Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-mhl4m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-21T06:48:01.164Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Cartography as a Tool of Colonization: Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s 1583 Voyage to North America*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 November 2018

Nate Probasco*
Briar Cliff University


An analysis of Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s 1583 expedition to North America, which was England’s first attempt at colonization beyond Britain, shows that the nation’s earliest expansionists perceived the significance of maps in supporting colonization. Gilbert recruited several specialists, including John Dee and Richard Hakluyt, who expended considerable time and resources conducting research for their maps and drawing up plans to survey the colony. A thorough examination of Gilbert’s sea chart and terrestrial maps clarifies how his circle used them to promote the expedition, to guide it to North America, and to assert their control over the territory. Scholars often depict early modern English colonizers as having little interest in cartographic materials, but Gilbert and his supporters proved that maps served a number of vital functions in preparing and executing a colonizing expedition.

Research Article
Copyright © Renaissance Society of America 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



This article derives from chapter 2 of my forthcoming PhD dissertation, and the research that made it possible was funded by fellowships from the University of Nebraska and from the Huntington Library. Professor Nancy Stara, the University of Nebraska Medieval and Renaissance Studies Program, and the University of Nebraska Department of History provided additional financial support. Thank you to my advisor, Professor Carole Levin; to my Supervisory Committee member, Professor Julia Schleck; and to the anonymous RQ readers for commenting upon versions of my essay. I am also grateful to the British Library, the British Museum, the Free Library of Philadelphia, and the Huntington Library for granting me permission to publish the illustrations that follow. All translations are my own.



Manuscript and Archival Sources

British Library (BL), London, Additional MS 36674, fols. 58r–62v. Dee, John. “Certaine straung visions, or apparitions of memorable note.” 1567. Cited as BL, Add. MS 36674.Google Scholar
BL, London, Additional MS 38823, fols. 1r–8v. Anon. “Instructions for a voyage of discovery.” 1582. Cited as BL, Add. MS 38823.Google Scholar
BL, London, Additional MS 48151, fols. 161r–166r. Hakluyt, Richard. “Sondrie Reportes of ye contrie which Sir Humfrie Gilberte goeth to discover.” 1582. Cited as BL, Add. MS 48151.Google Scholar
BL, London, Additional MS 59681, fols. 13r–21v. Dee, John. “Her Maiesties Title Royall, to many forayn Cuntries.” 1578. Cited as BL, Add. MS 59681.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Augustus, I.i.1. Dee, John. “Ioannes Dee. Anno, 1580.” Cited as BL, Cotton MS Augustus.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII, fols. 41r–54v. Lok, Michael. “Sir Martin Frobisher’s voyage for the discovery of a passage towards Cathay.” 1576. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII, fols. 77v–80v. Dee, John. “Some directions for a voyage to Cathay by the North Seas, signed by John Dee: with a small chart.” 1580. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII, fol. 167r. Hakluyt, Richard. “An account of a country between 35° and 45° latitude fit for a settlement.” 1584? Cited as BL, Cotton MS Otho E. VIII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton Roll, XIII, 48. Fernandes, Simão. “The Cownterfet of Mr. Fernando Simon his Sea carte which he lent unto my Master at Mortlake. Ao. 1580. Novemb. 20. The same Fernando Simon is a Portugale, and borne in Tercera being one of the Iles called AZORES.” 1580. Cited as BL, Cotton Roll.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Vitellius C. VII, fols. 1r–14r. Dee, John. “John Dee’s account of his life; addressed to two commissioners, sent to him by the queen; written by himself.” 1592. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Vit. C. VII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Vitellius C. VII, fols. 26r–269v. Dee, John. “Of famous and rich discoveries.” 1577. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Vit. C. VII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Cotton MS Vitellius C. VII, fols. 329r–345r. Thorne, Robert. “Robert Thorne to King Henry VIII’s Ambassador in Spain.” 1527. Cited as BL, Cotton MS Vit. C. VII.Google Scholar
BL, London, Harley MS 167, fols. 39r–74r. Borough, Stephen and William. “A Book teaching the Art of Navigation.” 1579? Cited as BL, Harley MS 167.Google Scholar
BL, London, Lansdowne MS 98, fols. 1r–7v. Gilbert, Humphrey. “The erection of an Academy in London for education of her Majesty’s Wardes and other the youth of nobility and gentlemen.” 1570? Cited as BL, Lans. MS 98.Google Scholar
BL, London, Lansdowne MS 100, fols. 65r–80v. Thorne, Robert. “The booke made by the worshipfull master Robert Thorne in Anno. 1527.” Cited as BL, Lans. MS 100.Google Scholar
BL, London, Lansdowne MS 122, fol. 30r–v. Dee, John. “Instructions for the two Masters, Charles Jackman and Arthur Pett.” 17 May 1580. Cited as BL, Lans. MS 122.Google Scholar
BL, London, Sloane MS 1447, fols. 1r–15v. Anon. “Travels of David Ingram.” 1582? Cited as BL, Sloane MS 1447.Google Scholar
British Museum, London, Department of Prints and Drawings, 1906,0509.1.2. White, John, and Thomas Hariot. “La Virgenia Pars.” 1587?Google Scholar
British Museum, London, Department of Prints and Drawings, 1906,0509.1.3. White, John, and Thomas Hariot. “La Virginea Pars.” 1586?Google Scholar
Compton Castle, Compton, Devon. Anon. “Portrait of Humphrey Gilbert.” 1584?Google Scholar
Free Library of Philadelphia, Rare Book Department, Elkins Americana, no. 42. Dee, John, and T. S. “Sr Humfray Gylbert Knight his charte.” 1583.Google Scholar
Hatfield House Archives (HHA), Hatfield, Cecil Papers, Map 1/69. Borough, William. “The first of June 1576. By W : Borough.” Cited as HHA, CP, Map 1/69.Google Scholar
HHA, Hatfield, Maps 69–70, no. 124. Dee, John. “Hydrographical chart.” 1580. Cited as HHA, Maps 6970.Google Scholar
HHA, Hatfield, Cecil Papers 245/5. Thorne, Robert. “A declaration of the Indies … by Robert Throne.” 1527. Cited as HHA, CP 245/5.Google Scholar
Library of Congress, Washington, DC, David B. Quinn Papers: Box 71, Folder 6; Box 72, Folder 4; Box 77, Folder 3; Box 79, Folder 7; Box 102, Folders 10, 17; Box 116, Folder 3; Box 120, Folders 5, 10. Cited as LOC, DBQ.Google Scholar
The National Archives (TNA), Kew, Acts of the Privy Council, 1/13, fols. 539, 563; 2/11, fol. 115; 2/12, fols. 62, 99, 395, 451, 461, 683. Cited as TNA, PC.Google Scholar
TNA, Kew, Maps and Plans 1/584 extracted from Colonial Office 1/1. Cited as TNA, Maps and Plans 1/584.Google Scholar
TNA, Kew, State Papers 12/112, fol. 12r; 12/119, fols. 67–68; 12/139, fol. 158; 12/151, fol. 86; 12/161, fols. 118–25; 12/165, fols. 102, 175; 12/175, fols. 10, 163; 15/28/1, fol. 25; 63/41, fol. 253; 63/43, fol. 119; 63/44, fol. 71; 63/59, fols. 113–14; 63/76, fol. 146; 63/77, fol. 112; 63/78, fols. 21, 45, 81, 149, 151; 63/79, fols. 11, 13, 14, 40, 43; 75/1, fols. 21, 60; 78/10, fol. 120; 89/1, fol. 10. Cited as TNA, SP.Google Scholar
National Portrait Gallery, London, D20541. Boissard, Robert. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, line engraving, ca. 15901603.Google Scholar
Newberry Library (NL), Chicago, Ayer MS 432 I/4. 2–5–4/12, fol. 1r. Account of Pedro Menendez. 12 September 1580. Cited as NL, Ayer MS 432.Google Scholar
NL, Chicago, Ayer MS 1236, fols. 12. Gilbert, Humphrey. “Passport to Portuguese Thomas Andres of Avero.” 7 August 1583; Gonçallo Estevez to King Philip II. 1583. Cited as NL, Ayer MS 1236.Google Scholar
NL, Chicago, Ayer MS 1236, 88. A.G.I. 54–115, fol. 1r. Gabriel de Luxan to King Philip II. 27 February 1582. Cited as NL, Ayer MS 1236.Google Scholar

Printed Sources

Allen, John L. “The Indrawing Sea: Imagination and Experience in the Search for the Northwest Passage, 1497–1632.” In American Beginnings (1994), 735.Google Scholar
Ambers, Janet, Joanna Russell, David Saunders, and Alice Rugheimer. “Examination of Patches on a Map of the East Coast of North America by John White” (‘La Virginea Pars’; 1906,0509.1.3).” The British Museum Department of Conservation and Scientific Research (CSR Analytical Request No. AR2012–21). Scholar
American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega. Ed. Emerson W. Baker, Edwin A. Churchill, Richard S. D’Abate, Kristine L. Jones, et al. Lincoln, 1994.Google Scholar
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, 1993.Google Scholar
Andrews, J. H.Colonial Cartography in a European Setting: The Case of Tudor Ireland.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.2:1670–83.Google Scholar
Ash, Eric H. “Navigation Techniques and Practice in the Renaissance.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.1:509–27.Google Scholar
Aycock, Beth Hamilton. “Edging Toward Empire: John Dee, Richard Hakluyt, Humphrey Gilbert, and the Beginning of the British Empire in the Elizabethan Era.” MA thesis, Tarleton State University, 2005.Google Scholar
Baldwin, Robert. “William Borough.” In Oxford Dictionary (2004), 6:670–72.Google Scholar
Baldwin, Robert. “John Dee’s Interest in the Application of Natural Science, Mathematics and Law to English Naval Affairs.” In John Dee: Interdisciplinary Studies in English Renaissance Thought, ed. Stephen Clucas, 97130. Dordrecht, 2006.10.1007/1-4020-4246-9_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, Robert. “Colonial Cartography under the Tudor and Early Stuart Monarchies, ca. 1480–ca. 1640.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.2:1754–80.Google Scholar
Barber, Peter. “England II: Monarchs, Ministers, and Maps, 1550–1625.” In Monarchs, Ministers, and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe, ed. David Buisseret, 5798. Chicago, 1992.Google Scholar
Barber, Peter. “Was Elizabeth I Interested in Maps — and Did It Matter?Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 14, 6th ser. (2004): 185–98.Google Scholar
Bland, Mark. A Guide to Early Printed Books and Manuscripts. Chichester, 2010.10.1002/9781444317855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borough, William. A Discovrs of the Variation of the Cumpas, or Magneticall Needle. Wherin is Mathematically shewed, the maner of the obseruation, effectes, and application thereof. London, 1581.Google Scholar
Bourne, William. A Regiment for the Sea, Conteining very necessary matters, for all sorts of Sea-men and Trauailers, as Masters of ships, Pilots, Mariners & Marchaunts. London, 1580.Google Scholar
Bucke, Paul. Praier for Sir Humfrey Gilberte. London[?], 1578.Google Scholar
Churchyard, Thomas. A discourse of the Queenes Majesties entertainement in Suffolk and Norffolk … whereunto is adjoyned a commendation of Sir H. Gilberts ventrous journey. London, 1578.Google Scholar
Clarke, Richard. “A relation of Richard Clarke of Weymouth, master of the shippe called the Delight, going for the discouerie of Norumbega with Sir Humfrey Gilbert 1583.” In Principal Navigations (1589), 700–01.Google Scholar
Clulee, Nicholas H. John Dee’s Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion. New York, 1988.Google Scholar
Cormack, Lesley B. Charting an Empire: Geography at the English Universities, 1580–1620. Chicago, 1997.Google Scholar
Cormack, Lesley B.Mathematics and Empire: The Military Impulse and the Scientific Revolution.” In The Heirs of Archimedes: Science and the Art of War through the Age of Enlightenment, ed. Brett D. Steele and Tamera Dorland, 181203. Cambridge, MA, 2005.Google Scholar
Cortés, Martín. The Arte of Nauigation, conteynyng a compendious description of the Sphere, with the making of certayne Insturmentes and rules for Nauigations, and exemplified by many Demonstrations. Trans. Richard Eden. London, 1579.Google Scholar
Crane, Nicholas. Mercator: The Man Who Mapped the Planet. New York, 2003.Google Scholar
Croft, Pauline. “Henry Howard.” In Oxford Dictionary (2004), 28:366–67.Google Scholar
D’Abate, Richard. “On the Meaning of a Name: ‘Norumbega’ and the Representation of North America.” In American Beginnings (1994), 6188.Google Scholar
Davis, John. The Seamans Secrets, Deuided into 2. Partes, wherein is taught the three kindes of Sayling, Horizontall, Paradoxall, and sayling vpon a great Circle. London, 1595.Google Scholar
Certeau, de, Michel, . The Practice of Everyday Life. Trans. Rendall, Steven. Berkeley, 1984.Google Scholar
Champlain, de, Samuel, . Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico in the Years 1599–1602. Ed. Norton Shaw. Trans. Alice Wilmere. London, 1859.Google Scholar
Dee, John. Monas Hieroglyphica, Ioannis Dee, Londinensis, Maximilianvm, Dei Gratia Romanorvm, Bohemiæ et Hvngariæ Regem Sapientissimvm. Antwerp, 1564.Google Scholar
Dee, John. “Mathematicall Præface.” In The Elements of Geometrie of the most auncient Phlosopher Evclide of Megara, Euclid, trans. H. Billingsley, *1r–A4v. London, 1570.Google Scholar
Dee, John. General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation. London, 1577.Google Scholar
Dee, John. The Private Diary of Dr. John Dee, and the Catalogue of His Library Manuscripts. Ed. James O. Halliwell. London, 1842.Google Scholar
Dee, John. The Limits of the British Empire. Ed. Ken MacMillan with Jennifer Abeles. Westport, 2004.Google Scholar
Enciso, de, Fernández, Martin. A briefe description of the portes, creekes, bayes, and hauens, of the Weast India. Trans. John Frampton. London, 1578.Google Scholar
Medina, de, Pedro, . The Arte of Nauigation wherein is contained all the rules, declarations, secretes, & aduises, which for good Nauigation are necessarie. Trans. Frampton, John. London, 1581.Google Scholar
Villiers, de, Marq, , and Hirtle, Sheila. Sable Island: The Strange Origins and Curious History of a Dune Adrift in the Atlantic. New York, 2004.Google Scholar
Felipe, Fernández-Armesto. “Maps and Exploration in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.1:738–71.Google Scholar
Ganong, William. Crucial Maps in Early Cartography and Place-Nomenclature of the Atlantic Coast of Canada. Toronto, 1964.10.3138/9781487595661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, Humphrey. A discourse of a discouerie for a new passage to Cataia. London, 1576.Google Scholar
Gillies, John. Shakespeare and the Geography of Difference. Cambridge, 1994.Google Scholar
Hakluyt, Richard. Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America, and the Ilands adjacent. London, 1582.Google Scholar
Harley, J. B.Maps, Knowledge, and Power.” In The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, ed. Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels, 277312. Cambridge, 1988.Google Scholar
Harvey, Richard. An Astrological Discourse vpon the great and notable Coniunction of the tvvo superior Planets, Satvrne & Jvpiter. London, 1583.Google Scholar
Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest, Maps of Exploration and Discovery: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Yukon. Seattle, 1999.Google Scholar
Hayes, Edward. “A report of the voyage and successe thereof, attempted in the yeere of our Lord, 1583. by Sir Humfrey Gilbert knight.” In Principal Navigations (1589), 679–97.Google Scholar
Helgerson, Richard. Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England. Chicago, 1992.Google Scholar
The History of Cartography. Ed. J. B. Harley, David Woodward, and G. Malcolm Lewis. 3 vols. Chicago, 19872007.Google Scholar
Isil, Olivia A. “Simon Fernandez, Master Mariner and Roanoke Assistant: A New Look at an Old Villain.” In Searching for the Roanoke Colonies: An Interdisciplinary Collection, ed. E. Thomson Shields, Jr. and Charles R. Ewen, 6681. Raleigh, 2003.Google Scholar
Kinzel, Ulrich. “Orientation as a Paradigm of Maritime Modernity.” In Fictions of the Sea: Critical Perspectives on the Ocean in British Literature and Culture, ed. Bernhard Klein, 2848. Aldershot, 2002.Google Scholar
Klein, Bernhard. Maps and the Writing of Space in Early Modern England and Ireland. Houndmills, 2001.10.1057/9780230598119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, Bernhard. “Mapping the Waters: Sea Charts, Navigation, and Camões’s Os Lusíadas .” Renaissance Studies 25.2 (2011): 228–47.10.1111/j.1477-4658.2010.00673.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The Power of Projections: How Maps Reflect Global Politics and History. Westport, 2006.Google Scholar
Koch, Mark. “Ruling the World: The Cartographic Gaze in Elizabethan Accounts of the New World.” Early Modern Literary Studies 4.2, Special Issue 3 (1998): 11.1–39. Scholar
Lefebvre, Henri. The Production of Space. Trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith. Oxford, 1991.Google Scholar
Leigh, Valentine. The Moste Profitable and commendable Science, of Surveiyng of Landes, Tenementes, and Herditamentes… . London, 1578.Google Scholar
Lloyd, Evans. An Almanacke and Prognostication for the yeere of our Lord M.D.LXXII. London, 1582.Google Scholar
Lucar, Cyprian. A Treatise Named Lvcarsolace Devided into Fovver Bookes. London, 1590.Google Scholar
MacMillan, Ken. “Sovereignty ‘More Plainly Described’: Early English Maps of North America, 1580–1625.” Journal of British Studies 42.4 (2003): 413–47.10.1086/376461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacMillan, Ken. Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World: The Legal Foundations of Empire, 1576–1640. Cambridge, 2006.Google Scholar
McKown, Elspeth. “Imagining ‘An Other England’ in the North Atlantic, 15771625.” MA thesis, Dalhousie University, 2011.Google Scholar
McLeod, Bruce. The Geography of Empire in English Literature, 1580–1745. Cambridge, 1999.Google Scholar
Meta Incognita: A Discourse of Discovery. Martin Frobisher’s Arctic Expeditions, 1576–1578. Ed. Symons, Thomas H. B. with Stephen Alsford and Chris Kitzan. 2 vols. Hull, 1999.Google Scholar
Moran, Michael G.Renaissance Surveying Techniques and the 1590 Hariot-White-de Bry Map of Virginia.” In Three Keys to the Past: The History of Technical Communication, ed. Teresa C. Kynell and Michael G. Moran, 153–70. Stamford, 1999.Google Scholar
Neville-Sington, Pamela A., and Payne, Anthony. An Interim Census of Surviving Copies of Hakluyt’s Divers Voyages and Principal Navigations. London, 1997.Google Scholar
Norman, Robert. The new Attractiue, Containyng a short discourse of the Magnes or Lodestone, and amongest other his vertues, of a newe discouered secret and subtill propertie, concernyng the Declinyng of the Needle, touched therewith under the plaine of the Horizon. London, 1581.Google Scholar
Ortelius, Abraham. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp, 1570.Google Scholar
The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. 60 vols. Oxford, 2004.Google Scholar
Padrón, Ricardo. The Spacious Word: Cartography, Literature, and Empire in Early Modern Spain. Chicago, 2004.Google Scholar
Parks, George. Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages. New York, 1928.Google Scholar
Parry, Glyn. “John Dee and the Elizabethan British Empire in its European Context.” Historical Journal 49.3 (2006): 643–75.10.1017/S0018246X06005462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parry, Glyn. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee. New Haven, 2011.Google Scholar
Payne, Anthony. Richard Hakluyt: A Guide to His Books and to Those Associated with Him 1580–1625. London, 2008.Google Scholar
Pope, Peter E.. Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century. Chapel Hill, 2004.Google Scholar
The Principal Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation. Ed. Richard Hakluyt. London, 1589.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B., ed. The Voyages and Colonising Enterprises of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. 2 vols. London, 1940.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B., ed. Richard Hakluyt, Editor: A Study Introductory of the Facsimile Edition of Richard Hakluyt’s Divers Voyages, 1582, to which is Added a Facsimile of A shorte and briefe narration of the two navigations to Newe Fraunce. 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1967.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B., ed, Quinn, Alison M.. and Hillier, Susan. New American World. 5 vols. New York, 1979.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B. “The Northwest Passage in Theory and Practice.” In North American Exploration, ed. John Logan Allen, 1:292343. Lincoln, 1997.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B.. European Approaches to North America, 1450–1640. Aldershot, 1998.Google Scholar
Quinn, David B., and Cheshire, Neil M.., eds and The New Found Land of Stephen Parmenius: The Life and Writings of a Hungarian Poet, Drowned on a Voyage from Newfoundland, 1583. Toronto, 1972.Google Scholar
Roberts, Julian, and Watson, Andrew G., eds. John Dee’s Library Catalogue. London, 1990.Google Scholar
Roper, Stephanie Abbot. “Paper Conquests: Early Modern English Mapping of North America as Promotional Tools.” PhD diss., University of Kansas, 1998.Google Scholar
Ruggles, Richard I. “The Cartographic Lure of the Northwest Passage: Its Real and Imaginary Geography.” In Meta Incognita (1999), 1:179256.10.2307/j.ctt22zmdxs.15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanford, Rhonda Lemke. Maps and Memory in Early Modern England: A Sense of Place. Houndmills, 2002.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Benjamin. “Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America.” William and Mary Quarterly 54.3, 3rd ser. (1997): 549–78.Google Scholar
Seaver, Kirsten A. “Norumbega and ‘Harmonia Mundi’ in Sixteenth-Century Cartography.” Imago Mundi 50 (1998): 3458.10.1080/03085699808592878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherman, William H. “Putting the British Seas on the Map: John Dee’s Imperial Cartography.” Cartographica 35.3–4 (1998): 110.Google Scholar
Sherman, William H.. “John Dee’s Role in Martin Frobisher’s Northwest Enterprise.” In Meta Incognita (1999), 1:283–98.Google Scholar
Short, John Rennie. Making Space: Revisioning the World, 1475–1600. Syracuse, 2004.Google Scholar
Sloan, Kim. A New World: England’s First View of America. Chapel Hill, 2007.Google Scholar
Smith, D. K.. The Cartographic Imagination in Early Modern England: Re-Writing the World in Marlowe, Spenser, Raleigh and Marvell. Aldershot, 2008.Google Scholar
Smith, John. A Map of Virginia. With A Description of the Covntrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion. Oxford, 1612.Google Scholar
Smith, John. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Isles with the names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their first beginning An: 1584 to this present 1624. London, 1624.Google Scholar
Taylor, Eva. Tudor Geography, 1485–1583. London, 1930.Google Scholar
Taylor, Eva, ed. The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts. 2 vols. London, 1935.Google Scholar
Taylor, Eva. “Instructions to a Colonial Surveyor in 1582.” Mariner’s Mirror 37.1 (1951): 4862.10.1080/00253359.1951.10658061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thévet, André. La cosmographie vniverselle d’andré thevet cosmographe dv roy. illvstree de diverses figvres des choses plvs remarqvables vevës par l’ Auteur, & incogneuës de noz Anciens & Modernes. 2 vols. Paris, 1575.Google Scholar
Tomlins, Christopher. “The Legal Cartography of Colonization, the Legal Polyphony of Settlement: English Intrusions on the American Mainland in the Seventeenth Century.” Law & Social Inquiry 26.2 (2001): 315–72.10.1111/j.1747-4469.2001.tb00181.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, Gerard L'estrange. Scientific Instruments, 1500–1900: An Introduction. London, 1998.Google Scholar
Tyacke, Sarah. “Chartmaking in England and Its Context.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.2:1722–53.Google Scholar
Wallis, Helen. “The Cartography of Drake’s Voyage.” In Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577–1580, Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of Drake’s Circumnavigation of the Earth, ed. Norman J. W. Thrower, 121–63. Berkeley, 1984.Google Scholar
Waters, David. The Art of Navigation in England in Elizabethan and Early Stuart Times. New Haven, 1958.Google Scholar
Whitby, Christopher Lionel. “John Dee’s Actions with Spirits: 22 December 1581 to 23 May 1583.” PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 1981.Google Scholar
Worms, Laurence. “The London Map Trade to 1640.” In History of Cartography (2007), 3.2:16931721.Google Scholar