Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Aetiology of anxiety and depressive disorders in an inner-city population. 1. Early adversity

  • G. W. Brown (a1) and T. O. Harris (a1)

Synopsis

A survey of an inner-city population of working-class and single mothers is described and the prevalence of anxiety and depression reported using two related diagnostic schemes, Bedford College caseness and DSM-III-R. This acts as an introduction to an analysis which indicates that adverse experiences in childhood and adolescence (involving parental indifference, and sexual and physical abuse) considerably raise risk of both depression and anxiety conditions (with the exception of mild agoraphobia and simple phobia) in adult life.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Professor G. W. Brown, Department of Social Policy and Social Science. Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (University of London), 11 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3RA.

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn – Revised.) American Psychiatric Association: Washington.
Andrews, B. & Brown, G. W. (1988). Marital violence in the community. A biographical approach. British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 305312.
Andrews, B., Brown, G. W. & Creasey, L. (1990). Intergenerational links between psychiatric disorder in mothers and daughters: the role of parenting experiences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 31, 11151129.
Arrindell, W. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Monsma, A. & Brilman, E. (1983). The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders: a controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry 143, 183187.
Arrindell, W. A., Kwee, M. G. T., Methorst, G. J., Van der Ende, J., Pol, E. & Moritz, B. J. M. (1989). Perceived parental rearing styles of agoraphobia and socially phobic in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 155, 522536.
Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. O. (1987). Childhood loss of parent, lack of adequate parental care and adult depression: a replication. Journal of Affective Disorders 12, 115128.
Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W. & Adler, Z. (1991). Early sexual abuse and clinical depression in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry 159, 115122.
Bifulco, A., Harris, T. O. & Brown, G. W. (1992). Mourning or inadequate care? Re-examining the relationship of maternal loss in childhood with adult depression and anxiety. Development & Psychopathology 4, 431447.
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B. & Gotlib, I. H. (1992). Psychopathology and early experience: a reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin (in the press).
Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. O. (1978). Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. Tavistock Publications: London, Free Press: New York.
Brown, G. W. & Prudo, R. (1981). Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population. 1. Aetiology of depression. Psychological Medicine 11, 581599.
Brown, G. W., Craig, T. K. J. & Harris, T. O. (1985). Depression: disease or distress? Some epidemiological considerations. British Journal of Psychiatry 147, 612622.
Brown, G. W., Andrews, B., Harris, T. O., Adler, Z. & Bridge, L. (1986). Social support, self-esteem and depression. Psychological Medicine 16, 813831.
Buglass, D., Clarke, J., Henderson, A. S., Kreitman, N. & Presley, A. S. (1977). A study of agoraphobic housewives. Psychological Medicine 7, 7386.
Cooper, J. E., Copeland, J. R. M., Brown, G. W., Harris, T. & Gourley, A. J. (1977). Further studies on interviewer training and inter-rater reliability of the present slate examination (PSE). Psychological Medicine 7, 517523.
Dean, C., Surtees, P. G. & Sashidharan, S. D. (1983). Comparison of research diagnostic systems in an Edinburgh community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 142, 247256.
Eaton, W. W. & Keyl, P. M. (1990). Risk factors for the onset of diagnostic interview schedule/DSM-III agoraphobia in a prospective, population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 819824.
Faravelli, C., Webb, T., Ambonetti, A., Fonnesu, F. & Sessarego, A. (1985). Prevalence of traumatic early life events in 31 agoraphobic patients with panic attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry 142, 14931494.
Finlay-Jones, R. & Brown, G. W. (1981). Types of stressful life event and the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychological Medicine 11, 803815.
Finlay-Jones, R., Brown, G. W., Duncan-Jones, P., Harris, T. O., Murphy, E. & Prudo, R. (1980). Depression and anxiety in the community. Psychological Medicine 10, 445454.
Garvey, M. J. & Tuason, V. B. (1984). The relationship of panic disorder to agoraphobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 25, 529531.
