Skip to main content

Why do anxious children become depressed teenagers? The role of social evaluative threat and reward processing

  • J. S. Silk (a1), S. Davis (a2), D. L. McMakin (a1), R. E. Dahl (a3) and E. E. Forbes (a1)...

Depression is a leading cause of worldwide disability. Adolescence represents a key developmental window in which rates of this disorder increase markedly. Children with an anxiety disorder show a particular risk of developing depression during adolescence.


We present and review evidence for a developmental model that considers the intersection of two vulnerabilities relevant to the trajectory from anxiety to depression: difficulties in response to potential social evaluation and changes in reward processing at puberty.


Evidence suggests that these vulnerabilities (a) have been associated with depression, (b) are likely to be problematic in many, but not all, anxious youth, and (c) may be exacerbated by maturational processes that occur around pubertal development in ways that can create a negative spiral into a depressive disorder.


We discuss the possibility that early intervention strategies targeting key aspects of these vulnerabilities could alter the trajectory away from depression for many anxious youth.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: J. S. Silk, Ph.D., Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. (Email:
Hide All
Abela, JR, Hankin, BL, Haigh, EA, Adams, P, Vinokuroff, T, Trayhern, L (2005). Interpersonal vulnerability to depression in high-risk children: the role of insecure attachment and reassurance seeking. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 34, 182192.
Adler, PA, Adler, P (1998). Peer Power. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ.
Alfano, CA, Beidel, DC, Turner, SM (2006). Cognitive correlates of social phobia among children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34, 189201.
Allen, JP, Insabella, G, Porter, MR, Smith, FD, Land, D, Phillips, N (2006). A social-interactional model of the development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74, 5565.
Allen, NB, Badcock, PB (2003). The social risk hypothesis of depressed mood: evolutionary, psychosocial, and neurobiological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin 129, 887913.
Anderson, ER, Veed, GJ, Inderbitzen-Nolan, HM, Hansen, DJ (2010). An evaluation of the applicability of the tripartite constructs to social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39, 195207.
Angold, A, Costello, EJ, Worthman, CM (1998). Puberty and depression: the roles of age, pubertal status and pubertal timing. Psychological Medicine 28, 5161.
Bar-Haim, Y, Fox, NA, Benson, B, Guyer, AE, Williams, A, Nelson, EE, Perez-Edgar, K, Pine, DS, Ernst, M (2009). Neural correlates of reward processing in adolescents with a history of inhibited temperament. Psychological Science 20, 10091018.
Bar-Haim, Y, Lamy, D, Pergamin, L, Bakermans-Kranenburg, MJ, van Ijzendoorn, MH (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin 133, 124.
Barnett, PA, Gotlib, IH (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression: distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. Psychological Bulletin 104, 97–126.
Barrett, PM, Rapee, RM, Dadds, MM, Ryan, SM (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 24, 187203.
Baumeister, RF, Leary, MR (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin 117, 497529.
Beesdo, K, Lau, JY, Guyer, AE, McClure-Tone, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Fromm, SJ, Goldwin, MA, Wittchen, H-U, Leibenluft, E, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2009). Common and distinct amygdala-function perturbations in depressed vs anxious adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 275285.
Berenbaum, H, Connelly, J (1993). The effect of stress on hedonic capacity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102, 474481.
Bjork, JM, Knutson, B, Fong, GW, Caggiano, DM, Bennett, SM, Hommer, DW (2004). Incentive-elicited brain activation in adolescents: similarities and differences from young adults. Journal of Neuroscience 24, 17931802.
Bjork, JM, Smith, AR, Chen, G, Hommer, DW (2010). Adolescents, adults and rewards: comparing motivational neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI. PLoS One 5, e11440.
Bogdan, R, Pizzagalli, DA (2006). Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: implications for depression. Biological Psychiatry 60, 11471154.
Bowlby, J (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. Basic Books: New York.
Brady, EU, Kendall, PC (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin 111, 244255.
Britton, JC, Lissek, S, Grillon, C, Norcross, MA, Pine, DS (2011). Development of anxiety: the role of threat appraisal and fear learning. Depression and Anxiety 28, 5–17.
Brown, BB (2004). Adolescents' relationships with peers. In Handbook of Adolescent Psychology , 2nd edn (ed. Lerner, R. M. and Steinberg, L. D.), pp. 363394. Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.
Brown, GW, Harris, TO (1978). Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. Tavistock: London, UK.
Brown, GW, Harris, TO (1989). Stressful Life Events and Illness. Guilford Press: New York.
Bryant, FB, Veroff, J (2006). Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Chorpita, BF (2002). The tripartite model and dimensions of anxiety and depression: an examination of structure in a large school sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 30, 177190.
Chorpita, BF, Albano, AM, Barlow, DH (1996). Cognitive processing in children: relation to anxiety and family influences. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 25, 170176.
Chorpita, BF, Plummer, C, Moffitt, CE (2000). Relations of tripartite dimensions of emotion to childhood anxiety and mood disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 28, 299310.
Cicchetti, D (1993). Developmental psychopathology: reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review 13, 471502.
Cicchetti, D, Toth, SL (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist 53, 221241.
Clark, LA, Watson, D (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100, 316336.
Connolly, J, Furman, W, Konarski, R (2000). The role of peers in the emergence of heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Child Development 71, 13951408.
Connolly, J, Geller, S, Marton, P, Kutcher, S (1992). Peer responses to social interaction with depressed adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 21, 365370.
Coyne, JC (1976). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85, 186193.
Creswell, C, Schniering, CA, Rapee, RM (2005). Threat interpretation in anxious children and their mothers: comparison with nonclinical children and the effects of treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43, 13751381.
Cyranowski, JM, Frank, E, Young, E, Shear, MK (2000). Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression: a theoretical model. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 2127.
Dahl, RE (2001). Affect regulation, brain development, and behavioral/emotional health in adolescence. CNS Spectrums 6, 112.
Dalgleish, T, Moradi, A, Taghavi, M, Neshat-Doost, H, Yule, W (2001). An experimental investigation of hypervigilance for threat in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine 31, 541547.
Davey, CG, Yucel, M, Allen, NB (2008). The emergence of depression in adolescence: development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32, 119.
Dickerson, SS, Kemeny, ME (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin 130, 355391.
Eisner, LR, Johnson, SL, Carver, CS (2009). Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 23, 645649.
Eley, T, Sugden, K, Corsico, A, Gregory, A, Sham, P, McGuffin, P, Plomin, R, Craig, I (2004). Gene-environment interaction analysis of serotonin system markers with adolescent depression. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 908915.
Epstein, J, Pan, H, Kocsis, JH, Yang, Y, Butler, T, Chusid, J, Hochberg, H, Murrough, J, Strohmayer, E, Stern, E, Silbersweig, DA (2006). Lack of ventral striatal response to positive stimuli in depressed versus normal subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 17841790.
Ernst, M, Nelson, EE, Jazbec, S, McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Leibenluft, E, Blair, J, Pine, DS (2005). Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents. NeuroImage 25, 12791291.
Ernst, M, Romeo, RD, Andersen, SL (2009). Neurobiology of the development of motivated behaviors in adolescence: a window into a neural systems model. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 93, 199211.
Fliessbach, K, Weber, B, Trautner, P, Dohmen, T, Sunde, U, Elger, C, Falk, A (2007). Social comparison affects reward-related brain activity in the human ventral striatum. Science 318, 13051308.
Forbes, EE (2009). Where's the fun in that? Broadening the focus on reward function in depression. Biological Psychiatry 66, 199200.
Forbes, EE, Dahl, RE (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology 17, 827850.
Forbes, EE, Hariri, AR, Martin, SL, Silk, JS, Moyles, DL, Fisher, PM, Brown, SM, Ryan, ND, Birmaher, B, Axelson, DA, Dahl, RE (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 6473.
Forbes, EE, May, CJ, Siegle, GJ, Ladouceur, CD, Ryan, ND, Carter, CS, Birmaher, B, Axelson, DA, Dahl, RE (2006). Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: an fMRI study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47, 10311040.
Forbes, EE, Phillips, ML, Silk, JS, Ryan, ND, Dahl, RE (2011). Neural systems of threat processing in adolescents: role of pubertal maturation and relation to measures of negative affect. Developmental Neuropsychology 36, 429452.
Forbes, EE, Ryan, ND, Phillips, ML, Manuck, SB, Worthman, CM, Moyles, DL, Tarr, JA, Sciarrillo, SR, Dahl, RE (2010). Healthy adolescents' neural response to reward: associations with puberty, positive affect, and depressive symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 49, 162–72.e1-5.
Forbes, EE, Shaw, DS, Dahl, RE (2007). Alterations in reward-related decision making in boys with recent and future depression. Biological Psychiatry 61, 633639.
Forbes, EE, Williamson, DE, Ryan, ND, Dahl, RE (2004). Positive and negative affect in depression: influence of sex and puberty. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1021, 341347.
Franic, S, Middeldorp, CM, Dolan, CV, Ligthart, L, Boomsma, DI (2010). Childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression: beyond heritability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 49, 820829.
Frewen, PA, Dozois, DJ, Joanisse, MF, Neufeld, RW (2008). Selective attention to threat versus reward: meta-analysis and neural-network modeling of the dot-probe task. Clinical Psychology Review 28, 307337.
Galambos, NL, Leadbeater, BJ, Barker, ET (2004). Gender differences in and risk factors for depression in adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development 28, 1625.
Galvan, A (2010). Adolescent development of the reward system. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4, 6.
Galvan, A, Hare, TA, Parra, CE, Penn, J, Voss, K, Glover, G, Casey, B (2006). Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Journal of Neuroscience 26, 68856892.
Gardner, M, Steinberg, L (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Developmental Psychology 41, 625635.
Gilbert, P (1992). Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. Guilford Press: New York.
Goldin, PR, Manber, T, Hakimi, S, Canli, T, Gross, JJ (2009). Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation during social and physical threat. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 170180.
Guyer, AE, Lau, JY, McClure-Tone, EB, Parrish, J, Shiffrin, ND, Reynolds, RC, Chen, G, Blair, R, Leibenluft, E, Fox, NA, Ernst, M, Pine, DS, Nelson, EE (2008 a). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 13031312.
Guyer, AE, McClure-Tone, EB, Shiffrin, ND, Pine, DS, Nelson, EE (2009). Probing the neural correlates of anticipated peer evaluation in adolescence. Child Development 80, 10001015.
Guyer, AE, Monk, CS, McClure-Tone, EB, Nelson, EE, Roberson-Nay, R, Adler, AD, Fromm, SJ, Leibenluft, E, Pine, DS, Ernst, M (2008 b). A developmental examination of amygdala response to facial expressions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20, 15651582.
Guyer, AE, Nelson, EE, Perez-Edgar, K, Hardin, MG, Roberson-Nay, R, Monk, CS, Bjork, JM, Henderson, HA, Pine, DS, Fox, NA, Ernst, M (2006). Striatal functional alteration in adolescents characterized by early childhood behavioral inhibition. Journal of Neuroscience 26, 63996405.
Hammen, C, Brennan, PA (2001). Depressed adolescents of depressed and nondepressed mothers: tests of an interpersonal impairment hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69, 284294.
Hammen, C, Brennan, PA, Keenan-Miller, D (2008). Patterns of adolescent depression to age 20: the role of maternal depression and youth interpersonal dysfunction. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 11891198.
Hammen, C, Shih, JH, Brennan, PA (2004). Intergenerational transmission of depression: test of an interpersonal stress model in a community sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72, 511522.
Hare, TA, Tottenham, N, Galvan, A, Voss, HU, Glover, GH, Casey, BJ (2008). Biological substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescence during an emotional go-nogo task. Biological Psychiatry 63, 927934.
Harter, S, Whitesell, NR (1996). Multiple pathways to self-reported depression and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Development and Psychopathology 8, 761777.
Hollerman, JR, Schultz, W (1998). Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning. Nature Neuroscience 1, 304309.
Horowitz, JL, Garber, J (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74, 401415.
Jacques, HA, Mash, EJ (2004). A test of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in elementary and high school boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 32, 1325.
Jazbec, S, McClure, E, Hardin, M, Pine, DS, Ernst, M (2005). Cognitive control under contingencies in anxious and depressed adolescents: an antisaccade task. Biological Psychiatry 58, 632639.
Joiner, TE Jr., Blalock, JA, Wagner, KD (1999). Preliminary examination of sex differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the role of anxious symptoms and generalized negative affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 28, 211219.
Joiner, TE Jr., Metalsky, GI (1995). A prospective test of an integrative interpersonal theory of depression: a naturalistic study of college roommates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, 778788.
Kahneman, D, Beatty, J (1966). Pupil diameter and load on memory. Science 154, 15831585.
Kahneman, D, Tversky, A (1995). Conflict resolution: a cognitive perspective. In Barriers to Conflict Resolution (ed. Arrow, K., Mnookin, R. H., Ross, L., Tversky, A. and Wilson, R.), pp. 4461. Norton: New York.
Kashdan, TB, Steger, MF (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety. An experience-sampling assessment of positive emotions, positive events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science 17, 120128.
Kaufman, J, Yang, B-Z, Douglas-Palumberi, H, Grasso, D, Lipschitz, D, Houshyar, S, Krystal, JH, Gelernter, J (2006). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-5-HTTLPR gene interactions and environmental modifiers of depression in children. Biological Psychiatry 59, 673680.
Keedwell, PA, Andrew, C, Williams, SC, Brammer, MJ, Phillips, ML (2005). A double dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortical responses to sad and happy stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Biological Psychiatry 58, 495503.
Kendler, KS, Kuhn, JW, Vittum, J, Prescott, CA, Riley, B (2005). The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 529535.
Kessler, RC (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 8–19.
Kessler, RC, Avenevoli, S, Merikangas, KR (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. Biological Psychiatry 49, 10021014.
Killgore, WD, Yurgelun-Todd, DA (2005). Social anxiety predicts amygdala activation in adolescents viewing fearful faces. Neuroreport 16, 16711675.
Killgore, WD, Yurgelun-Todd, DA (2006). Ventromedial prefrontal activity correlates with depressed mood in adolescent children. Neuroreport 17, 167171.
Killgore, WD, Yurgelun-Todd, DA (2007). Unconscious processing of facial affect in children and adolescents. Social Neuroscience 2, 2847.
Kovacs, M, Gatsonis, C, Paulauskas, SL, Richards, C (1989). Depressive disorders in childhood. IV. A longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 46, 776782.
Ladouceur, CD, Dahl, RE, Williamson, DE, Birmaher, B, Axelson, DA, Ryan, ND, Casey, BJ (2006). Processing emotional facial expressions influences performance in a Go/NoGo task in pediatric anxiety and depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 47, 11071115.
La Greca, AM, Lopez, N (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: linkage with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 26, 8394.
Larson, RW, Asmussen, L (1991). Anger, worry, and hurt in early adolescence: an enlarging world of negative emotions. In Adolescent Stress: Causes and Consequences (ed. Colten, M. E. and Gore, S.), pp. 2141. Aldine de Gruyter: Hawthorne, NY.
Lau, JYF, Eley, TC (2008). Disentangling gene-environment correlations and interactions on adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 49, 142150.
Lawrence, NS, Williams, AM, Surguladze, S, Giampietro, V, Brammer, MJ, Andrew, C, Frangou, S, Ecker, C, Phillips, ML (2004). Subcortical and ventral prefrontal cortical neural responses to facial expressions distinguish patients with bipolar disorder and major depression. Biological Psychiatry 55, 578587.
Leadbeater, BJ, Blatt, SJ, Quinlan, DM (1995). Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence 5, 129.
Lee, A, Hankin, BL, Mermelstein, RJ (2010). Perceived social competence, negative social interactions, and negative cognitive style predict depressive symptoms during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39, 603615.
Lewinsohn, PM, Allen, NB, Seeley, JR, Gotlib, IH (1999). First onset versus recurrence of depression: differential processes of psychosocial risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108, 483489.
Lonigan, CJ, Hooe, ES, David, CF, Kistner, JA (1999). Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67, 374386.
Lonigan, CJ, Phillips, BM, Hooe, ES (2003). Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71, 465481.
Malkesman, O, Braw, Y, Zagoory-Sharon, O, Golan, O, Lavi-Avnon, Y, Schroeder, M, Overstreet, D, Yadid, G, Weller, A (2005). Reward and anxiety in genetic animal models of childhood depression. Behavioural Brain Research 164, 110.
Martin, CA, Kelly, TH, Rayens, MK, Brogli, BR, Brenzel, A, Smith, WJ, Omar, HA (2002). Sensation seeking, puberty and nicotine, alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 41, 14951502.
Maslow, AH (1987). Motivation and Personality. Addison-Wesley: New York.
Masten, CL, Eisenberger, NI, Borofsky, LA, McNealy, K, Pfeifer, JH, Dapretto, M (2011). Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: a marker of adolescents' risk for depression. Development and Psychopathology 23, 283292.
Masten, CL, Eisenberger, NI, Borofsky, LA, Pfeifer, JH, McNealy, K, Mazziotta, JC, Dapretto, M (2009). Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: understanding the distress of peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 4, 143157.
McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Parrish, JM, Adler, A, Blair, R, Fromm, S, Charney, DS, Leibenluft, E, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2007 a). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 97–106.
McClure, EB, Parrish, JM, Nelson, EE, Easter, J, Thorne, JF, Rilling, JK, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2007 b). Responses to conflict and cooperation in adolescents with anxiety and mood disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 35, 567577.
McClure-Tone, EB, Nawa, NE, Nelson, EE, Detloff, AM, Fromm, SJ, Pine, DS, Ernst, M (2011). Preliminary findings: neural responses to feedback regarding betrayal and cooperation in adolescent anxiety disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology 36, 453472.
McMakin, DL, Siegle, GJ, Shirk, SR (2011). Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) module for depressed mood: a preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects. Cognitive Therapy and Research 35, 217226.
Messer, SC, Gross, AM (1995). Childhood depression and family interaction: a naturalistic observation study. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 24, 7788.
Monk, CS, Klein, RG, Telzer, EH, Schroth, EA, Mannuzza, S, Moulton, JL III, Guardino, M, Masten, CL, McClure, T, Fromm, S, Blair, R, Pine, DS, Ernst, M (2008 a). Amygdala and nucleus accumbens activation to emotional facial expressions in children and adolescents at risk for major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 9098.
Monk, CS, McClure, EB, Nelson, EE, Zarahn, E, Bilder, RM, Leibenluft, E, Charney, DS, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2003). Adolescent immaturity in attention-related brain engagement to emotional facial expressions. NeuroImage 20, 420428.
Monk, CS, Telzer, EH, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, Mai, X, Louro, HM, Chen, G, McClure-Tone, EB, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2008 b). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 568576.
Nelson, EE, Leibenluft, E, McClure, E, Pine, DS (2005). The social re-orientation of adolescence: a neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 35, 163174.
Nolan, SA, Flynn, C, Garber, J (2003). Prospective relations between rejection and depression in young adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85, 745755.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S (1994). An interactive model for the emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence 4, 519534.
Olsson, GI, Nordstrom, M-L, Arinell, H, von Knorring, A-L (1999). Adolescent depression: social network and family climate: a case-control study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40, 227237.
Orvaschel, H, Lewinsohn, PM, Seeley, JR (1995). Continuity of psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34, 15251535.
Patton, GC, Viner, R (2007). Pubertal transitions in health. Lancet 369, 11301139.
Pine, DS, Cohen, P, Gurley, D, Brook, J, Ma, Y (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 5664.
Price, J, Sloman, L, Gardner, R Jr., Gilbert, P, Rohde, P (1994). The social competition hypothesis of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 164, 309315.
Prinstein, MJ, Aikins, JW (2004). Cognitive moderators of the longitudinal association between peer rejection and adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 32, 147158.
Roemer, L, Salters, K, Raffa, SD, Orsillo, SM (2005). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences in GAD: preliminary tests of a conceptual model. Cognitive Therapy and Research 29, 7188.
Rolls, ET (1999). The Brain and Emotion. Oxford University Press: New York.
Rose, AJ, Rudolph, KD (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin 132, 98–131.
Rudolph, KD (2002). Gender differences in emotional responses to interpersonal stress during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health 30, 3–13.
Rudolph, KD, Conley, CS (2005). The socioemotional costs and benefits of social-evaluative concerns: do girls care too much? Journal of Personality 73, 115138.
Schlund, MW, Siegle, GJ, Ladouceur, CD, Silk, JS, Cataldo, MF, Forbes, EE, Dahl, RE, Ryan, ND (2010). Nothing to fear? Neural systems supporting avoidance behavior in healthy youths. NeuroImage 52, 710719.
Schultz, W (1998). Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 80, 127.
Seeds, PM, Harkness, KL, Quilty, LC (2010). Parental maltreatment, bullying, and adolescent depression: evidence for the mediating role of perceived social support. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39, 681692.
Sheeber, L, Sorensen, E (1998). Family relationships of depressed adolescents: a multimethod assessment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27, 268277.
Sheppard, LC, Teasdale, JD (1996). Depressive thinking: changes in schematic mental models of self and world. Psychological Medicine 26, 10431055.
Silberg, J, Rutter, M, Neale, M, Eaves, L (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 116121.
Silk, JS, Siegle, GJ, Whalen, DJ, Ostapenko, L, Ladouceur, CD, Dahl, RE (2009). Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification. Development and Psychopathology 21, 7–16.
Silk, JS, Stroud, LR, Siegle, GJ, Dahl, RE, Lee, KH, Nelson, EE (2012). Peer acceptance and rejection through the eyes of youth: pupillary, eyetracking, and ecological data from the Chatroom Interact Task. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 7, 93–105.
Sisk, CL, Foster, DL (2004). The neural basis of puberty and adolescence. Nature Neuroscience 7, 10401047.
Spear, LP (2000). The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 417463.
Spear, LP (2011). Rewards, aversions and affect in adolescence: emerging convergences across laboratory animal and human data. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 1, 390403.
Steinberg, L (1988). Reciprocal relation between parent-child distance and pubertal maturation. Developmental Psychology 24, 122128.
Steinberg, L (2007). Risk-taking in adolescence: new perspectives from brain and behavioral science. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16, 5559.
Steinberg, L, Albert, D, Cauffman, E, Banich, M, Graham, S, Woolard, J (2008). Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: evidence for a dual systems model. Developmental Psychology 44, 17641778.
Surguladze, S, Brammer, MJ, Keedwell, P, Giampietro, V, Young, AW, Travis, MJ, Williams, SCR, Phillips, ML (2005). A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 57, 201209.
Taghavi, MR, Neshat-Doost, HT, Moradi, AR, Yule, W, Dalgleish, T (1999). Biases in visual attention in children and adolescents with clinical anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27, 215223.
Telzer, EH, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, Mai, X, Ernst, M, Pine, DS, Monk, CS (2008). Relationship between trait anxiety, prefrontal cortex, and attention bias to angry faces in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology 79, 216222.
Thomas, KM, Drevets, WC, Dahl, RE, Ryan, ND, Birmaher, B, Eccard, CH, Axelson, D, Whalen, PJ, Casey, BJ (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 10571063.
Turk, CL, Heimberg, RG, Luterek, JA, Mennin, DS, Fresco, DM (2005). Emotion dysregulation in generalized anxiety disorder: a comparison with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research 29, 89–106.
Vasey, MW, El-Hag, N, Daleiden, EL (1996). Anxiety and the processing of emotionally threatening stimuli: distinctive patterns of selective attention among high- and low-test-anxious children. Child Development 67, 11731185.
Wahlstrom, D, Collins, P, White, T, Luciana, M (2010). Developmental changes in dopamine neurotransmission in adolescence: behavioral implications and issues in assessment. Brain and Cognition 72, 146159.
Weissman, MM, Fendrich, M, Warner, V, Wickramaratne, P (1992). Incidence of psychiatric disorder in offspring at high and low risk for depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 31, 640648.
Weissman, MM, Wickramaratne, P, Nomura, Y, Warner, V, Verdeli, H, Pilowsky, DJ, Grillon, C, Bruder, G (2005). Families at high and low risk for depression: a 3-generation study. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 2936.
Williams, J, Mathews, A, MacLeod, C (1996). The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin 120, 3–24.
Willner, P (2005). Chronic mild stress (CMS) revisited: consistency and behavioural-neurobiological concordance in the effects of CMS. Neuropsychobiology 52, 90–110.
Wise, RA (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 5, 483494.
Zacharko, RM, Bowers, WJ, Kokkinidis, L, Anisman, H (1983). Region-specific reductions of intracranial self-stimulation after uncontrollable stress: possible effects on reward processes. Behavioural Brain Research 9, 129141.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed