Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Set-shifting ability across the spectrum of eating disorders and in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • M. Wu (a1), T. Brockmeyer (a1), M. Hartmann (a1), M. Skunde (a1), W. Herzog (a1) and H.-C. Friederich (a1)...

Abstract

Background.

In this meta-analysis we review the findings from neuropsychological studies on set-shifting in people with eating disorders (EDs) or overweight/obesity.

Method.

Four databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Web of Science) were searched for eligible studies. Effect sizes (ESs) were pooled using random-effects models. Moderator analyses were conducted for ED and overweight/obese subgroups, adult/adolescent samples and measures of set-shifting.

Results.

Sixty-four studies with a total of 1825 ED patients [1394 anorexia nervosa (AN), 376 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 55 binge eating disorder (BED)] and 10 studies with a total of 449 overweight/obese individuals were included. The meta-analysis revealed a small to medium ES for inefficient set-shifting across all three ED diagnoses (Hedges’ g = –0.45). Subgroup analyses yielded small to medium ESs for each ED subtype (g = –0.44 for AN, –0.53 for BED, –0.50 for BN), which did not differ significantly. There was a medium ES for restricting type AN (ANR; g = –0.51) but no significant ES for binge/purge type AN (AN/BP; g = –0.18). A medium ES was found across obesity studies (g = –0.61). The ES across overweight studies was not significant (g = –0.07). Adult samples did not differ from adolescent samples in either ED or overweight/obesity studies. The different set-shifting measures were associated with largely varying ESs.

Conclusions.

The meta-analysis provides strong support that inefficient set-shifting is a salient neuropsychological phenomenon across ED subtypes and obesity, but is less prominent in AN/BP and overweight. Compulsivity seems to be a common underlying factor supporting a dimensional and transdiagnostic conceptualization of EDs and obesity.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: T. Brockmeyer, Ph.D., Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. (Email: timo.brockmeyer@med.uni-heidelberg.de)

References

Hide All
Abbate-Daga, G, Buzzichelli, S, Amianto, F, Rocca, G, Marzola, E, McClintock, SM, Fassino, S (2011). Cognitive flexibility in verbal and nonverbal domains and decision making in anorexia nervosa patients: a pilot study. BMC Psychiatry 11, 162.
Alvarez-Moya, EM, Jimenez-Murcia, S, Moragas, L, Gomez-Pena, M, Aymami, MN, Ochoa, C, Sanchez-Diaz, I, Menchon, JM, Fernandez-Aranda, F (2009). Executive functioning among female pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients: preliminary findings. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 15, 302306.
Anderluh, MB, Tchanturia, K, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Treasure, J (2003). Childhood obsessive-compulsive personality traits in adult women with eating disorders: defining a broader eating disorder phenotype. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 242247.
Andrés-Perpiña, S, Lozano-Serra, E, Puig, O, Lera-Miguel, S, Lázaro, L, Castro-Fornieles, J (2011). Clinical and biological correlates of adolescent anorexia nervosa with impaired cognitive profile. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 20, 541549.
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association: Arlington, VA.
Ariza, M, Garolera, M, Jurado, MA, Garcia-Garcia, I, Hernan, I, Sánchez-Garre, C, Vernet-Vernet, M, Sender-Palacios, MJ, Marques-Iturria, I, Pueyo, R, Segura, B, Narberhaus, A (2012). Dopamine genes (DRD2/ANKK1-TaqA1 and DRD4-7R) and executive function: their interaction with obesity. PLoS One 7, e41482.
Bardone-Cone, AM, Wonderlich, SA, Frost, RO, Bulik, CM, Mitchell, JE, Uppala, S, Simonich, H (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review 27, 384405.
Baumgartner, RN, Heymsfield, SB, Roche, AF (1995). Human body composition and the epidemiology of chronic disease. Obesity Research 3, 7395.
Bienvenu, OJ, Samuels, JF, Riddle, MA, Hoehn-Saric, R, Liang, KY, Cullen, BA, Grados, MA, Nestadt, G (2000). The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study. Biological Psychiatry 48, 287293.
Bischoff-Grethe, A, McCurdy, D, Grenesko-Stevens, E, Irvine, LE, Wagner, A, Yau, WY, Fennema-Notestine, C, Wierenga, CE, Fudge, JL, Delgado, MR, Kaye, WH (2013). Altered brain response to reward and punishment in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research 214, 331340.
Brand, M, Franke-Sievert, C, Jacoby, GE, Markowitsch, HJ, Tuschen-Caffier, B (2007). Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa. Neuropsychology 21, 742750.
Brockmeyer, T, Ingenerf, K, Walther, S, Wild, B, Hartmann, M, Herzog, W, Bents, H, Friederich, H-C (2014). Training cognitive flexibility in patients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation therapy. International Journal of Eating Disorders 47, 2431.
Buhren, K, Mainz, V, Herpertz-Dahlmann, B, Schafer, K, Kahraman-Lanzerath, B, Lente, C, Konrad, K (2012). Cognitive flexibility in juvenile anorexia nervosa patients before and after weight recovery. Journal of Neural Transmission 119, 10471057.
Bulik, CM, Sullivan, PF, Kendler, KS (2003). Genetic and environmental contributions to obesity and binge eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders 33, 293298.
Burgess, P, Shallice, T (1997). The Hayling and Brixton Tests. Thames Valley Test Company: Bury St Edmunds.
Cassin, SE, von Ranson, KM (2005). Personality and eating disorders: a decade in review. Clinical Psychology Review 25, 895916.
Castellini, G, Lo Sauro, C, Mannucci, E, Ravaldi, C, Rotella, CM, Faravelli, C, Ricca, V (2011). Diagnostic crossover and outcome predictors in eating disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-V proposed criteria: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychosomatic Medicine 73, 270279.
Castro-Fornieles, J, Bargallo, N, Lazaro, L, Andres, S, Falcon, C, Plana, MT, Junque, C (2007). Adolescent anorexia nervosa: cross-sectional and follow-up frontal gray matter disturbances detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Psychiatric Research 41, 952958.
Cavedini, P, Bassi, T, Ubbiali, A, Casolari, A, Giordani, S, Zorzi, C, Bellodi, L (2004). Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research 127, 259266.
Cavedini, P, Zorzi, C, Bassi, T, Gorini, A, Baraldi, C, Ubbiali, A, Bellodi, L (2006). Decision-making functioning as a predictor of treatment outcome in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research 145, 179187.
Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Blackwell, AD, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ (2006). Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 12821284.
Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Menzies, LA, Blackwell, AD, Bullmore, ET, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ (2007). Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 335338.
Cohen, JI, Yates, KF, Duong, M, Convit, A (2011). Obesity, orbitofrontal structure and function are associated with food choice: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 1, e000175.
Crowe, SF (1998). The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts A and B of the Trail Making Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology 54, 585591.
Cserjési, R, Luminet, O, Poncelet, AS, Lenard, L (2009). Altered executive function in obesity. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities. Appetite 52, 535539.
Cserjési, R, Molnar, D, Luminet, O, Lenard, L (2007). Is there any relationship between obesity and mental flexibility in children? Appetite 49, 675678.
Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW (2011). Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron 69, 680694.
Danner, UN, Sanders, N, Smeets, PA, van Meer, F, Adan, RA, Hoek, HW, van Elburg, AA (2012). Neuropsychological weaknesses in anorexia nervosa: set-shifting, central coherence, and decision making in currently ill and recovered women. International Journal of Eating Disorders 45, 685694.
Darcy, AM, Fitzpatrick, KK, Colborn, D, Manasse, S, Datta, N, Aspen, V, Shields, CS, Le Grange, D, Lock, J (2012). Set-shifting among adolescents with bulimic spectrum eating disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine 74, 869872.
Delis, D, Kaplan, E, Kramer, J (2001). Delis–Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS): Examiner's Manual . The Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX.
Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M, Skibinska, M, Slopien, A, Tyszkiewicz, M, Pawlak, J, Maciukiewicz, M, Zaremba, D, Rajewski, A, Hauser, J (2013). Serum neurotrophin concentrations in Polish adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychobiology 67, 2532.
Duchesne, M, Mattos, P, Appolinario, JC, de Freitas, SR, Coutinho, G, Santos, C, Coutinho, W (2010). Assessment of executive functions in obese individuals with binge eating disorder. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatrica 32, 381388.
Eddy, KT, Dorer, DJ, Franko, DL, Tahilani, K, Thompson-Brenner, H, Herzog, DB (2008). Diagnostic crossover in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: implications for DSM-V. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 245250.
Fagundo, AB, de la Torre, R, Jimenez-Murcia, S, Aguera, Z, Granero, R, Tarrega, S, Botella, C, Banos, R, Fernandez-Real, JM, Rodriguez, R, Forcano, L, Fruhbeck, G, Gomez-Ambrosi, J, Tinahones, FJ, Fernandez-Garcia, JC, Casanueva, FF, Fernandez-Aranda, F (2012). Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity. PLoS One 7, e43382.
Fairburn, CG, Cooper, Z, Shafran, R (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a ‘transdiagnostic’ theory and treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy 41, 509528.
Fassino, S, Piero, A, Daga, GA, Leombruni, P, Mortara, P, Rovera, GG (2002). Attentional biases and frontal functioning in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 31, 274283.
Fergenbaum, JH, Bruce, S, Lou, W, Hanley, AJ, Greenwood, C, Young, TK (2009). Obesity and lowered cognitive performance in a Canadian First Nations population. Obesity 17, 19571963.
Fitzpatrick, S, Gilbert, S, Serpell, L (2013). Systematic review: are overweight and obese individuals impaired on behavioural tasks of executive functioning? Neuropsychology Review 23, 138156.
Fowler, L, Blackwell, A, Jaffa, A, Palmer, R, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ, Dowson, JH (2006). Profile of neurocognitive impairments associated with female in-patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine 36, 517527.
Freedman, M (1990). Object alternation and orbitofrontal system dysfunction in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Brain and Cognition 14, 134143.
Friederich, HC, Herzog, W (2011). Cognitive-behavioral flexibility in anorexia nervosa. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 6, 111123.
Friederich, HC, Walther, S, Bendszus, M, Biller, A, Thomann, P, Zeigermann, S, Katus, T, Brunner, R, Zastrow, A, Herzog, W (2012). Grey matter abnormalities within cortico-limbic-striatal circuits in acute and weight-restored anorexia nervosa patients. NeuroImage 59, 11061113.
Galderisi, S, Bucci, P, Mucci, A, Bellodi, L, Cassano, GB, Santonastaso, P, Erzegovesi, S, Favaro, A, Mauri, M, Monteleone, P, Maj, M (2011). Neurocognitive functioning in bulimia nervosa: the role of neuroendocrine, personality and clinical aspects. Psychological Medicine 41, 839848.
Galimberti, E, Fadda, E, Cavallini, MC, Martoni, RM, Erzegovesi, S, Bellodi, L (2013). Executive functioning in anorexia nervosa patients and their unaffected relatives. Psychiatry Research 208, 238244.
Galimberti, E, Martoni, RM, Cavallini, MC, Erzegovesi, S, Bellodi, L (2012). Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in eating disorder subtypes. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 36, 307312.
Garcia-Garcia, I, Jurado, MA, Garolera, M, Segura, B, Sala-Llonch, R, Marques-Iturria, I, Pueyo, R, Sender-Palacios, MJ, Vernet-Vernet, M, Narberhaus, A, Ariza, M, Junque, C (2013). Alterations of the salience network in obesity: a resting-state fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping 34, 27862797.
Giel, KE, Friederich, HC, Teufel, M, Hautzinger, M, Enck, P, Zipfel, S (2011). Attentional processing of food pictures in individuals with anorexia nervosa – an eye-tracking study. Biological Psychiatry 69, 661667.
Giel, KE, Wittorf, A, Wolkenstein, L, Klingberg, S, Drimmer, E, Schonenberg, M, Rapp, AM, Fallgatter, AJ, Hautzinger, M, Zipfel, S (2012). Is impaired set-shifting a feature of ‘pure’ anorexia nervosa? Investigating the role of depression in set-shifting ability in anorexia nervosa and unipolar depression. Psychiatry Research 200, 538543.
Gillberg, IC, Rastam, M, Wentz, E, Gillberg, C (2007). Cognitive and executive functions in anorexia nervosa ten years after onset of eating disorder. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 29, 170178.
Goldschmidt, AB, Aspen, VP, Sinton, MM, Tanofsky-Kraff, M, Wilfley, DE (2008). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in overweight youth. Obesity 16, 257264.
Gonzales, MM, Tarumi, T, Miles, SC, Tanaka, H, Shah, F, Haley, AP (2010). Insulin sensitivity as a mediator of the relationship between BMI and working memory-related brain activation. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 21312137.
Gunstad, J, Paul, RH, Cohen, RA, Tate, DF, Spitznagel, MB, Gordon, E (2007). Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults. Comprehensive Psychiatry 48, 5761.
Haines, J, Kleinman, KP, Rifas-Shiman, SL, Field, AE, Austin, SB (2010). Examination of shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 164, 336343.
Halstead, W (1947). Brain and Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of the Frontal Lobes. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.
Hatch, A, Madden, S, Kohn, MR, Clarke, S, Touyz, S, Gordon, E, Williams, LM (2010). In first presentation adolescent anorexia nervosa, do cognitive markers of underweight status change with weight gain following a refeeding intervention? International Journal of Eating Disorders 43, 295306.
Heaton, RK, Chelune, GJ, Talley, JL, Kay, GG, Curtiss, G (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal 327, 557560.
Hill, AJ (2007). Obesity and eating disorders. Obesity Reviews 8 (Suppl. 1), 151155.
Holliday, J, Tchanturia, K, Landau, S, Collier, D, Treasure, J (2005). Is impaired set-shifting an endophenotype of anorexia nervosa? American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 22692275.
Jones, BP, Duncan, CC, Brouwers, P, Mirsky, AF (1991). Cognition in eating disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 13, 711728.
Kaye, WH, Bulik, CM, Thornton, L, Barbarich, N, Masters, K (2004). Comorbidity of anxiety disorders with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 22152221.
Kim, YR, Kim, JE, Kim, MH (2010). Impaired set-shifting ability in patients with eating disorders, which is not moderated by their catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype. Psychiatry Investigation 7, 298301.
Kingston, K, Szmukler, G, Andrewes, D, Tress, B, Desmond, P (1996). Neuropsychological and structural brain changes in anorexia nervosa before and after refeeding. Psychological Medicine 26, 1528.
Konstantakopoulos, G, Tchanturia, K, Surguladze, SA, David, AS (2011). Insight in eating disorders: clinical and cognitive correlates. Psychological Medicine 41, 19511961.
Lilenfeld, LR, Kaye, WH, Greeno, CG, Merikangas, KR, Plotnicov, K, Pollice, C, Rao, R, Strober, M, Bulik, CM, Nagy, L (1998). A controlled family study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives and effects of proband comorbidity. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 603610.
Lilenfeld, LR, Stein, D, Bulik, CM, Strober, M, Plotnicov, K, Pollice, C, Rao, R, Merikangas, KR, Nagy, L, Kaye, WH (2000). Personality traits among currently eating disordered, recovered and never ill first-degree female relatives of bulimic and control women. Psychological Medicine 30, 13991410.
Lock, J, Agras, WS, Fitzpatrick, KK, Bryson, SW, Jo, B, Tchanturia, K (2013). Is outpatient cognitive remediation therapy feasible to use in randomized clinical trials for anorexia nervosa? International Journal of Eating Disorders 46, 567575.
Lounes, N, Khan, G, Tchanturia, K (2011). Assessment of cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa – self-report or experimental measure? A brief report. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 17, 925928.
Maayan, L, Hoogendoorn, C, Sweat, V, Convit, A (2011). Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Obesity 19, 13821387.
Mataix-Cols, D, Pertusa, A, Leckman, JF (2007). Issues for DSM-V: how should obsessive-compulsive and related disorders be classified? American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 13131314.
Mathias, JL, Kent, PS (1998). Neuropsychological consequences of extreme weight loss and dietary restriction in patients with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 20, 548564.
McAnarney, ER, Zarcone, J, Singh, P, Michels, J, Welsh, S, Litteer, T, Wang, H, Klein, JD (2011). Restrictive anorexia nervosa and set-shifting in adolescents: a biobehavioral interface. Journal of Adolescent Health 49, 99101.
Meade, J, Nam, KB, Beckerman, AP, Hatchwell, BJ (2010). Consequences of ‘load-lightening’ for future indirect fitness gains by helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird. Journal of Animal Ecology 79, 529537.
Miyake, A, Friedman, NP, Emerson, MJ, Witzki, AH, Howerter, A, Wager, TD (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex ‘Frontal Lobe’ tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology 41, 49100.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG; PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Open Medicine 3, e123e130.
Monteleone, P, Di Genio, M, Monteleone, AM, Di Filippo, C, Maj, M (2011). Investigation of factors associated to crossover from anorexia nervosa restricting type (ANR) and anorexia nervosa binge-purging type (ANBP) to bulimia nervosa and comparison of bulimia nervosa patients with or without previous ANR or ANBP. Comprehensive Psychiatry 52, 5662.
Mount, R, Neziroglu, F, Taylor, CJ (1990). An obsessive-compulsive view of obesity as its treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology 46, 6878.
Murphy, R, Nutzinger, DO, Paul, T, Leplow, B (2002). Dissociated conditional-associative learning in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 24, 176186.
Murphy, R, Nutzinger, DO, Paul, T, Leplow, B (2004). Conditional-associative learning in eating disorders: a comparison with OCD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 26, 190199.
Nakazato, M, Hashimoto, K, Schmidt, U, Tchanturia, K, Campbell, IC, Collier, DA, Iyo, M, Treasure, J (2010). Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa. Annals of General Psychiatry 9, 29.
Nakazato, M, Tchanturia, K, Schmidt, U, Campbell, IC, Treasure, J, Collier, DA, Hashimoto, K, Iyo, M (2009). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and set-shifting in currently ill and recovered anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Psychological Medicine 39, 10291035.
Nikendei, C, Funiok, C, Pfuller, U, Zastrow, A, Aschenbrenner, S, Weisbrod, M, Herzog, W, Friederich, HC (2011). Memory performance in acute and weight-restored anorexia nervosa patients. Psychological Medicine 41, 829838.
Ohrmann, P, Kersting, A, Suslow, T, Lalee-Mentzel, J, Donges, US, Fiebich, M, Arolt, V, Heindel, W, Pfleiderer, B (2004). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in anorexia nervosa: correlations with cognition. Neuroreport 15, 549553.
Pavan, C, Azzi, M, Lancerotto, L, Marini, M, Busetto, L, Bassetto, F, Vindigni, V (2013). Overweight/obese patients referring to plastic surgery: temperament and personality traits. Obesity Surgery 23, 437445.
Pennington, BF, Ozonoff, S (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 5187.
Petry, NM, Barry, D, Pietrzak, RH, Wagner, JA (2008). Overweight and obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosomatic Medicine 70, 288297.
Phillips, KA, Stein, DJ, Rauch, SL, Hollander, E, Fallon, BA, Barsky, A, Fineberg, N, Mataix-Cols, D, Ferrao, YA, Saxena, S, Wilhelm, S, Kelly, MM, Clark, LA, Pinto, A, Bienvenu, OJ, Farrow, J, Leckman, J (2010). Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety 27, 528555.
Pignatti, R, Bernasconi, V (2013). Personality, clinical features, and test instructions can affect executive functions in eating disorders. Eating Behaviors 14, 233236.
Pi-Sunyer, FX (2002). The medical risks of obesity. Obesity Surgery 12 (Suppl. 1), 6S11S.
Reitan, RM, Wolfson, D (1985). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Therapy and Clinical Interpretation. Neuropsychological Press: Tucson, AZ.
Ridderinkhof, KR, Span, MM, van der Molen, MW (2002). Perseverative behavior and adaptive control in older adults: performance monitoring, rule induction, and set shifting. Brain Cognition 49, 382401.
Robbins, TW, Gillan, CM, Smith, DG, de Wit, S, Ersche, KD (2012). Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, 8191.
Robbins, TW, James, M, Owen, AM, Sahakian, BJ, Lawrence, AD, McInnes, L, Rabbitt, PM (1998). A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 4, 474490.
Roberts, ME, Tchanturia, K, Stahl, D, Southgate, L, Treasure, J (2007). A systematic review and meta-analysis of set-shifting ability in eating disorders. Psychological Medicine 37, 10751084.
Roberts, ME, Tchanturia, K, Treasure, JL (2010). Exploring the neurocognitive signature of poor set-shifting in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Psychiatry Research 44, 964970.
Sarrar, L, Ehrlich, S, Merle, JV, Pfeiffer, E, Lehmkuhl, U, Schneider, N (2011). Cognitive flexibility and Agouti-related protein in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36, 13961406.
Sato, Y, Saito, N, Utsumi, A, Aizawa, E, Shoji, T, Izumiyama, M, Mushiake, H, Hongo, M, Fukudo, S (2013). Neural basis of impaired cognitive flexibility in patients with anorexia nervosa. PLoS One 8, e61108.
Schmidt, U, Treasure, J (2006). Anorexia nervosa: valued and visible. A cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and its implications for research and practice. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 45, 343366.
Shott, ME, Filoteo, JV, Bhatnagar, KA, Peak, NJ, Hagman, JO, Rockwell, R, Kaye, WH, Frank, GK (2012). Cognitive set-shifting in anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review 20, 343349.
Stedal, K, Frampton, I, Landro, NI, Lask, B (2012). An examination of the ravello profile – a neuropsychological test battery for anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review 20, 175181.
Steinglass, JE, Walsh, BT, Stern, Y (2006). Set shifting deficit in anorexia nervosa. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 12, 431435.
Sterne, JA, Sutton, AJ, Ioannidis, JP, Terrin, N, Jones, DR, Lau, J, Carpenter, J, Rucker, G, Harbord, RM, Schmid, CH, Tetzlaff, J, Deeks, JJ, Peters, J, Macaskill, P, Schwarzer, G, Duval, S, Altman, DG, Moher, D, Higgins, JP (2011). Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal 343, d4002.
Svaldi, J, Brand, M, Tuschen-Caffier, B (2010). Decision-making impairments in women with binge eating disorder. Appetite 54, 8492.
Szmukler, GI, Andrewes, D, Kingston, K, Chen, L, Stargatt, R, Stanley, R (1992). Neuropsychological impairment in anorexia nervosa: before and after refeeding. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 14, 347352.
Tchanturia, K, Anderluh, MB, Morris, RG, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Collier, DA, Sanchez, P, Treasure, JL (2004 a). Cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 10, 513520.
Tchanturia, K, Davies, H, Lopez, C, Schmidt, U, Treasure, J, Wykes, T (2008). Research Letter. Neuropsychological task performance before and after cognitive remediation in anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-series. Psychological Medicine 38, 13711373.
Tchanturia, K, Davies, H, Roberts, M, Harrison, A, Nakazato, M, Schmidt, U, Treasure, J, Morris, R (2012). Poor cognitive flexibility in eating disorders: examining the evidence using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. PLoS One 7, e28331.
Tchanturia, K, Harrison, A, Davies, H, Roberts, M, Oldershaw, A, Nakazato, M, Stahl, D, Morris, R, Schmidt, U, Treasure, J (2011). Cognitive flexibility and clinical severity in eating disorders. PLoS One 6, e20462.
Tchanturia, K, Morris, RG, Anderluh, MB, Collier, DA, Nikolaou, V, Treasure, J (2004 b). Set shifting in anorexia nervosa: an examination before and after weight gain, in full recovery and relationship to childhood and adult OCPD traits. Journal of Psychiatric Research 38, 545552.
Tchanturia, K, Serpell, L, Troop, N, Treasure, J (2001). Perceptual illusions in eating disorders: rigid and fluctuating styles. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 32, 107115.
Tenconi, E, Santonastaso, P, Degortes, D, Bosello, R, Titton, F, Mapelli, D, Favaro, A (2010). Set-shifting abilities, central coherence, and handedness in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: exploring putative endophenotypes. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 11, 813823.
Thompson, SBN (1993). Implications of neuropsychological test results of women in a new phase of anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review 1, 152165.
Tokley, M, Kemps, E (2007). Preoccupation with detail contributes to poor abstraction in women with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 29, 734741.
Touyz, SW, Beumont, PJV, Johnstone, LC (1986). Neuropsychological correlates of dieting disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 5, 10251034.
Treasure, J, Claudino, AM, Zucker, N (2010). Eating disorders. Lancet 375, 583593.
Uznadze, DN (1966). The Psychology of Set. Consultants’ Bureau: New York.
Van den Eynde, F, Guillaume, S, Broadbent, H, Stahl, D, Campbell, IC, Schmidt, U, Tchanturia, K (2011). Neurocognition in bulimic eating disorders: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124, 120140.
Van den Eynde, F, Treasure, J (2009). Neuroimaging in eating disorders and obesity: implications for research. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 18, 95115.
Verdejo-Garcia, A, Perez-Exposito, M, Schmidt-Rio-Valle, J, Fernandez-Serrano, MJ, Cruz, F, Perez-Garcia, M, Lopez-Belmonte, G, Martin-Matillas, M, Martin-Lagos, JA, Marcos, A, Campoy, C (2010). Selective alterations within executive functions in adolescents with excess weight. Obesity 18, 15721578.
Villarejo, C, Fernandez-Aranda, F, Jimenez-Murcia, S, Penas-Lledo, E, Granero, R, Penelo, E, Tinahones, FJ, Sancho, C, Vilarrasa, N, Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M, Casanueva, FF, Fernandez-Real, JM, Fruhbeck, G, De la Torre, R, Treasure, J, Botella, C, Menchon, JM (2012). Lifetime obesity in patients with eating disorders: increasing prevalence, clinical and personality correlates. European Eating Disorders Review 20, 250254.
Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Fowler, JS, Tomasi, D, Baler, R (2012). Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 11, 124.
Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Fowler, JS, Tomasi, D, Telang, F (2011). Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 1503715042.
Weigl, E (1941). On the psychology of so-called processes of abstraction. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 36, 333.
WHO (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 894, i–xii, 1253.
Williamson, DA, Womble, LG, Smeets, MA, Netemeyer, RG, Thaw, JM, Kutlesic, V, Gleaves, DH (2002). Latent structure of eating disorder symptoms: a factor analytic and taxometric investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 412418.
Witt, ED, Ryan, C, Hsu, LK (1985). Learning deficits in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173, 182184.
Wittorf, A, Giel, KE, Hautzinger, M, Rapp, A, Schonenberg, M, Wolkenstein, L, Zipfel, S, Mehl, S, Fallgatter, AJ, Klingberg, S (2012). Specificity of jumping to conclusions and attributional biases: a comparison between patients with schizophrenia, depression, and anorexia nervosa. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 17, 262286.
Zakzanis, KK, Campbell, Z, Polsinelli, A (2010). Quantitative evidence for distinct cognitive impairment in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Neuropsychology 4, 89106.
Zastrow, A, Kaiser, S, Stippich, C, Walther, S, Herzog, W, Tchanturia, K, Belger, A, Weisbrod, M, Treasure, J, Friederich, HC (2009). Neural correlates of impaired cognitive-behavioral flexibility in anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 608616.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wu Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material A

 Word (31 KB)
31 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wu Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material C

 Word (59 KB)
59 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wu Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material D

 Word (50 KB)
50 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Wu Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material E

 Unknown (61.2 MB)
61.2 MB

Set-shifting ability across the spectrum of eating disorders and in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • M. Wu (a1), T. Brockmeyer (a1), M. Hartmann (a1), M. Skunde (a1), W. Herzog (a1) and H.-C. Friederich (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed