Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pauly, K. and Moessnang, C. 2016. The Neurobiology of Schizophrenia.


    Averbeck, Bruno B. Evans, Simon Chouhan, Viraj Bristow, Eleanor and Shergill, Sukhwinder S. 2011. Probabilistic learning and inference in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 127, Issue. 1-3, p. 115.


    Turner, Martha and Coltheart, Max 2010. Confabulation and delusion: A common monitoring framework. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 15, Issue. 1-3, p. 346.


    Keefe, Kristy M. and Warman, Debbie M. 2011. Reasoning, delusion proneness and stress: an experimental investigation. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 138.


    Westermann, Stefan and Lincoln, Tania M. 2011. Emotion regulation difficulties are relevant to persecutory ideation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol. 84, Issue. 3, p. 273.


    Medlin, Haley and Warman, Debbie 2014. An investigation into reasoning biases, mood and cognitive state, and subclinical delusional ideation. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 220, Issue. 1-2, p. 226.


    Moritz, Steffen Van Quaquebeke, Niels and Lincoln, Tania M. 2012. Jumping to Conclusions Is Associated with Paranoia but Not General Suspiciousness: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Probabilistic Reasoning Paradigm. Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, Vol. 2012, p. 1.


    Eisenacher, Sarah and Zink, Mathias 2016. Holding on to false beliefs: The bias against disconfirmatory evidence over the course of psychosis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,


    Riccaboni, Roberta Fresi, Francesco Bosia, Marta Buonocore, Mariachiara Leiba, Nathalie Smeraldi, Enrico and Cavallaro, Roberto 2012. Patterns of evidence integration in schizophrenia and delusion. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 200, Issue. 2-3, p. 108.


    Veckenstedt, Ruth Randjbar, Sarah Vitzthum, Francesca Hottenrott, Birgit Woodward, Todd S. and Moritz, Steffen 2011. Incorrigibility, jumping to conclusions, and decision threshold in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 174.


    Batty, Rachel A. Francis, Andrew Thomas, Neil Hopwood, Malcolm Ponsford, Jennie and Rossell, Susan L. 2016. Who “jumps to conclusions”? A comprehensive assessment of probabilistic reasoning in psychosis following traumatic brain injury (PFTBI), and comparison with TBI, schizophrenia, and nonclinical controls. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 32.


    Moritz, Steffen Scheu, Florian Andreou, Christina Pfueller, Ute Weisbrod, Matthias and Roesch-Ely, Daniela 2016. Reasoning in psychosis: risky but not necessarily hasty. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 91.


    Moritz, Steffen Pfuhl, Gerit Lüdtke, Thies Menon, Mahesh Balzan, Ryan P. and Andreou, Christina 2016. A two-stage cognitive theory of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Highlighting the role of lowered decision thresholds. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,


    Buchy, Lisa Barbato, Mariapaola MacMaster, Frank P. Bray, Signe Clark, Darren Deighton, Stephanie and Addington, Jean 2016. Cognitive insight is associated with cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 172, Issue. 1-3, p. 16.


    Baskak, Bora Baran, Zeynel Ozguven, Halise Devrimci Karaboga, Isil Oner, Ozgur Ozel Kizil, Erguvan Tugba and Hosgoren, Yasemin 2015. Prefrontal activity measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy during probabilistic inference in subjects with persecutory delusions. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 161, Issue. 2-3, p. 237.


    Moritz, Steffen Balzan, Ryan P. Bohn, Francesca Veckenstedt, Ruth Kolbeck, Katharina Bierbrodt, Julia and Dietrichkeit, Mona 2016. Subjective versus objective cognition: Evidence for poor metacognitive monitoring in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research,


    Moritz, Steffen and Schneider, Brooke C. 2016. From the Incomprehensible to the Partially Understood. An Update on Cognitive Bias Research and Metacognitive Training in Schizophrenia Psychosis. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 83.


    Moritz, S. Burnette, P. Sperber, S. Kother, U. Hagemann-Goebel, M. Hartmann, M. and Lincoln, T. M. 2011. Elucidating the Black Box From Stress To Paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 37, Issue. 6, p. 1311.


    Andreou, C. Moritz, S. Veith, K. Veckenstedt, R. and Naber, D. 2014. Dopaminergic Modulation of Probabilistic Reasoning and Overconfidence in Errors: A Double-Blind Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 558.


    Rubio, José Luis Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel Hernández, Laureno Barrigón, María Luisa Salcedo, María Dolores Moreno, Josefa María Gómez, Emilio Moritz, Steffen and Ferrín, Maite 2011. Jumping to conclusions in psychosis: A faulty appraisal. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 133, Issue. 1-3, p. 199.


    ×

Decision making under uncertainty and mood induction: further evidence for liberal acceptance in schizophrenia

  • S. Moritz (a1), R. Veckenstedt (a1), S. Randjbar (a1), B. Hottenrott (a1), T. S. Woodward (a2) (a3), F. V. v. Eckstaedt (a1), C. Schmidt (a1), L. Jelinek (a1) and T. M. Lincoln (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709005923
  • Published online: 11 May 2009
Abstract
Background

Cognitive biases, especially jumping to conclusions (JTC), are ascribed a vital role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study set out to explore motivational factors for JTC using a newly developed paradigm.

Method

Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls were shown 15 classical paintings, divided into three blocks. Four alternative titles (one correct and three lure titles) had to be appraised according to plausibility (0–10). Optionally, participants could decide for one option and reject one or more alternatives. In random order across blocks, anxiety-evoking music, happy music or no music was played in the background.

Results

Patients with schizophrenia, particularly those with delusions, made more decisions than healthy subjects. In line with the liberal acceptance (LA) account of schizophrenia, the decision threshold was significantly lowered in patients relative to controls. Patients were also more prone than healthy controls to making a decision when the distance between the first and second best alternative was close. Furthermore, implausible alternatives were judged as significantly more plausible by patients. Anxiety-evoking music resulted in more decisions in currently deluded patients relative to non-deluded patients and healthy controls.

Conclusions

The results confirm predictions derived from the LA account and assert that schizophrenia patients decide hastily under conditions of continued uncertainty. The fact that mood induction did not exert an overall effect could be due to the explicit nature of the manipulation, which might have evoked strategies to counteract their influence.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor S. Moritz, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hamburg, Germany. (Email: moritz@uke.uni-hamburg.de)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A Bechdolf , LJ Phillips , SM Francey , S Leicester , AP Morrison , V Veith , J Klosterkotter , PD McGorry (2006). Recent approaches to psychological interventions for people at risk of psychosis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256, 159173.

V Bell , PW Halligan , HD Ellis (2006). Explaining delusions: a cognitive perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 219226.

RP Bentall , R Corcoran , R Howard , N Blackwood , P Kinderman (2001). Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review 21, 11431192.

RP Bentall , S Kaney (2005). Attributional lability in depression and paranoia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, 475488.

RP Bentall , P Kinderman , S Kaney (1994). The self, attributional processes and abnormal beliefs: towards a model of persecutory delusions. Behaviour Research and Therapy 32, 331341.

RP Bentall , R Swarbrick (2003). The best laid schemas of paranoid patients: autonomy, sociotropy and need for closure. Psychology and Psychotherapy 76, 163171.

AL Bouhuys , GM Bloem , TG Groothuis (1995). Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects. Journal of Affective Disorders 33, 215226.

SM Colbert , ER Peters (2002). Need for closure and jumping-to-conclusions in delusion-prone individuals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190, 2731.

SM Colbert , ER Peters , PA Garety (2006). Need for closure and anxiety in delusions: a longitudinal investigation in early psychosis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44, 13851396.

DR Combs , SD Adams , DL Penn , D Roberts , J Tiegreen , P Stem (2007). Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) for inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: preliminary findings. Schizophrenia Research 91, 112116.

RE Dudley , CH John , AW Young , DE Over (1997). Normal and abnormal reasoning in people with delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 36, 243258.

DG Dutton , AP Aron (1974). Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30, 510517.

C Fine , M Gardner , J Craigie , I Gold (2007). Hopping, skipping or jumping to conclusions? Clarifying the role of the JTC bias in delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 12, 4677.

D Freeman , P Garety , E Kuipers , S Colbert , S Jolley , D Fowler , G Dunn , P Bebbington (2006). Delusions and decision-making style: use of the Need for Closure Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44, 11471158.

PA Garety , D Freeman (1999). Cognitive approaches to delusions: a critical review of theories and evidence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 38, 113154.

PA Garety , D Freeman , S Jolley , G Dunn , PE Bebbington , DG Fowler , E Kuipers , R Dudley (2005). Reasoning, emotions, and delusional conviction in psychosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 373384.

SF Huq , PA Garety , DR Hemsley (1988). Probabilistic judgements in deluded and non-deluded subjects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 40, 801812.

P Kinderman , RP Bentall (1997). Causal attributions in paranoia and depression: internal, personal, and situational attributions for negative events. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 341345.

P Kinderman , RP Bentall (2000). Self-discrepancies and causal attributions: studies of hypothesized relationships. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 39, 255273.

P Kinderman , S Kaney , S Morley , RP Bentall (1992). Paranoia and the defensive attributional style: deluded and depressed patients' attributions about their own attributions. British Journal of Medical Psychology 65, 371383.

JA Lieberman , TS Stroup , JP McEvoy , MS Swartz , RA Rosenheck , DO Perkins , RS Keefe , SM Davis , CE Davis , BD Lebowitz , J Severe , JK Hsiao (2005). Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine 353, 12091223.

TM Lincoln , C Suttner , Y Nestoriuc (2008 b). Effects of cognitive interventions for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis [in German]. Psychologische Rundschau 59, 217232.

R McKay , R Langdon , M Coltheart (2007). Jumping to delusions? Paranoia, probabilistic reasoning, and need for closure. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 12, 362376.

S Moritz , K Voigt , GM Arzola , C Otte (2008 a). When the half-full glass is appraised as half empty and memorised as completely empty: mood-congruent true and false recognition in depression is modulated by salience. Memory 16, 810820.

S Moritz , TS Woodward (2005). Jumping to conclusions in delusional and non-delusional schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, 193207.

S Moritz , TS Woodward (2006 a). The contribution of metamemory deficits to schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 1525.

S Moritz , TS Woodward (2006 b). A generalized bias against disconfirmatory evidence in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 142, 157165.

S Moritz , TS Woodward (2007). Metacognitive training in schizophrenia: from basic research to knowledge translation and intervention. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20, 619625.

S Moritz , TS Woodward , M Burlon , DF Braus , B Andresen (2007 a). Attributional style in schizophrenia: evidence for a decreased sense of self-causation in currently paranoid patients. Cognitive Therapy and Research 31, 371383.

S Moritz , TS Woodward , D Hausmann (2006). Incautious reasoning as a pathogenetic factor for the development of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 327331.

S Moritz , TS Woodward , L Jelinek , R Klinge (2008 b). Memory and metamemory in schizophrenia: a liberal acceptance account of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 38, 825832.

S Moritz , TS Woodward , M Lambert (2007 b). Under what circumstances do patients with schizophrenia jump to conclusions? A liberal acceptance account. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 46, 127137.

LR Mujica-Parodi , C Corcoran , T Greenberg , HA Sackheim , D Malaspina (2002). Are cognitive symptoms mediated by abnormalities in emotional arousal? CNS Spectrums 7, 5860.

E Peters , P Garety (2006). Cognitive functioning in delusions: a longitudinal analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44, 481514.

ER Peters , P Thornton , L Siksou , Y Linney , JH MacCabe (2008). Specificity of the jump-to-conclusions bias in deluded patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 47, 239244.

V Roder , DR Mueller , KT Mueser , HD Brenner (2006). Integrated psychological therapy (IPT) for schizophrenia: is it effective? Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (Suppl. 1), S81S93.

R Rollinson , C Haig , R Warner , P Garety , E Kuipers , D Freeman , P Bebbington , G Dunn , D Fowler (2007). The application of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis in clinical and research settings. Psychiatric Services 58, 12971302.

N Tarrier (2005). Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia: a review of development, evidence and implementation. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 74, 136144.

F Van Dael , D Versmissen , I Janssen , I Myin-Germeys , J van Os , L Krabbendam (2006). Data gathering: biased in psychosis? Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 341351.

M van der Gaag (2006). A neuropsychiatric model of biological and psychological processes in the remission of delusions and auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, S113–122.

LP Voruganti , LK Baker , AG Awad (2008). New generation antipsychotic drugs and compliance behaviour. Current Opinions in Psychiatry 21, 133139.

TS Woodward , L Buchy , S Moritz , M Liotti (2007). A bias against disconfirmatory evidence is associated with delusion proneness in a nonclinical sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 10231028.

TS Woodward , S Moritz , EY Chen (2006 a). The contribution of a cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) to delusions: a study in an Asian sample with first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research 83, 297298.

TS Woodward , S Moritz , C Cuttler , JC Whitman (2006 b). The contribution of a cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) to delusions in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28, 605617.

TS Woodward , S Moritz , M Menon , R Klinge (2008). Belief inflexibility in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 13, 267277.

M Ziegler , W Rief , SM Werner , S Mehl , TM Lincoln (2008). Hasty decision-making in a variety of tasks: does it contribute to the development of delusions? Psychological Psychotherapy 81, 237245.

G Zimmermann , J Favrod , VH Trieu , V Pomini (2005). The effect of cognitive behavioral treatment on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 77, 19.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: