA, Pinto, A (1997). Hopelessness depression in depressed inpatient adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research 21, 345358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widiger, TA, Samuel, DB (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions? A question for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 494504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Williamson, DA, Womble, LG, Smeets, MAM, Netemeyer, RG, Thaw, J, Kutlesic, V, Gleaves, DH (2002). The latent structure of eating disorder symptoms: a factor analytic and taxometric investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 412418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Woodward, SA, Lenzenweger, MF, Kagan, J, Snidman, N, Arcus, D (2000). Taxonic structure of infant reactivity: evidence from a taxometric perspective. Psychological Science 11, 296301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
287
Cited by