Gotlib, I. H., Mount, J. H., Cordy, N. I. & Whiffen, V. E. (1988). Depression and perceptions of early parenting: a longitudinal investigation. British Journal of Psychiatry 152, 2427.
Harris, T. O., Brown, G. W. & Bifulco, A. (1986). Loss of parent in childhood and adult psychiatric disorder. The Walthamstow Study. 1. The role of lack of adequate parental care. Psychological Medicine 16, 641659.
Kay, D. W., Garside, R. F., Beamish, P. & Roy, J. R. (1969). Endogenous and neurotic syndromes of depression: a factor analytic study of 104 cases: clinical features. British Journal of Psychiatry 115, 377388.
Kendell, R. E. (1968). The Classification of Depressive Illness. Institute of Psychiatry, Maudsley Monograph No. 18. Oxford University Press: London.
Kendell, R. E. (1976). The classification of depression: a review of contemporary confusion. British Journal of Psychiatry 129, 1527.
Kiloh, L. G. & Garside, R. F. (1963). The independence of neurotic and endogenous depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 109, 451463.
Maser, J. D. & Cloninger, C. R. (1990). Comorbidity of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. American Psychiatric Press: Washington.
Parker, G. (1979). Reported parental characteristics of agoraphobics and social phobics. British Journal of Psychiatry 135, 555560.
Parker, G. (1981). Parental reports of depressives: an investigation of several explanations. Journal of Affective Disorders 3, 131140.
Parker, G. (1989). The parental bonding instrument: psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatric Developments 4, 317335.
Parker, G., Tupling, H. & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology 52, 110.
Prudo, R., Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O. & Dowland, J. (1981). Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population. 2. Sensitivity to loss. Psychological Medicine 11, 601616.
Prudo, R., Harris, T. O. & Brown, G. W. (1984). Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population. 3. Social integration and the morphology of affective disorder. Psychological Medicine 14, 327345.
Raskin, M., Harmon, V. S., Peeke, H. V., Dickman, W. & Pinsker, H. (1982). Panic and generalized anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 687689.
Regier, D. A., Myers, J. K., Kramer, M., Robins, L. N., Blazer, D. G., Hough, R. L., Eaton, W. W. & Locke, B. Z. (1984). The NIMH Epidemiological Catchment Area Program: historical context, major objectives and study population characteristics. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 934941.
Robins, L. & Regier, D. (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America: the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Free Press (Macmillan Inc.): New York.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 773782.
Straus, M., Gelles, R. & Steinmetz, S. (1980). Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. Anchor: New York.
Torgersen, S. (1986). Childhood and family characteristics in panic and generalized anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 143, 630632.
Turner, S. M., McCann, B. S., Beidel, D. C. & Mezzich, J. E. (1986). DSM-III classification of the anxiety disorders: a psychometric study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, 168172.
Tweed, L. J., Schoenbach, V. J., George, L. K. & Blazer, D. G. (1989). The effects of childhood parental death and divorce on six-month history of anxiety disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 823828.
Von Korff, M. R., Eaton, W. W. & Keyl, P.M. (1985). The epidemiology of panic attacks and panic disorder. American Journal of Epidemiology 122, 970981.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974). The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: an Instruction Manual for the Present State Examination and CA TEGO Program. Cambridge University Press: London.
Wing, J. K. & Sturt, E. (1978). The PSE-JD-CATEGO Systems – A Supplementary Manual. Institute of Psychiatry (mimeo): London.
Wittchen, H. U., Semler, G. & von Zerssen, D. (1985). A comparison of two diagnostic methods: clinical ICD diagnoses vs DSM-III and Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (Version 2). Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 677684.
Wittchen, H. U. (1988). Natural course and spontaneous remissions of untreated anxiety disorders: results of the Munich follow-up study (MFS). In Panic and Phobia 2. Treatments and Variables Affecting Course and Outcome (ed. Hand, I. & Wittchen, H. V.), pp. 317. Springer: Heidelberg.
Wittchen, H. U., Essav, C. A. & Krieg, J. L. (1991). Anxiety disorders: similarities and differences of comorbidity in treated and untreated groups. British Journal of Psychiatry 159 (suppl. 12), 2233.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed