Skip to main content Accessibility help

Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of in vivo microglial imaging studies

  • Tiago Reis Marques (a1) (a2), Abhishekh H Ashok (a1) (a2) (a3), Toby Pillinger (a3), Mattia Veronese (a4), Federico E. Turkheimer (a4), Paola Dazzan (a4), Iris E.C. Sommer (a5) and Oliver D Howes (a1) (a2) (a3)...

Converging lines of evidence implicate an important role for the immune system in schizophrenia. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and have many functions including neuroinflammation, axonal guidance and neurotrophic support. We aimed to provide a quantitative review of in vivo PET imaging studies of microglia activation in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls.


Demographic, clinical and imaging measures were extracted from each study and meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model (Hedge's g). The difference in 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) binding between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, as quantified by either binding potential (BP) or volume of distribution (VT), was used as the main outcome. Sub-analysis and sensitivity analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of genotype, ligand and illness stage.


In total, 12 studies comprising 190 patients with schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls met inclusion criteria. There was a significant elevation in tracer binding in schizophrenia patients relative to controls when BP was used as an outcome measure, (Hedge's g = 0.31; p = 0.03) but no significant differences when VT was used (Hedge's g = −0.22; p = 0.29).


In conclusion, there is evidence for moderate elevations in TSPO tracer binding in grey matter relative to other brain tissue in schizophrenia when using BP as an outcome measure, but no difference when VT is the outcome measure. We discuss the relevance of these findings as well as the methodological issues that may underlie the contrasting difference between these outcomes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of in vivo microglial imaging studies
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of in vivo microglial imaging studies
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of in vivo microglial imaging studies
      Available formats
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Tiago Reis Marques, E-mail:
Hide All
Ashok, AH, Mizuno, Y, Volkow, ND and Howes, OD (2017) Association of stimulant use with dopaminergic alterations in users of cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 511519.
Banati, R and Hickie, IB (2009) Therapeutic signposts: using biomarkers to guide better treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Medical Journal of Australia 190, S26S32.
Bayer, TA, Buslei, R, Havas, L and Falkai, P (1999) Evidence for activation of microglia in patients with psychiatric illnesses. Neuroscience Letters 271, 126128.
Benros, ME, Nielsen, PR, Nordentoft, M, Eaton, WW, Dalton, SO and Mortensen, PB (2011) Autoimmune diseases and severe infections as risk factors for schizophrenia: a 30-year population-based register study. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 13031310.
Benros, ME, Eaton, WW and Mortensen, PB (2014) The epidemiologic evidence linking autoimmune diseases and psychosis. Biological Psychiatry 75, 300306.
Bloomfield, PS, Howes, OD, Turkheimer, F, Selvaraj, S and Veronese, M (2016a) Response to Narendran and Frankle: the interpretation of PET microglial imaging in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 537538.
Bloomfield, PS, Selvaraj, S, Veronese, M, Rizzo, G, Bertoldo, A, Owen, DR, Bloomfield, MA, Bonoldi, I, Kalk, N, Turkheimer, F, McGuire, P, de Paola, V and Howes, OD (2016b) Microglial activity in people at ultra high risk of psychosis and in schizophrenia: an [(11)C]PBR28 PET brain imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 4452.
Calcia, MA, Bonsall, DR, Bloomfield, PS, Selvaraj, S, Barichello, T and Howes, OD (2016) Stress and neuroinflammation: a systematic review of the effects of stress on microglia and the implications for mental illness. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 233, 16371650.
Collste, K, Plaven-Sigray, P, Fatouros-Bergman, H, Victorsson, P, Schain, M, Forsberg, A, Amini, N, Aeinehband, S; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) consortium, Erhardt, S, Halldin, C, Flyckt, L, Farde, L and Cervenka, S (2017) Lower levels of the glial cell marker TSPO in drug-naive first-episode psychosis patients as measured using PET and [(11)C]PBR28. Molecular Psychiatry 22, 850856.
Cosenza-Nashat, M, Zhao, ML, Suh, HS, Morgan, J, Natividad, R, Morgello, S and Lee, SC (2009) Expression of the translocator protein of 18 kDa by microglia, macrophages and astrocytes based on immunohistochemical localization in abnormal human brain. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 35, 306328.
Cotel, MC, Lenartowicz, EM, Natesan, S, Modo, MM, Cooper, JD, Williams, SC, Kapur, S and Vernon, AC (2015) Microglial activation in the rat brain following chronic antipsychotic treatment at clinically relevant doses. European Neuropsychopharmacology 25, 20982107.
Coughlin, JM, Wang, Y, Ambinder, EB, Ward, RE, Minn, I, Vranesic, M, Kim, PK, Ford, CN, Higgs, C, Hayes, LN, Schretlen, DJ, Dannals, RF, Kassiou, M, Sawa, A and Pomper, MG (2016) In vivo markers of inflammatory response in recent-onset schizophrenia: a combined study using [(11)C]DPA-713 PET and analysis of CSF and plasma. Translational Psychiatry 12, e777.
Crum, WR, Danckaers, F, Huysmans, T, Cotel, MC, Natesan, S, Modo, MM, Sijbers, J, Williams, SC, Kapur, S and Vernon, AC (2016) Chronic exposure to haloperidol and olanzapine leads to common and divergent shape changes in the rat hippocampus in the absence of grey-matter volume loss. Psychological Medicine 46, 30813093.
Cumming, P, Burgher, B, Patkar, O, Breakspear, M, Vasdev, N, Thomas, P, Liu, GJ and Banati, R (2018) Sifting through the surfeit of neuroinflammation tracers. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 38, 204224.
Di Biase, MA, Zalesky, A, O'Keefe, G, Laskaris, L, Baune, BT, Weickert, CSL, Olver, J, McGorry, PD, Amminger, GP, Nelson, B, Scott, AM, Hickie, I, Banati, R, Turkheimer, F, Yaqub, M, Everall, IP, Pantelis, C and Cropley, V (2017) PET imaging of putative microglial activation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis, recently diagnosed and chronically ill with schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry 7, e1225.
Dickerson, F, Stallings, C, Origoni, A, Schroeder, J, Katsafanas, E, Schweinfurth, L, Savage, C, Khushalani, S and Yolken, R (2016) Inflammatory markers in recent onset psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 134141.
Doorduin, J, de Vries, EF, Willemsen, AT, de Groot, JC, Dierckx, RA and Klein, HC (2009) Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia-related psychosis: a PET study. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 50, 18011807.
Fujita, M, Imaizumi, M, Zoghbi, SS, Fujimura, Y, Farris, AG, Suhara, T, Hong, J, Pike, VW and Innis, RB (2008) Kinetic analysis in healthy humans of a novel positron emission tomography radioligand to image the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, a potential biomarker for inflammation. Neuroimage 40, 4352.
Gavish, M, Weizman, A, Karp, L, Tyano, S and Tanne, Z (1986) Decreased peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in platelets of neuroleptic-treated schizophrenics. European Journal of Pharmacology 121, 275279.
Guo, Q, Owen, DR, Rabiner, EA, Turkheimer, FE and Gunn, RN (2012) Identifying improved TSPO PET imaging probes through biomathematics: the impact of multiple TSPO binding sites in vivo. Neuroimage 60, 902910.
Hafizi, S, Tseng, HH, Rao, N, Selvanathan, T, Kenk, M, Bazinet, RP, Suridjan, I, Wilson, AA, Meyer, JH, Remington, G, Houle, S, Rusjan, PM and Mizrahi, R (2016) Imaging microglial activation in untreated first-episode psychosis: a PET study with [18F]FEPPA. American Journal of Psychiatry 174, 118124.
Hafizi, S, Da Silva, T, Gerritsen, C, Kiang, M, Bagby, RM, Prce, I, Wilson, AA, Houle, S, Rusjan, PM and Mizrahi, R (2017) Imaging Microglial Activation in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: an In Vivo PET Study with [18F]FEPPA. Neuropsychopharmacology 42, 24742481.
Holmes, SE, Hinz, R, Drake, RJ, Gregory, CJ, Conen, S, Matthews, JC, Anton-Rodriguez, JM, Gerhard, A and Talbot, PS (2016) In vivo imaging of brain microglial activity in antipsychotic-free and medicated schizophrenia: a [11C](R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography study. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 16721679.
Howes, OD and Kapur, S (2014) A neurobiological hypothesis for the classification of schizophrenia: type A (hyperdopaminergic) and type B (normodopaminergic). British Journal of Psychiatry 205, 13.
Howes, OD, Kambeitz, J, Kim, E, Stahl, D, Slifstein, M, Abi-Dargham, A and Kapur, S (2012) The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 776786.
Innis, RB, Cunningham, VJ, Delforge, J, Fujita, M, Gjedde, A, Gunn, RN, Holden, J, Houle, S, Huang, SC, Ichise, M, Iida, H, Ito, H, Kimura, Y, Koeppe, RA, Knudsen, GM, Knuuti, J, Lammertsma, AA, Laruelle, M, Logan, J, Maguire, RP, Mintun, MA, Morris, ED, Parsey, R, Price, JC, Slifstein, M, Sossi, V, Suhara, T, Votaw, JR, Wong, DF and Carson, RE (2007) Consensus nomenclature for in vivo imaging of reversibly binding radioligands. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 27, 15331539.
Juckel, G, Manitz, MP, Brune, M, Friebe, A, Heneka, MT and Wolf, RJ (2011) Microglial activation in a neuroinflammational animal model of schizophrenia – a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research 131, 96100.
Kambeitz, J, Abi-Dargham, A, Kapur, S and Howes, OD (2014) Alterations in cortical and extrastriatal subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 204, 420429.
Kenk, M, Selvanathan, T, Rao, N, Suridjan, I, Rusjan, P, Remington, G, Meyer, JH, Wilson, AA, Houle, S and Mizrahi, R (2015) Imaging neuroinflammation in gray and white matter in schizophrenia: an in-vivo PET study with [18F]-FEPPA. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 8593.
Khandaker, GM, Zimbron, J, Dalman, C, Lewis, G and Jones, PB (2012) Childhood infection and adult schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of population-based studies. Schizophrenia Research 139, 161168.
Khandaker, GM, Zimbron, J, Lewis, G and Jones, PB (2013) Prenatal maternal infection, neurodevelopment and adult schizophrenia: a systematic review of population-based studies. Psychological Medicine 43, 239257.
Kreisl, WC, Jenko, KJ, Hines, CS, Lyoo, CH, Corona, W, Morse, CL, Zoghbi, SS, Hyde, T, Kleinman, JE, Pike, VW, McMahon, FJ and Innis, RB and Biomarkers Consortium PET Radioligand Project Team (2013) A genetic polymorphism for translocator protein 18 kDa affects both in vitro and in vivo radioligand binding in human brain to this putative biomarker of neuroinflammation. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 33, 5358.
Lockhart, A, Davis, B, Matthews, JC, Rahmoune, H, Hong, G, Gee, A, Earnshaw, D and Brown, J (2003) The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand PK11195 binds with high affinity to the acute phase reactant alpha1-acid glycoprotein: implications for the use of the ligand as a CNS inflammatory marker. Nuclear Medicine and Biology 30, 199206.
Meyer, U (2013) Developmental neuroinflammation and schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 42, 2034.
Miller, BJ, Graham, KL, Bodenheimer, CM, Culpepper, NH, Waller, JL and Buckley, PF (2013) A prevalence study of urinary tract infections in acute relapse of schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 74, 271277.
Mintun, MA, Raichle, ME, Kilbourn, MR, Wooten, GF and Welch, MJ (1984) A quantitative model for the in vivo assessment of drug binding sites with positron emission tomography. Annals of Neurology 15, 217227.
Mondelli, V, Ciufolini, S, Belvederi Murri, M, Bonaccorso, S, Di Forti, M, Giordano, A, Marques, TR, Zunszain, PA, Morgan, C, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM and Dazzan, P (2015) Cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers predict poor treatment response in first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 11621170.
Narayan, N, Mandhair, H, Smyth, E, Dakin, SG, Kiriakidis, S, Wells, L, Owen, D, Sabokbar, A and Taylor, P (2017) The macrophage marker translocator protein (TSPO) is down-regulated on pro-inflammatory ‘M1’ human macrophages. PLoS ONE 12, e0185767.
Narendran, R and Frankle, WG (2016) Comment on analyses and conclusions of “microglial activity in people at ultra high risk of psychosis and in schizophrenia: an [(11)C]PBR28 PET brain imaging study”. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 536537.
Notter, T, Coughlin, JM, Gschwind, T, Weber-Stadlbauer, U, Wang, Y, Kassiou, M, Vernon, AC, Benke, D, Pomper, MG, Sawa, A and Meyer, U (2018) Translational evaluation of translocator protein as a marker of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 23, 323334.
Ottoy, J, De Picker, L, Verhaeghe, J, Deleye, S, Wyffels, L, Kosten, L, Sabbe, B, Coppens, V, Timmers, M, van Nueten, L, Ceyssens, S, Stroobants, S, Morrens, M and Staelens, S (2018) [(18)F]PBR111 PET imaging in healthy controls and schizophrenia: test–retest reproducibility and quantification of neuroinflammation. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 59, 12671274.
Owen, DR, Yeo, AJ, Gunn, RN, Song, K, Wadsworth, G, Wadsworth, G, Lewis, A, Rhodes, C, Pulford, DJ, Bennacef, I, Parker, CA, StJean, PL, Cardon, LR, Mooser, VE, Matthews, PM, Rabiner, EA and Rubio, JP (2012) An 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) polymorphism explains differences in binding affinity of the PET radioligand PBR28. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 32, 15.
Plaven-Sigray, P, Matheson, GJ, Collste, K, Ashok, AH, Coughlin, JM, Mizrahi, R, Pomper, MG, Rusjan, P, Veronese, M, Wang, Y and Cervenka, S (2018) Positron emission tomography studies of the glial cell marker translocator protein in patients with psychosis: a meta-analysis using individual participant data. Biological Psychiatry 84, 433442.
Radewicz, K, Garey, LJ, Gentleman, SM and Reynolds, R (2000) Increase in HLA-DR immunoreactive microglia in frontal and temporal cortex of chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology 59, 137150.
Rizzo, G, Veronese, M, Tonietto, M, Zanotti-Fregonara, P, Turkheimer, FE and Bertoldo, A (2014) Kinetic modeling without accounting for the vascular component impairs the quantification of [(11)C]PBR28 brain PET data. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 34, 10601069.
Sasayama, D, Hattori, K, Wakabayashi, C, Teraishi, T, Hori, H, Ota, M, Yoshida, S, Arima, K, Higuchi, T, Amano, N and Kunugi, H (2013) Increased cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 levels in patients with schizophrenia and those with major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research 47, 401406.
Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics, C (2014) Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 511, 421427.
Schmitt, A, Bertsch, T, Henning, U, Tost, H, Klimke, A, Henn, FA and Falkai, P (2005) Increased serum S100B in elderly, chronic schizophrenic patients: negative correlation with deficit symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 80, 305313.
Schwieler, L, Larsson, MK, Skogh, E, Kegel, ME, Orhan, F, Abdelmoaty, S, Finn, A, Bhat, M, Samuelsson, M, Lundberg, K, Dahl, ML, Sellgren, C, Schuppe-Koistinen, I, Svensson, C, Erhardt, S and Engberg, G (2015) Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia – significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience 40, 126133.
Sekar, A, Bialas, AR, de Rivera, H, Davis, A, Hammond, TR, Kamitaki, N, Tooley, K, Presumey, J, Baum, M, Van Doren, V, Genovese, G, Rose, SA, Handsaker, RE, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Daly, MJ, Carroll, MC, Stevens, B and McCarroll, SA (2016) Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature 530, 177183.
Soderlund, J, Schroder, J, Nordin, C, Samuelsson, M, Walther-Jallow, L, Karlsson, H, Erhardt, S and Engberg, G (2009) Activation of brain interleukin-1beta in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 14, 10691071.
Stefansson, H, Ophoff, RA, Steinberg, S, Andreassen, OA, Cichon, S, Rujescu, D, Werge, T, Pietiläinen, OP, Mors, O, Mortensen, PB, Sigurdsson, E, Gustafsson, O, Nyegaard, M, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Ingason, A, Hansen, T, Suvisaari, J, Lonnqvist, J, Paunio, T, Børglum, AD, Hartmann, A, Fink-Jensen, A, Nordentoft, M, Hougaard, D, Norgaard-Pedersen, B, Böttcher, Y, Olesen, J, Breuer, R, Möller, HJ, Giegling, I, Rasmussen, HB, Timm, S, Mattheisen, M, Bitter, I, Réthelyi, JM, Magnusdottir, BB, Sigmundsson, T, Olason, P, Masson, G, Gulcher, JR, Haraldsson, M, Fossdal, R, Thorgeirsson, TE, Thorsteinsdottir, U, Ruggeri, M, Tosato, S, Franke, B, Strengman, E, Kiemeney, LA, Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP), Melle, I, Djurovic, S, Abramova, L, Kaleda, V, Sanjuan, J, de Frutos, R, Bramon, E, Vassos, E, Fraser, G, Ettinger, U, Picchioni, M, Walker, N, Toulopoulou, T, Need, AC, Ge, D, Yoon, JL, Shianna, KV, Freimer, NB, Cantor, RM, Murray, R, Kong, A, Golimbet, V, Carracedo, A, Arango, C, Costas, J, Jönsson, EG, Terenius, L, Agartz, I, Petursson, H, Nöthen, MM, Rietschel, M, Matthews, PM, Muglia, P, Peltonen, L, St Clair, D, Goldstein, DB, Stefansson, K and Collier, DA (2009) Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. Nature 460, 744747.
Steiner, J, Mawrin, C, Ziegeler, A, Bielau, H, Ullrich, O, Bernstein, HG and Bogerts, B (2006) Distribution of HLA-DR-positive microglia in schizophrenia reflects impaired cerebral lateralization. Acta Neuropathologica 112, 305316.
Takano, A, Arakawa, R, Ito, H, Tateno, A, Takahashi, H, Matsumoto, R, Okubo, Y and Suhara, T (2010) Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a PET study with [11C]DAA1106. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 13, 943950.
Telford, JE, Bones, J, McManus, C, Saldova, R, Manning, G, Doherty, M, Leweke, FM, Rothermundt, M, Guest, PC, Rahmoune, H, Bahn, S and Rudd, PM (2012) Antipsychotic treatment of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients with olanzapine results in altered glycosylation of serum glycoproteins. Journal of Proteome Research 11, 37433752.
Tourjman, V, Kouassi, E, Koue, ME, Rocchetti, M, Fortin-Fournier, S, Fusar-Poli, P and Potvin, S (2013) Antipsychotics’ effects on blood levels of cytokines in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 151, 4347.
Trepanier, MO, Hopperton, KE, Mizrahi, R, Mechawar, N and Bazinet, RP (2016) Postmortem evidence of cerebral inflammation in schizophrenia: a systematic review. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 10091026.
Turkheimer, FE, Rizzo, G, Bloomfield, PS, Howes, O, Zanotti-Fregonara, P, Bertoldo, A and Veronese, M (2015) The methodology of TSPO imaging with positron emission tomography. Biochemical Society Transactions 43, 586592.
Upthegrove, R, Manzanares-Teson, N and Barnes, NM (2014) Cytokine function in medication-naive first episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 155, 101108.
van Berckel, BN, Bossong, MG, Boellaard, R, Kloet, R, Schuitemaker, A, Caspers, E, Luurtsema, G, Windhorst, AD, Cahn, W, Lammertsma, AA and Kahn, RS (2008) Microglia activation in recent-onset schizophrenia: a quantitative (R)-[11C]PK11195 positron emission tomography study. Biological Psychiatry 64, 820822.
van der Doef, TF, de Witte, LD, Sutterland, AL, Jobse, E, Yaqub, M, Boellaard, R, de Haan, L, Eriksson, J, Lammertsma, AA, Kahn, RS and van Berckel, BN (2016) In vivo (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 PET imaging of 18 kDa translocator protein in recent onset psychosis. NPJ Schizophrenia 2, 16031.
van Kesteren, CF, Gremmels, H, de Witte, LD, Hol, EH, Van Gool, AH, Falkai, PH, Kahn, RS and Sommer, IE (2017) Immune involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis on post-mortem brain studies. Translational Psychiatry 7, e1075.
Weizman, R, Tanne, Z, Karp, L, Tyano, S and Gavish, M (1986) Peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding sites in platelets of schizophrenics with and without tardive dyskinesia. Life Sciences 39, 549555.
Wodarz, N, Rothenhofer, C, Fischer, R, Stober, G, Kiehl, B, Jungkunz, G, Riederer, P and Klein, HE (1998) Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in diagnostic subtypes of schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research 81, 363369.
Zheng, LT, Hwang, J, Ock, J, Lee, MG, Lee, WH and Suk, K (2008) The antipsychotic spiperone attenuates inflammatory response in cultured microglia via the reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression and nitric oxide production. Journal of Neurochemistry 107, 12251235.
Zhu, F, Zheng, Y, Ding, YQ, Liu, Y, Zhang, X, Wu, R, Guo, X and Zhao, J (2014) Minocycline and risperidone prevent microglia activation and rescue behavioral deficits induced by neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide in rats. PLoS ONE 9, e93966.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Marques et al. supplementary material
Marques et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (206 KB)
206 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed