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Chronology and Periodization of the Pit-Grave Culture in the Region Between the Volga and Ural Rivers Based on Radiocarbon Dating and Paleopedological Research

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2016

N L Morgunova
Affiliation:
Orenburg Pedagogical State University, Laboratory of Archaeology, Ulitsa Sovetskaya, 19, Orenburg 460014, Russia. Email: nina-morgunova@yandex.ru
O S Khokhlova
Affiliation:
Institute of Physical, Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region 142290, Russia. Email: olga_004@rambler.ru

Abstract

We studied the chronology and periodization of the Pit-Grave (Yamnaya) culture at the Volga and Ural interfluve. Establishing the chronology of the Pit-Grave culture by archaeological methods is difficult due to the lack of artifacts in the burials. Therefore, we excavated 3 kurgan groups in the Orenburg region of Russia during the last decade. Eighteen kurgans of the Pit-Grave culture were studied using archaeological and paleopedological methods and radiocarbon dating. The funeral complexes studied were divided into 3 stages. A variety of carbon-containing materials from the same complexes were dated by different laboratories to increase the accuracy of the obtained dates. In addition, from the excavations of the last years some monuments of the Repino stage, the earliest period of the Pit-Grave culture, were dated using ceramics. Together with archaeological and paleopedological data, 14C dating helped to clarify and, in general, to confirm the 3-stage periodization of the Pit-Grave culture in the Volga-Ural interfluve: the early (Repino) stage, 4000–3300 BC; the advanced (classical) stage, 3300–2600 BC, which is divided into substages A and B at 3300–2900 and 2900–2600 BC, respectively; and the late (Poltavkinsky) stage, 2600–2300 BC.

Type
Archaeology of Eurasia and Africa
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

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