Bergado Acosta, Jorge R. Kahl, Evelyn Kogias, Georgios Uzuneser, Taygun C. and Fendt, Markus 2017. Relief learning requires a coincident activation of dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors within the nucleus accumbens. Neuropharmacology, Vol. 114, p. 58.
Chen, C.V. George, S.A. and Liberzon, I. 2017. Hormones, Brain and Behavior.
Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R. Andero, Raül Sawamura, Takehito Jovanovic, Tanja Papini, Santiago Ressler, Kerry J. and Norrholm, Seth Davin 2017. A cross species study of heterogeneity in fear extinction learning in relation to FKBP5 variation and expression: Implications for the acute treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropharmacology, Vol. 116, p. 188.
Orcutt, Holly K. Hannan, Susan M. Seligowski, Antonia V. Jovanovic, Tanja Norrholm, Seth D. Ressler, Kerry J. and McCanne, Thomas 2017. Fear-Potentiated Startle and Fear Extinction in a Sample of Undergraduate Women Exposed to a Campus Mass Shooting. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,
Yuval, Kim Zvielli, Ariel and Bernstein, Amit 2017. Attentional Bias Dynamics and Posttraumatic Stress in Survivors of Violent Conflict and Atrocities. Clinical Psychological Science, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 64.
Clausen, Ashley N. Youngren, Westley Sisante, Jason-Flor V. Billinger, Sandra A. Taylor, Charles and Aupperle, Robin L. 2016. Combat PTSD and Implicit Behavioral Tendencies for Positive Affective Stimuli: A Brief Report. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,
Garcia, Natalia M. and Zoellner, Lori A. 2016. Fear generalisation in individuals with high neuroticism: increasing predictability is not necessarily better. Cognition and Emotion, p. 1.
Greco, John A and Liberzon, Israel 2016. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 320.
Hartley, N D Gunduz-Cinar, O Halladay, L Bukalo, O Holmes, A and Patel, S 2016. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction. Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 6, Issue. 3, p. e749.
Horn, Sarah R. Charney, Dennis S. and Feder, Adriana 2016. Understanding resilience: New approaches for preventing and treating PTSD. Experimental Neurology, Vol. 284, p. 119.
Schäfer, Judith Bernstein, Amit Zvielli, Ariel Höfler, Michael Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich and Schönfeld, Sabine 2016. ATTENTIONAL BIAS TEMPORAL DYNAMICS PREDICT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS: A PROSPECTIVE-LONGITUDINAL STUDY AMONG SOLDIERS. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 33, Issue. 7, p. 630.
Solberg, Ø. Birkeland, M. S. Blix, I. Hansen, M. B. and Heir, T. 2016. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 46, Issue. 15, p. 3241.
van Rooij, Sanne J H Kennis, Mitzy Vink, Matthijs and Geuze, Elbert 2016. Predicting Treatment Outcome in PTSD: A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study on Trauma-Unrelated Emotional Processing. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 1156.
Zuj, Daniel V. Palmer, Matthew A. Lommen, Miriam J.J. and Felmingham, Kim L. 2016. The centrality of fear extinction in linking risk factors to PTSD: A narrative review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 69, p. 15.
Almli, Lynn M. Stevens, Jennifer S. Smith, Alicia K. Kilaru, Varun Meng, Qian Flory, Janine Abu-Amara, Duna Hammamieh, Rasha Yang, Ruoting Mercer, Kristina B. Binder, Elizabeth B. Bradley, Bekh Hamilton, Steven Jett, Marti Yehuda, Rachel Marmar, Charles R. and Ressler, Kerry J. 2015. A genome-wide identified risk variant for PTSD is a methylation quantitative trait locus and confers decreased cortical activation to fearful faces. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 168, Issue. 5, p. 327.
Cascardi, Michele Armstrong, Davine Chung, Leeyup and Paré, Denis 2015. Pupil Response to Threat in Trauma-Exposed Individuals With or Without PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 370.
Cisler, Josh M. Bush, Keith Scott Steele, J. Lenow, Jennifer K. Smitherman, Sonet and Kilts, Clinton D. 2015. Brain and behavioral evidence for altered social learning mechanisms among women with assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 63, p. 75.
Fani, Negar King, Tricia Z. Brewster, Ryan Srivastava, Amita Stevens, Jennifer S. Glover, Ebony M. Norrholm, Seth D. Bradley, Bekh Ressler, Kerry J. and Jovanovic, Tanja 2015. Fear-potentiated startle during extinction is associated with white matter microstructure and functional connectivity. Cortex, Vol. 64, p. 249.
Lin, T. Vaisvaser, S. Fruchter, E. Admon, R. Wald, I. Pine, D. S. Bar-Haim, Y. and Hendler, T. 2015. A neurobehavioral account for individual differences in resilience to chronic military stress. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 45, Issue. 05, p. 1011.
Neumeister, Alexander Seidel, Jordan Ragen, Benjamin J. and Pietrzak, Robert H. 2015. Translational evidence for a role of endocannabinoids in the etiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 51, p. 577.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in a minority of traumatized individuals. Attention biases to threat and abnormalities in fear learning and extinction are processes likely to play a critical role in the creation and/or maintenance of PTSD symptomatology. However, the relationship between these processes has not been established, particularly in highly traumatized populations; understanding their interaction can help inform neural network models and treatments for PTSD.
Attention biases were measured using a dot probe task modified for use with our population; task stimuli included photographs of angry facial expressions, which are emotionally salient threat signals. A fear-potentiated startle paradigm was employed to measure atypical physiological response during acquisition and extinction phases of fear learning. These measures were administered to a sample of 64 minority (largely African American), highly traumatized individuals with and without PTSD.
Participants with PTSD demonstrated attention biases toward threat; this attentional style was associated with exaggerated startle response during fear learning and early and middle phases of extinction, even after accounting for the effects of trauma exposure.
Our findings indicate that an attentional bias toward threat is associated with abnormalities in ‘fear load’ in PTSD, providing seminal evidence for an interaction between these two processes. Future research combining these behavioral and psychophysiological techniques with neuroimaging will be useful toward addressing how one process may modulate the other and understanding whether these phenomena are manifestations of dysfunction within a shared neural network. Ultimately, this may serve to inform PTSD treatments specifically designed to correct these atypical processes.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.