Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-8ckrc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-29T21:27:34.971Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Panic disorder and incident coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-regression in 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 cardiac events

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2015

P. J. Tully*
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, Discipline of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
D. A. Turnbull
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, Discipline of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia
J. Beltrame
School of Medicine, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia
J. Horowitz
School of Medicine, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia
S. Cosh
Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy II, University of Ulm, Gunzburg, Germany
H. Baumeister
Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
G. A. Wittert
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, Discipline of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia
*Address for correspondence: Dr P. J. Tully, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005Australia. (Email:



Substantial healthcare resources are devoted to panic disorder (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the association between these conditions remains controversial. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the association between PD, related syndromes, and incident CHD.


Relevant studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PsycINFO without restrictions from inception to January 2015 supplemented with hand-searching. We included studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) or sufficient data to calculate the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) which were pooled using a random-effects model. Studies utilizing self-reported CHD were ineligible. Twelve studies were included comprising 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 incident CHD cases.


PD was associated with the primary incident CHD endpoint [adjusted HR (aHR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.74, p < 0.00001] even after excluding angina (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22–1.81, p < 0.00001). High to moderate quality evidence suggested an association with incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE; aHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.69, p = 0.0004) and myocardial infarction (aHR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12–1.66, p = 0.002). The risk for CHD was significant after excluding depression (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.45–1.85) and after depression adjustment (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03–1.87). Age, sex, length of follow-up, socioeconomic status and diabetes were sources of heterogeneity in the primary endpoint.


Meta-analysis showed that PD was independently associated with incident CHD, myocardial infarction and MACE; however, reverse causality cannot be ruled out and there was evidence of heterogeneity.

Review Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Albert, CM, Chae, CU, Rexrode, KM, Manson, JE, Kawachi, I (2005). Phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death among women. Circulation 111, 480487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Archer, J, Bower, P, Gilbody, S, Lovell, K, Richards, D, Gask, L, Dickens, C, Coventry, P (2012). Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10, CD006525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baxter, AJ, Vos, T, Scott, KM, Norman, RE, Flaxman, AD, Blore, J, Whiteford, HA (2014). The regional distribution of anxiety disorders: implications for the Global Burden of Disease Study, 2010. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 23, 422438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beitman, BD, Mukerji, V, Russell, JL, Grafting, M (1993). Panic disorder in cardiology patients: a review of the Missouri Panic/Cardiology Project. Journal of Psychiatric Research 27 (Suppl. 1), 3546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berkman, LF, Blumenthal, J, Burg, M, Carney, RM, Catellier, D, Cowan, MJ, Czajkowski, SM, DeBusk, R, Hosking, J, Jaffe, A, Kaufmann, PG, Mitchell, P, Norman, J, Powell, LH, Raczynski, JM, Schneiderman, N (2003). Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) Randomized Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 289, 31063116.Google ScholarPubMed
Bowen, RC, Senthilselvan, A, Barale, A (2000). Physical illness as an outcome of chronic anxiety disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 45, 459464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bringager, CB, Arnesen, H, Friis, S, Husebye, T, Dammen, T (2008). A long-term follow-up study of chest pain patients: effect of panic disorder on mortality, morbidity, and quality of life. Cardiology 110, 814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmin, CN, Ownby, RL, Wiegartz, PS, Kondos, GT (2008). Women and non-cardiac chest pain: gender differences in symptom presentation. Archives of Women's Mental Health 11, 287293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chalmers, J, Quintana, DS, Abbott, MJ, Kemp, AH (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5, 80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, YF, Leu, HB, Su, CC, Huang, CC, Chiang, CH, Huang, PH, Chung, CM, Lin, SJ, Chen, JW, Chan, WL (2013). Association between panic disorder and risk of atrial fibrillation:a nationwide study. Psychosomatic Medicine 75, 3035.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicek, Y, Durakoglugil, ME, Kocaman, SA, Guveli, H, Cetin, M, Erdogan, T, Sahin, I, Dogan, S, Canga, A (2012). Increased pulse wave velocity in patients with panic disorder: independent vascular influence of panic disorder on arterial stiffness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 73, 145148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coley, KC, Saul, MI, Seybert, AL (2009). Economic burden of not recognizing panic disorder in the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Medicine 36, 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DerSimonian, R, Laird, N (1986). Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 7, 177188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duval, S, Tweedie, R (2000). Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 56, 455463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edmondson, D, Kronish, IM, Shaffer, JA, Falzon, L, Burg, MM (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for coronary heart disease: a meta-analytic review. American Heart Journal 166, 806814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Egger, M, Davey, SG, Schneider, M, Minder, C (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal 315, 629634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feighner, JP, Robins, E, Guze, SB, Woodruff, RA Jr., Winokur, G, Munoz, R (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry 26, 5763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleet, R, Foldes-Busque, G, Grégoire, J, Harel, F, Laurin, C, Burelle, D, Lavoie, K (2014). A study of myocardial perfusion in patients with panic disorder and low risk coronary artery disease after 35% CO2 challenge. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 76, 4145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleet, R, Lavoie, K, Beitman, BD (2000). Is panic disorder associated with coronary artery disease? A critical review of the literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 48, 347356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleet, R, Lesperance, F, Arsenault, A, Gregoire, J, Lavoie, K, Laurin, C, Harel, F, Burelle, D, Lambert, J, Beitman, B, Frasure-Smith, N (2005). Myocardial perfusion study of panic attacks in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 96, 10641068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleet, RP, Dupuis, G, Marchand, A, Burelle, D, Beitman, BD (1997). Detecting panic disorder in emergency department chest pain patients: a validated model to improve recognition. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 19, 124131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gan, Y, Gong, Y, Tong, X, Sun, H, Cong, Y, Dong, X, Wang, Y, Xu, X, Yin, X, Deng, J, Li, L, Cao, S, Lu, Z (2014). Depression and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMC Psychiatry 14, 371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glozier, N, Tofler, GH, Colquhoun, DM, Bunker, SJ, Clarke, DM, Hare, DL, Hickie, IB, Tatoulis, J, Thompson, DR, Wilson, A, Branagan, MG (2013). Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Medical Journal of Australia 199, 179180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldberg, DP, Krueger, RF, Andrews, G, Hobbs, MJ (2011). Emotional disorders: cluster 4 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine 39, 20432059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodwin, RD, Davidson, KW, Keyes, K (2009). Mental disorders and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 43, 239246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, Kunz, R, Falck-Ytter, Y, Alonso-Coello, P, Schünemann, HJ (2008). GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. British Medical Journal 336, 924926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hemingway, H, Marmot, M (1999). Evidence based cardiology: psychosocial factors in the aetiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Systematic review of prospective cohort studies. British Medical Journal 318, 14601467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Higgins, JPT, Green, S (2008). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester, West Sussex, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoertel, N, Le Strat, Y, De Maricourt, P, Limosin, F, Dubertret, C (2013). Are subjects in treatment trials of panic disorder representative of patients in routine clinical practice? Results from a national sample. Journal of Affective Disorders 146, 383389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huffman, JC, Mastromauro, CA, Beach, SR, Celano, CM, Dubois, CM, Healy, BC, Suarez, L, Rollman, BL, Januzzi, JL (2014). Collaborative care for depression and anxiety disorders in patients with recent cardiac events: the Management of Sadness and Anxiety in Cardiology (MOSAIC) randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine 174, 927936.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isensee, B, Wittchen, HU, Stein, MB, Hofler, M, Lieb, R (2003). Smoking increases the risk of panic: findings from a prospective community study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 692700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janszky, I, Ahnve, S, Lundberg, I, Hemmingsson, T (2010). Early-onset depression, anxiety, and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease: 37-year follow-up of 49,321 young Swedish men. Journal of the American College Cardiology 56, 3137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katerndahl, DA (2008). The association between panic disorder and coronary artery disease among primary care patients presenting with chest pain: an updated literature review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10, 276285.Google Scholar
Kawachi, I, Colditz, GA, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Giovannucci, E, Stampfer, MJ, Willett, WC (1994). Prospective study of phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation 89, 19921997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemp, AH, Quintana, DS, Felmingham, KL, Matthews, S, Jelinek, HF (2012). Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular risk. PLoS ONE 7, e30777.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuper, H, Marmot, M, Hemingway, H (2002). Systematic review of prospective cohort studies of psychosocial factors in the etiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Seminars in Vascular Medicine 2, 267314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuper, H, Nicholson, A, Kivimaki, M, Aitsi-Selmi, A, Cavalleri, G, Deanfield, JE, Heuschmann, P, Jouven, X, Malyutina, S, Mayosi, BM, Sans, S, Thomsen, T, Witteman, JCM., Hingorani, AD, Lawlor, DA, Hemingway, H (2009). Evaluating the causal relevance of diverse risk markers: horizontal systematic review. British Medical Journal 339, b4265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladwig, KH, Lederbogen, F, Albus, C, Angermann, C, Borggrefe, M, Fischer, D, Fritzsche, K, Haass, M, Jordan, J, Junger, J, Kindermann, I, Kollner, V, Kuhn, B, Scherer, M, Seyfarth, M, Voller, H, Waller, C, Herrmann-Lingen, C (2014). Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: update 2013. German Medical Science 12, Doc09.Google ScholarPubMed
Lessard, MJ, Marchand, A, Pelland, ME, Belleville, G, Vadeboncoeur, A, Chauny, JM, Poitras, J, Dupuis, G, Fleet, R, Foldes-Busque, G, Lavoie, KL (2012). Comparing two brief psychological interventions to usual care in panic disorder patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy 40, 129147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberati, A, Altman, DG, Tetzlaff, J, Mulrow, C, Gøtzsche, PC, Ioannidis, JPA, Clarke, M, Devereaux, PJ, Kleijnen, J, Moher, D (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. British Medical Journal 339, b2700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loef, M, Walach, H (2012). The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine 55, 163170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moylan, S, Giorlando, F, Nordfjærn, T, Berk, M (2012). The role of alprazolam for the treatment of panic disorder in Australia. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 46, 212224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muotri, RW, Bernik, MA (2014). Panic disorder and exercise avoidance. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 36, 6875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicholson, A, Kuper, H, Hemingway, H (2006). Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146 538 participants in 54 observational studies. European Heart Journal 27, 27632774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pohl, R, Yeragani, VK (2001). QT interval variability in panic disorder patients after isoproterenol infusions. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 4, 1720.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramadan, R, Sheps, D, Esteves, F, Zafari, AM, Bremner, JD, Vaccarino, V, Quyyumi, AA (2013). Myocardial ischemia during mental stress: role of coronary artery disease burden and vasomotion. Journal of the American Heart Association 2, e000321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramos, PS, Sardinha, A, Nardi, AE, Araújo, CG (2014). Cardiorespiratory optimal point: a submaximal exercise variable to assess panic disorder patients. PLoS ONE 26, e104932.Google Scholar
Roest, AM, Martens, EJ, de Jonge, P, Denollet, J (2010). Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 56, 3846.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rohacek, M, Bertolotti, A, Grutzmuller, N, Simmen, U, Marty, H, Zimmermann, H, Exadaktylos, A, Spyridon, A (2012). The challenge of triaging chest pain patients: the Bernese university hospital experience. Emergency Medicine International 2012, 975614.Google Scholar
Roy-Byrne, P, Craske, MG, Sullivan, G, Rose, RD, Edlund, MJ, Lang, AJ, Bystritsky, A, Welch, SS, Chavira, DA, Golinelli, D, Campbell-Sills, L, Sherbourne, CD, Stein, MB (2010). Delivery of evidence-based treatment for multiple anxiety disorders in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 303, 19211928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roy-Byrne, PP, Schmidt, P, Cannon, RO, Diem, H, Rubinow, DR (1989). Microvascular angina and panic disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 19, 315325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rugulies, R (2002). Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease. a review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 23, 5161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rutledge, T, Reis, SE, Olson, M, Owens, J, Kelsey, SF, Pepine, CJ, Reichek, N, Rogers, WJ, Merz, CN, Sopko, G, Cornell, CE, Sharaf, B, Matthews, KA (2001). History of anxiety disorders is associated with a decreased likelihood of angiographic coronary artery disease in women with chest pain: the WISE study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 37, 780785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sardinha, A, Nardi, AE, Zin, WA (2009). Are panic attacks really harmless? The cardiovascular impact of panic disorder. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 31, 5762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scherrer, JF, Chrusciel, T, Zeringue, A, Garfield, LD, Hauptman, PJ, Lustman, PJ, Freedland, KE, Carney, RM, Bucholz, KK, Owen, R, True, WR (2010). Anxiety disorders increase risk for incident myocardial infarction in depressed and nondepressed Veterans Administration patients. American Heart Journal 159, 772779.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smoller, JW, Pollack, MH, Wassertheil-Smoller, S, Jackson, RD, Oberman, A, Wong, ND, Sheps, D (2007). Panic attacks and risk of incident cardiovascular events among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 11531160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stewart, JC, Perkins, AJ, Callahan, CM (2014). Effect of collaborative care for depression on risk of cardiovascular events: data from the IMPACT randomized controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine 76, 2937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sullivan, GM, Kent, JM, Kleber, M, Martinez, JM, Yeragani, VK, Gorman, JM (2004). Effects of hyperventilation on heart rate and QT variability in panic disorder pre- and post-treatment. Psychiatry Research 125, 2939.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, RE (2001). Death of neurasthenia and its psychological reincarnation: a study of neurasthenia at the National Hospital for the Relief and Cure of the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London, 1870–1932. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 550557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The GRADE Working Group (2013). GRADE Handbook for Grading Quality of Evidence and Strength of Recommendations. Updated October 2013 (ed. Schünemann, H., Brożek, J., Guyatt, G. and Oxman, A. D.).Google Scholar
Tsuchihashi, K, Ueshima, K, Uchida, T, Oh-mura, N, Kimura, K, Owa, M, Yoshiyama, M, Miyazaki, S, Haze, K, Ogawa, H, Honda, T, Hase, M, Kai, R, Morii, I (2001). Transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis: a novel heart syndrome mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Angina Pectoris-Myocardial Infarction Investigations in Japan. Journal of the American College Cardiology 38, 1118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tully, PJ (2015). A good time to panic? Premorbid and postmorbid panic disorder in heart failure affects cardiac and psychiatric cause admissions. Australasian Psychiatry 23, 124127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tully, PJ, Baune, BT (2014). Comorbid anxiety disorders alter the association between cardiovascular diseases and depression: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 683691.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tully, PJ, Cosh, SM, Baumeister, H (2014). The anxious heart in whose mind? A systematic review and meta-regression of factors associated with anxiety disorder diagnosis, treatment and morbidity risk in coronary heart disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 77, 439448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tully, PJ, Wittert, GA, Turnbull, DA, Beltrame, JF, Horowitz, JD, Cosh, S, Baumeister, H (2015). Panic disorder and incident coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Systematic Reviews 4, 33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Apeldoorn, FJ, Van Hout, WJ, Timmerman, ME, Mersch, PP, den Boer, JA (2013). Rate of improvement during and across three treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or both combined. Journal of Affective Disorders 150, 313319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Viswanathan, M, Berkman, ND (2012). Development of the RTI item bank on risk of bias and precision of observational studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 65, 163178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vural, M, Satiroglu, O, Akbas, B, Goksel, I, Karabay, O (2009). Coronary artery disease in association with depression or anxiety among patients undergoing angiography to investigate chest pain. Texas Heart Institute Journal 36, 1723.Google ScholarPubMed
Walsh, JJ (1912). Cardiac neuroses. In Psychotherapy: Including the History of the Use of Mental Influence, Directly and Indirectly in Healing and the Principles for the Application of Energies Derived from the Mind to the Treatment of Disease, pp. 321328. D Appleton & Company: New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Walters, K, Rait, G, Petersen, I, Williams, R, Nazareth, I (2008). Panic disorder and risk of new onset coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac mortality: cohort study using the general practice research database. European Heart Journal 29, 29812988.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F, Rehm, J, Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jonsson, B, Olesen, J, Allgulander, C, Alonso, J, Faravelli, C, Fratiglioni, L, Jennum, P, Lieb, R, Maercker, A, van Os, J, Preisig, M, Salvador-Carulla, L, Simon, R, Steinhausen, HC (2011). The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. European Neuropsychopharmacology 21, 655679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wulsin, LR, Singal, BM (2003). Do depressive symptoms increase the risk for the onset of coronary disease? A systematic quantitative review. Psychosomatic Medicine 65, 201210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeragani, VK, Pohl, R, Balon, R, Jampala, VC, Jayaraman, A (2002). Twenty-four-hour QT interval variability: increased QT variability during sleep in patients with panic disorder. Neuropsychobiology 46, 16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeragani, VK, Pohl, R, Bar, KJ, Chokka, P, Tancer, M (2007). Exaggerated beat-to-beat R amplitude variability in patients with panic disorder after intravenous isoproterenol. Neuropsychobiology 55, 213218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeragani, VK, Pohl, R, Berger, R, Balon, R, Ramesh, C, Glitz, D, Srinivasan, K, Weinberg, P (1993). Decreased heart rate variability in panic disorder patients: a study of power-spectral analysis of heart rate. Psychiatry Research 46, 89103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Tully supplementary material

Tables S1-S6 and Figure S1

Download Tully supplementary material(File)
File 64 KB